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THE HOLY POLLUTION IN INDIA.pdf

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Ganga : A River in Pain
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THE HOLY POLLUTION IN INDIA.pdf

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION :  Around 80% of Indias water is severely polluted because people dump raw sewage, silt and garbage into the countrys rivers and lakes. This has led to water being undrinkable and the population having to rely on illegal and expensive sources. Each year, more than 1.5 million Indian children die from diarrhea.  Ganga has length (km) of 2525 with area of 1.08 million sq.km which originates from Gangotri in Uttrakhand. Yamuna (Jamuna) has length of 1376 with area of 366223 sq.km which originates from yamunotri in garhwall. kaveri has length of 765 with area of 81155 sq.km which originates from Brahmagiri hills in kogadu, Karnataka. Narmada has length of 1312 with area of 98,796 sq.km which originates from Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh
  2. 2. What is the pollution at holy places in India?  Followers of the Hindu way of life have forgotten the emphasis that is laid on nature, the environment and the ecology. The social and spiritual tenets of Hinduism have been completely replaced by a convenience-driven attitude whereby Deepawali, festival of lights, becomes an ugly nightmare of noise and noxious smoke. Holi, festival of the colours of spring, has degenerated into an orgy of dangerous chemicals. How long can Hindus keep poisoning the Ganga and then take a dip in the same holy river to wash away their Sins.
  3. 3. What is the pollution at holy places in India?  India is a land of rivers. From Ganga in the north to Pampa in the south ,From Narmada in the west to Brahmaputra in the East , India has a huge network of river . Beside Geographical values,these rivers are of religious importance as well for India.Whether its chhath Puja of Northern Region or its last ritual of a hindu individual, or its end of any festival of Hindu where idol worship is there,rivers are always abused in the form of dumping Human wastes in some form . These wastes can be idol of a hindu God/Goddess or dumping clothes by pilgrims in return path of Sabarimala.
  4. 4. What is the pollution at holy places in India?  In a recent order from Kerala High court , the practice of throwing clothes in River Pampa while Pilgrims return from Sabarimala is a criminal offence and is subjected to prosecution. Inspite of the HC order the poeple continue the traditional practice thus making River Pampa , a garbage bin of used clothes, hence populating the river water and disturbing the river ecosystem.  River Pampa is just one example out of countless such acts/religious practice where pilgrimages played a key role in Water pollution.
  5. 5. Ganga – An Introduction :  The Ganges rises in the southern Great Himalayas on the Indian side of the border with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Its five headstreams—the Bhagirathi, the Alaknanda, the Mandakini, the Dhauliganga, and the Pindar—all rise in the mountainous region of northern Uttarakhand state. Of those, the two main headstreams are the Alaknanda (the longer of the two), which rises about 30 miles (50 km) north of the Himalayan peak of Nanda Devi, and the Bhagirathi, which originates at about 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) above sea level in a subglacial meltwater cave at the base of the Himalayan glacier known as Gangotri. Gangotri itself is a sacred place for Hindu pilgrimage. The true source of the Ganges, however, is considered to be at Gaumukh, about 13 miles (21 km) southeast of Gangotri.
  6. 6. Ganga – An Introduction :
  7. 7. Silent Features of River Ganga : Total Length 2525 kms Uttarakhand 450 kms Uttar Pradesh 1000 kms Sharing length between UP & Bihar 110 kms Bihar 405 kms Jharkhand 40 kms
  8. 8. Silent Features of River Ganga : West Bengal 520 kms Catchment Area Ganga Basin 8,61,404 sq km (26.4%) of India Average Annual discharge 4,93,400 million cubic meter Main Tributaries Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Damodar, Kosi & Kali-East Main sub tributaries Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Ken, Tons (beyond Five States), Sone & Kasia-Haldi Major Cities located on the bank Srinagar, Rishikesh, Haridwar, Roorkee (in Uttarakhand), Bijnor, Narora, Kanauj, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirzapur (In Uttar Pradesh), Patna, Bhagalpur
  9. 9. Source of Pollution :  Industrial drains  City drains  Religion touristic activity  Construction activites along the coast of this river.  Agriculture auto flow  Domestic activities like those of washer men.  Cremation related ritual.
