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<ul><li>Ülevaate koostas Merike Tamm </li></ul>SÜRREALISM

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<ul><li>Pr antsuse keeles  </li></ul><ul><li>sur-realisme  – realismi peal </li></ul><ul><li>Man Ray „Sürrealistide malela...

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<ul><li>Je ne vois pas la [femme] cachée dans la forêt , in  La Révolution surréaliste , Paris, no.12, December 15th 1929 ...

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Sürrealism

  1. 1. <ul><li>Ülevaate koostas Merike Tamm </li></ul>SÜRREALISM
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pr antsuse keeles </li></ul><ul><li>sur-realisme – realismi peal </li></ul><ul><li>Man Ray „Sürrealistide malelaud“ mosaiik sürrealistide liikumises osalejate portreedest . </li></ul><ul><li>Vasakult nurgast alates:  </li></ul><ul><li>André Breton , Max Ernst , Salvador Dalí , Jean Arp, Yves Tanguy , Char, Crevel, Eluard, Giorgio de Chirico , Alberto Giacometti , Tzara, Picasso, Rene Magritte , Brauner, Peret, Rosey, Joan Miro , Mesens, Hugnet, Man Ray ise. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Je ne vois pas la [femme] cachée dans la forêt , in La Révolution surréaliste , Paris, no.12, December 15th 1929 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1891–1976 </li></ul>ANDRÉ BRETON
  5. 5. <ul><li>André Breton 1896-1966 writer and poet </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1924.a. ilmub sürrealistide manifest André Bretoni poolt sõnastatuna: </li></ul><ul><li>„ Puhas psüühiline automatism, mille abil soovitakse väljendada kas suuliselt või kirjalikult või mis tahes muul  viisil mõtte reaalset funktsioneerimist. Mõtte dikteerimine täielikult mõistuse kontrollita, mis tahes eelneva esteetilise või moraalse kaalutluseta” </li></ul><ul><li>André Breton, Qu’est-ce que le surréalisme? , Brussels, René Henriquez Editeur, 1934 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Salvador Dali. Põlev kaelkirjak </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe on Fire </li></ul><ul><li>1936–1937 </li></ul>Sürrealism on fantaasiakunst, kus olendid ja esemed ühendatakse omavahel ebatavalistesse seostesse, saades nii unenägusid meenutavaid kujutluspilte , valitseb absurdi, hallutsinatsioonide kujutamine. Uuriti Sigmund Freudi ja Carl Jungi teooriaid
  8. 8. <ul><li>Hieronymus Bosch </li></ul><ul><li>Püha Antoniuse kiusatus </li></ul><ul><li>Pieter Brueghel vanem </li></ul><ul><li>Surma triumf, detail </li></ul><ul><li>Fransisco Goya </li></ul><ul><li>Uinunud mõistus sünnitab koletisi </li></ul>Eelkäijad Töödes leitav tegelikkuse deformatsioon, absurd, iroonia
  9. 9. <ul><li>Kreekas sündinud Itaalia maalikunstnik </li></ul><ul><li>Tuntud eelkõige oma metafüüsilise perioodi tõttu (1909-1919) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kujutas objekte eraldiseisvatena ja näiliselt seosetutena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liialdas joonperspektiivi muljega </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rõhutas ajatuse tunnet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peetakse üheks sürrealismi eelkäijaks – paljud kunstnikud, sh Dal í , on tunnistanud tema mõjutusi </li></ul><ul><li>Giorgio de Chirico </li></ul><ul><li>1888 – 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>maalija </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ariadne </li></ul>
  12. 12. Metafüüsiline sisevaade küpsistega 1916
