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Raffles and the Temmengong and Hussein Shah of Johor
Town planning, development and influx of foreigners
Singapore was a free port and convenient military base for the British. These factors prevented the British from granting full independence to Singapore too easily. But during the 1955 elections gave Singapore a chance to gradual independence. Two parties rose in power: the LF and the PAP. The LF won by a small margin and David Marshall was elected the first chief minister. However, he was not satisfied with the amount of independence granted to Singapore and held merdeka talks to gain Singapore’s full independence. He placed his job on the line by threatening to resign if he failed the talks. However, the British governments were not convinced by Marshall and did not allow Singapore its full self-independence. David thus stepped down as Chief Minister after the talks.After another attempt at the merdeka talks, Singapore gained full internal independence with the help of Lim Yew Hock. After this, Singapore held its first fully democratic elections. And Lee Kwan Yew’s PAP won.
Red - "universal brotherhood and equality of man", and White - "pervading and everlasting purity and virtue". The waxing crescent moon "represents a young nation on the ascendant". The five stars "stand for the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality".
The secret of Singapore’s success: the people
Why Singapore is very concerned with racial harmony
Anchored by a large, colourful annual procession, Thaipusam sees Hindu devotees in Singapore seeking blessings, fulfilling vows and offering thanks. The festival is celebrated in honour of Lord Subramaniam (also known as Lord Murugan), who represents virtue, youth and power, and is the destroyer of evil.
Diwali is the five-day festival of lights, celebrated by millions of Hindus, Sikhs and Jains across the world. The festival, which coincides with the Hindu New Year, celebrates new beginnings and the triumph of good over evil and light over darkness
the first Botanic Gardens in Asia to be recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site To qualify, the site must possess an “outstanding universal value” that reflects their unique position in global history. The Botanic Gardens met two of these criteria – it reflected an interchange of human values and illustrated a significant stage in human history.
What do the stars on the Singapore flag symbolise?
Democracy, Peace, Progress,
Justice & Equality
Modern Day Republic
The ports of Singapore: past and present
Modern Day Republic
The development of the city center
People of Singapore
• History: Racial Riots
• Happened in 1969
• Clashes between Malays and Chinese
• Started from conflict in Malaysia, spillover into Singapore
What are the four major categories of races in
• Taiwan has many aboriginal
groups while predominated by
ethnic Chinese 98%
• Singapore is characterised by many races,
- Chinese 74.2%
- Malays 13.3%
- Indians 9.2%
- Others 3.3%
The Chinese in Singapore
• Migrated from southeastern China, namely
Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan provinces
in the late 18th and 19th centuries.
• 75% of the Chinese population in the 19th
Century spoke Hokkien, Teochew &
• Chinatown was formed to house Chinese
• Chinese culture here has heavy southern
The Chinese in Singapore
• Currently the largest ethnic group in
Singapore, 75% of total population.
• Most Singaporean Chinese are Buddhists.
• Growing number of Christians and free
thinkers as well.
• 14% of the Chinese population in Singapore
consider themselves as Taoists.
• Buddhism in Singapore is a mixture of
Taoism, Buddhism, Confucian & southern
China folk practices.
Malays in Singapore
• Malays are the second largest ethnic group
• Most Singaporean Malays are descendants
of immigrants from Indonesia & Malaysia.
• Malays are predominantly Sunni Muslim.
• The Bahasa Melayu or Malay Language
spoken by Singaporean Malays are similar
to the ones spoken in the Riau Islands in
Indonesia & southern Malaysia.
Malays in Singapore
• Being Muslims, Singaporean Malays
observe certain restrictions when it comes
to consumption of food and drink.
• Muslims cannot eat pork & drink alcoholic
drinks. These are ‘Haram’ or forbidden
• Other kinds of food have to be ‘Halal’ or
permissible, before it can be consumed.
For meat like beef & chicken, it has to be
slaughtered according to Muslim customs,
before it can be ‘Halal’.
• In Singapore, local food brands and eating
places who claim to be ‘Halal’ will have to
be certified by the Muslim Religious
Council of Singapore, MUIS.
Indians in Singapore
• The smallest of the major ethnic groups
• Most Singaporean Indians are
descendants of migrant workers who
came in Singapore after 1819. Most of
them came from southern India.
• The first Indians in Singapore were the
sepoys, who served as soldiers of the
• 58% of Singaporean Indians are of ethnic
Tamil ancestry. English and Tamil are the
languages of choice.
• Over 50% of Indians in Singapore are
Hindus. The remaining numbers are
Muslims, Christians or Sikhs.
• English (official)
• Mandarin (official)
• Malay (official)
• Tamil (official)
• Other Indian languages
• Other Chinese dialects
• Mandarin Chinese (official)
• Taiwanese (Min)
• Hakka dialects
What is unique type of English spoken in Singapore?
• Buddhist 33.9%,
• Muslim 14.3%,
• Taoist 11.3%,
• Catholic 7.1%,
• Hindu 5.2%,
• other Christians 11%,
• other 0.7%,
• none 16.4%
• Mix of Buddhist, Confucian and
• Christian: 4.5%
• Others: 2.5%
Banana Leaf Curry
• Lunar New Year
• Qing Ming Festival
• Dragonboat or Duanwu Festival
• Hungry Ghost Festival
• Mid-autumn or Mooncake Festival
• Singaporean Malays celebrate 2 major
• Hari Raya Aidilfitri is celebrated after the
Ramadhan fasting month.
• During the holy month of Ramadhan,
Muslims will fast from dawn to dusk. They
are forbidden from taking food and drink
during this time period.
• Hari Raya Aidilfitri is celebrated as a day of
victory for Muslims who have completed a
month of fasting.
• Hari Raya Aidil-adha is celebrated to mark
the completion of the Hajj in Mecca.
• The major Hindu festivals in Singapore are Thaipusam & Deepavali.
• New Year Day
• Good Friday
• Christmas Day
• Vesak Day
• National Day
• Singlish: Okay Lah!
• Singapore: A Fine City
• Reserving Seats
Unique Culture: Singlish
Do you serve coffee? You got kopi? / kopi wu bo?
He is certain to be caught. He sure kena caught one.
You can sit over there. There can sit.
Can you reserve this table? Can chope this table?
Where do I go to collect my
Go where take bag, ah?
I didn’t really like the movie. I
found it rather uninteresting.
Wah lau, the movie damn sian.
I do not understand Catch no ball (liak bo kiu)
Oh, my god! Alamak!
Traditional Game: Chapteh
Capteh is a traditional
game that requires great
dexterity and balance in
keeping a feathered
shuttlecock in the air for
as long as possible by
kicking it up with the heel
of the foot, or other parts
of the body, except the
Traditional Game: Five Stones
This game involves
catching pyramidal cloth
bags filled with
It increases the eye sight,
memory power and builds
concentration and aiming