  10. 10. Industries as a main source pollution of ganga  According to data out of industries are along the river ganga between Rishikesh and Prayagraj . In this 146 , 144 is present in U.P. and 2 in Uttrakhand  A major pollution industries on the ganga are the leather industries near Kanpur .  Other industries like Tanning industry pharmaceutical companies electronic plant 9 textile and paper industries , fertilizers discharge , different types of chemical and organic effluent into river.
  11. 11. PRESENT STATE OF GANGA RIVER :  At the time the holy Ganga river become polluted .  There are over 29 cites , 70 towns and thousands of villages along the GANGA bank .  The Ganga was ranked among the five most polluted river's of the world in 2007 .  It is found in research's the FAECAL COLIFORM levels in the river near Varanasi more than 100 times then official Indian government limit .
  12. 12. Alarming facts :  By 2007 the Ganges River had become the 5th most polluted river in the world, but attempts to improve its water quality have failed for the most part.  The pollution in the Ganges River threatens more than 90 amphibian species, more than 140 fish species, and humans who rely on the river for water.  The Ganges river dolphin and the Ganges river shark are both endangered because of the massive pollution.  There are many species of birds that live in India and cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Many of these species rely on the Ganges River for survival.  The soil in the Ganges River watershed is extremely fertile. Crops commonly grown in the region include potatoes, wheat, lentils, oil seeds, rice, and sugarcane.
  13. 13. Alarming facts : • The Ganges River is becoming shallower in some area. Some attribute this water level change to climate change and global warming. • The Ganges River system is fed from a variety of sources including the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas, the July to September monsoon rains, and cyclones. • Studies have shown that the Ganges River is capable of decomposing organic waste faster than any other rivers in the world - as much as 25 times faster. • Something in the Ganges Rivers' water prevents mosquitos from breeding, and when it is added to other water it prevents them from breeding in it as well. • A test in the late 1800s found that the Cholera bacterium could not survive in the Ganges River for more than three hours.
  14. 14. Kanpur – Varanasi – Allahabad : A case Study  Alone Uttar pradesh contribute 90 % of ganga water pollution of which In the Kanpur - Varanasi stretch , 3,000 MLD of domestic wastewater is discharged into the river which is roughly half of its total load .
  15. 15. Kanpur – Varanasi – Allahabad :
  16. 16. Aquatic and human life in danger : (1) Marine life  The results of mercury analysis in various specimens collected along the basin indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of mercury.  Of it, approximately 50–84% was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length was found.  The Ganges river dolphin is one of few species of fresh water dolphins in the world. Listed as an endangered species, their population is believed to be less than 2000.
  17. 17. (1) Marine life  Hydroelectric and irrigation dams along the Ganges that prevents the dolphins from travelling up and down river is the main reason for their reducing population.  The Ganges softshell turtle (Nilssonia gangetica) is found in the Ganges, Indus, and Mahanadi river systems of Pakistan, northern India, Bangladesh, and southern Nepal.  This turtle inhabits deep rivers, streams, large canals, lakes and ponds, with a bed of mud or sand. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, freshwater turtle species are vulnerable.  Due to their long lifespan and high trophic level in the aquatic food web, turtles are vulnerable to heavy metals pollution, a major kind of pollution in the Ganges.
  18. 18. (2) Wildlife :  Some of the dams being constructed along the Ganges basin will submerge substantial areas of nearby forest. For example, the Kotli-Bhel dam at Devprayag will submerge 1200 hectares of forest, wiping out the forest area and eventually the wildlife.
  19. 19. (3) Human beings :  An analysis of the Ganges water in 2006 and 2007 showed significant associations between water- borne/enteric disease and the use of the river for bathing, laundry, washing, eating, cleaning utensils, and brushing teeth.  Water in the Ganges has been correlated to contracting dysentery, cholera, hepatitis, as well as severe diarrhoea which continues to be one of the leading causes of death of children in India.
  20. 20. (3) Human beings :  During the summer and monsoon, hospital wards teem with children who need treatment for waterborne diseases - but according to S.C. Singh, a paediatrician at Varanasi Shiv Prasad Gupta Hospital, their parents rarely mention that they have been swimming in the river. They don't appear to have made the connection, he says.