  13. 13. <ul><li>Automatism /abstraktne </li></ul><ul><li>Alateadlike jõudude vabastamine, tööd sarnanesid laste või hullude joonistustele: </li></ul><ul><li>Automatism, kritseldamine </li></ul><ul><li>Frotaaži vms kasutamine </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaansus </li></ul><ul><li>Absurdne huumor </li></ul><ul><li>Abstaktsed märgid </li></ul><ul><li>Esindajad: </li></ul><ul><li>Joan Miro, Yves Tanguy </li></ul><ul><li>V eristlik /figuratiivne </li></ul><ul><li>Looduslähedane, realistlik kujutuslaad: </li></ul><ul><li>Tõetruu ( veritas – tõde) </li></ul><ul><li>Mõistusevastasus, unenäolisus </li></ul><ul><li>Illusionistlikkus </li></ul><ul><li>Ruumi sügavuse rõhutamine </li></ul><ul><li>Salapärane valgus </li></ul><ul><li>Esindajad: </li></ul><ul><li>Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, </li></ul><ul><li>Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte </li></ul>K aks erinevat lähenemisviisi:
  14. 14. <ul><li>Joan Miro. </li></ul><ul><li>„ Nokturn&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Salvador Dali. &quot;Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man&quot; (1943) </li></ul>
  15. 15. JOAN MIRÓ <ul><li>1893–1983 </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Kujundid abstraktsete märkidena </li></ul><ul><li>litograafia </li></ul><ul><li>Dekoratiivpannood </li></ul><ul><li>skulptuurid </li></ul><ul><li>Joan Miro </li></ul><ul><li>189 3 -19 83 maalija, graafik, skulptor </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Joan Miro. Hollandi interjöör. 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>The Village of Prades </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Hollandi interjöör </li></ul><ul><li>Sürrealistlik portree </li></ul><ul><li>Originaalne litograafia </li></ul>
  19. 20. Haritud põld (1923)
  20. 21. Arlekiini karneval (1924-25)
  21. 22. ANDRÉ MASSON <ul><li>1896–1987 </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>André Masson 189 6 -198 7 painter </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>1900–1955 </li></ul>YVES TANGUY
  24. 26. <ul><li>Yves Tanguy </li></ul><ul><li>1900–1955 </li></ul><ul><li>maalija </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Kaarte paljundamine. 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>Piiramatu jagatavus. 1942. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>1891–1976 </li></ul>MAX ERNST
  27. 30. <ul><li>kuulus algul Dada rühmitusse </li></ul><ul><li>peetakse üheks sürrealismi isaks </li></ul><ul><li>leiutas frotaažitehnoloogia 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>veristlikud tööd </li></ul><ul><li>süngus segiläbi absurdse huumoriga </li></ul><ul><li>tema jaoks oli oluline kujutada „kõige veidramaid poeetilisi sädemaid, tuues kokku kaks pealtnäha seostamatut elementi taustal, mis pole kummagagi seotud” </li></ul><ul><li>1938. Aastal lahkus s ürrealistlikust liikumisest </li></ul><ul><li>Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning playing Chess </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Müts teeb mehe. The hat makes the man , 1920 </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Celebesi elevant. </li></ul><ul><li>The Elephant Celebes, 1921 </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Two Children threatened by a Nightingale - 1924 </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Garden Airplane-Trap, 1935 </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Napoleon kõnnumaal. Napoleon in the Desert - 1941 </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Kollaažid: </li></ul><ul><li>A contemporary version was published in 1978 as ‘Une Semaine de Bonté: A Surrealistic Novel in Collage’ by Max Ernst and Stanley Appelbaum. </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>1898–1967 </li></ul>RENÉ MAGRITTE
  35. 39. <ul><li>Rene Ma gritte 1891-1976 painter, sculptor and writer </li></ul><ul><li>Force of habit , 1960, private collection © SABAM Beligum 2009 </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>The Son of Man </li></ul>
  37. 42. <ul><li>See siin pole piip </li></ul>
  38. 43. ALBERTO GIACOMETTI <ul><li>1901–1966 </li></ul>
  39. 44. <ul><li>Alberto Giacometti 1 901 -19 66 skulptor </li></ul>
  40. 46. SALVADOR DALI <ul><li>1904–1989 </li></ul>