  21. 21. Namami Gange Programme :  Namami Gange Programme’, is an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in June 2014 with budget outlay of Rs.20,000 Crore to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
  22. 22. Projects to Clean ganga :  Sewerage treatment infrastructure  River Surface Cleaning  Afforestation  Industrial effluent monitoring  River front development  Bio diversity  Public awareness  Ganga gram Main pillars of the Namami Gange Programme :
  23. 23. Lockdown gift: Gleaming Ganga lays new conservation roadmap  “What could not be achieved in last 34 years since the inception of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) in 1986, and the launch of Namami Gange in 2014, with hundreds of crores of rupees being pumped in, is visible in just 34-35 days of lockdown,” said Prof. B D Tripathi, chairman of Mahamana Malaviya Research Centre for Ganga, River Development and Water Resource Management, Banaras Hindu University (BHU).
  24. 24. Lockdown gift: Gleaming Ganga lays new conservation roadmap  “It is true that the quality of Ganga water has improved, but we can’t claim that the river is 100% free from pollution. In fact, just 25-30% reduction in pollution level is being noticed".  There has been a significant improvement in health indicators of Ganga’s water — an increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) and reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) — during lockdown.  biochemical oxygen demand level indicates the amount of decaying organic matter in water, a low BOD indicating good quality, while low dissolved oxygen level signifies poor quality. If dissolved oxygen levels decline, aquatic life is impacted badly.
  25. 25. Lockdown gift: Gleaming Ganga lays new conservation roadmap  “The name Varanasi has been derived from the two tributaries Varuna and Asi, which were contributing fresh water to Ganga,” he said. “As most of the activities that cause pollution are stopped in lockdown, it is natural to see improvement in quality of Ganga water,” said Kalika Singh, regional officer of Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board. As per the present water quality parameters, the river is fit for bathing.  “The river itself has self-purifying capacity if sufficient water flow is maintained. We have seen this during Prayagraj Kumbh mela".
  26. 26. Yamuna River Pollution :  Domestic wastewater, industrial effluents, idol immersion, pesticide residue, untreated sewage are some of the sources of pollution of river Yamuna.  Most of the pollution occurs in the NCR stretch than in other places where the river flows. Only 2% of the river length flows through Delhi yet the city is responsible for about 76% of the total pollution load in the river.
  27. 27. How does Delhi contribute to pollution?  Around 90% of wastewater from households pours into the river untreated. This wastewater comprises laundry detergents and other chemicals increasing the phosphate content in the water leading to the formation of froth.  The same goes for industrial effluents and sewage that are discharged into the river without being treated. Only 35% out of total estimated sewage discharge undergoes treatment. Other factors like idol immersion also contribute to pollution.
  28. 28. How does Delhi contribute to pollution?  The lead, plaster of paris (POP) and chrome paints used in making the idols also pollute the water after they are immersed.  Not only this, but all the overlooked things like polythene bags, decoration items, metal polishes etc. are also a contributing factor.
  29. 29. Delhi’s dependence on Yamuna :  The Delhi stretch of the Yamuna river is about 22 km starting from Wazirabad barrage to Okhla barrage (Sharma and Kansal).  This stretch alone is responsible for 76% of the rivers’ pollution but this stretch is also the main source of raw water for the capital.  This roughly accounts for 70% of Delhi’s water supply which roughly translates to 57 million people.
  30. 30. Projects to Clean Yamuna :  The Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) is a river restoration project introduced in 1993. It is a bilateral project between the government of India and Japan where Japan offered loan assistance for implementation of YAP.  Subsequently, two phases YAP II and YAP III were initiated in 2004 and 2008 respectively. Unfortunately, the mission to clean Ganga and Yamuna which includes YAP has failed according to the Parliamentary Committee on Environment and Forests.
  31. 31. Solutions : Wastewater treatment Plastic waste reduction Water conservation Install a water-efficient toilet in your home Septic tanks Avoid using the toilet as a wastebasket Stormwater management Green agriculture and wet land Denitrification Ozone waste water treatment Reuse Items Recyclable Options Do not Dispose of Oils in the Sink Handle Toxic Chemical properly Do not throw away Medicines Do not use Toilet as a Trash bin

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