  41. 47. <ul><li>Salvador Dali 1 904 -19 89 maalija, skulptor, fotograaf, filmitegija </li></ul>
  42. 48. <ul><li>“ Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening” (1944), Salvador Dali. </li></ul>
  43. 49. <ul><li>Veniv aeg </li></ul>
  44. 50. <ul><li>Uni </li></ul>
  45. 51. <ul><li>Püha Antoniuse kiusatus </li></ul>
  46. 52. <ul><li>The Three Sphinxes of Bikini 1947 </li></ul>
  47. 55. <ul><li>Mae West. u. 1934–1936 </li></ul>
  48. 56. <ul><li>Ülesanne </li></ul>
  49. 58. <ul><li>Gala Contemplating the Mediterranean Sea Which at Twenty Meters Becomes the Portrait of Abraham Lincoln . </li></ul>
  50. 59. <ul><li>Click here to view the Youth Arts Corps - Dalí Teen Docent Podcast Project </li></ul>
  51. 60. MAURITS CORNELIS ESCHER <ul><li>1898–1972 </li></ul>
  52. 61. <ul><li>Maurits Cornelis Escher </li></ul><ul><li>1898-1972 joonistaja, graafik </li></ul><ul><li>Sürrealismiga seoses tegeldi peale unenägude ja teadvusvoolu kujutamise ka pettepiltidega </li></ul><ul><li>Maurits Cornelis Escher (1898-1972) oli Hollandi joonistaja ja illustraator, kes kuulsaks saanud oma andeka perspektiivi ja vaatenurga rakendamisega </li></ul><ul><li>Escheri töid on osaliselt reprodutseeritud Legodega A. Lipsoni ja D. Shiu poolt. </li></ul>
  53. 63. <ul><li>Belvedere </li></ul>
  54. 64. <ul><li>Waterfall </li></ul>
  55. 67. <ul><li>M.C. Escher's pencil drawing of Reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew Everett and Jeffrey Mancuso &quot;Reptiles&quot; </li></ul>
  56. 68. <ul><li>http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs348b-competition/cs348b-01/escher/jescher.png </li></ul>
  57. 69. <ul><li>M. C. Escher -inspired animation. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PI-b9ye4RqY </li></ul><ul><li>Waterfall </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0v2xnl6LwJE </li></ul>
  58. 70. Allikad: http://www.musee-magritte-museum.be/Typo3/index.php?id=62 http://gospain.about.com/od/barcelon1/ss/dali_figueres_c.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcone/modernmasters/virtual-exhibition/dali/3-un-chien-andalou.shtml http://www.dipity.com/andreslasn/Surrealism/ http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/79328 http://www.moreofit.com/similar-to/www.dipity.com/Top_10_Sites_Like_Dipity/ http://www.mcescher.com/ http://www.surrealist.com/ http://sites.google.com/site/konspektid/esileht/kunstiajalugu http://www.warholstars.org/abstractexpressionism/timeline/abstractexpressionism28.html http://math-world-314.blogspot.com/2011/08/m-c-escher-is-completely-awesome.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PI-b9ye4RqY https://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=d2gqkb7_516jvnnw7t2&hl=en_GB#K_simused

Notas del editor

  • http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%BCrrealism : Sürrealism on 20. sajandi kunsti - ja kirjanduse vool, milles on olulisel kohal ebareaalsus , unenäod , hallutsinatsioonid , patoloogiliste seisundite jms. 1924 koondas siis veel dadaistide hulka kuuluv André Breton enda ümber sürrealistide koolkonna, mille keskpunktiks oli Pariis . Kesksed sürrealistid jagunesid kahte põlvkonda: esimene põlvkond on sündinud aastail 1890 – 1898 (Breton, Antonin Artaud , Louis Aragon jt.). Teine põlvkond on sündinud sajandi alguses ( Salvador Dalí ). Mõjutusi saadi Sigmund Freudi psühhoanalüüsiõpetusest , mille kohaselt looming lähtub alateadvusest , nägemustest , unenägudest, vaistlikest assotsiatsioonidest jne. Sürrealistid võtsid üle freudismist teesi , et ühiskondlikke konflikte on võimalik lahendada alateadvuslike jõudude vabastamise teel. Sürrealism üritas avardada inimese tõelisusepilti ja inimlikku kogemuspiiri, suundudes alateadvusse, tunnete ja aistingute maailma. Sürrealismi eelkäijateks peetakse Charles Baudelaire `i, Arthur Rimbaud ´d ja Guillaume Apollinaire ´i.
  • http://www.musee-magritte-museum.be/Typo3/index.php?id=66 André Breton 1896-1966 writer and poet André Breton studied medicine and psychiatry.  During the First World War, he meets the writer Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social stance and contempt for established artistic tradition mark him deeply.  In 1919, Breton founds the review Littérature with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.  In the collection of poems Les champs magnétiques (1919) and in collaboration with Soupault, he develops the principles of &apos;écriture automatique&apos;. In 1924 he publishes the Surrealist Manifesto and, under his direction, surrealism becomes a European movement that influences all areas of art.  André Breton is also editor-in-chief of the review La Révolution surréaliste .  And it is in this review that appears, on December 15th 1929, René Magritte’s photomontage Je ne vois pas la [femme] cachée dans la forêt , including portraits of, among others, André Breton and René Magritte with eyes closed.  Amidst these surrealist photographs one finds the image of La femme cachée (1929), a painting by Magritte that Breton then acquired.  Upon the death of André Breton, René Magritte would return to the subject of their friendship: &amp;quot;In 1927, André Breton and I, each in turn, caught sight of an ad for a certain aperitif hanging from the wall in a bistro. We exchanged looks that neither reason nor insanity could explain. We had the same complicit look another time, when I suggested taking his picture with his eyes closed.  Well, his eyes are closed, but eyes open or shut, one can’t forget that his mind was seeking the Truth through poetry, love and liberty&amp;quot;. 
  • SÜRREALISM Sürrealismi juured ulatuvad keskaega, kus püüti kirjeldada ja kujutada argikogemustest väljapoolejäävat ja olemasolevas reaalsuses mitteeksisteerivat. Näiteks kogu keskaegse kunsti sealpoolsuse-temaatika, põrgu-stseenid, võitlused deemonitega ja surma allegooriad. Samuti minevikusündmuste, võõraste maade kujutamine, illustratsioonid fantastilistele müütidele, piiblistseenidele ja muinasjuttudele. Tulemuseks oli elusolendite, tegelikkuse osade ja maastiku deformatsioonid ning nendest moodustatud uued kujud ja vormid.
  • Maal &amp;quot; Püha Antoniuse kiusatus &amp;quot; koosneb kolmest paneelist. Vasakpoolsel on näha, kuidas kolm munka tassivad nõrkenud Püha Antoniust. Salakavalad deemonid varitsevad teda nii õhus, maa peal kui maa all. Triptühhoni keskosal seisab Antonius krutsifiksi kõrval ja püüab vapralt vastu seista kiusatustele ja põrgulikele ahvatlustele. Lagunenud torniga palvemajas seismine nõuab julgust, sest peletislikud fantaasiakujud lammutavad seda igast otsast. Õun kui hea ja kurja tundmise puu vili on mitmekordselt suurenenud ja muutunud patupesaks, kust deemonlikud soerdid uhkelt välja marsivad. Boschi pildigalerii kurjusest on võikalt sarkastiline: looma tagakeha on ta sulatanud kokku savikannuga, inimpea ja käed linnu puguga, tumedanahalisest inimkehast tungib välja kuivanud puuoks, rotiratsuril on merineitsi saba. D. Kindersley tõlgendab rotiratsuri-stseeni Egiptusse põgeneva Neitsi ja Jeesuslapse paroodiana. http://portfoolio.varstukk.edu.ee/Renessanss/html/Bosch/index.html Triptühhoni parempoolsel paneelil hoiab Püha Antonius käes pühakirja ja on pööranud pilgu lihaliku naudingute ahvatlustelt. Kuid alasti naine seisab puutüve taga ja otsib silmsidet deemoniga. Antoniuse pilk langeb valgele laudlinale. Kõrvuti veinipudeli ja leivatükkidega lebavad seal surnud kiilid. Et vein tähendab elujõudu, leib vaimutoitu, kiil kergemeelsust, on sümboolika ilmne. Bosch kujutab maali &amp;quot;Püha Antoniuse kiusatus &amp;quot; parempoolsel osal maiseid rõõme kui sadistlikke ja masohhistlikke piitsutusi oma keha ja vaimu kallal. Et seda selgemalt tajuda, võib pilgu heita tegevusele laua varjus. Ihade hävitamise ja tunnete tapmise muudab Bosch oma pildigaleriis äärmuslikuks kurjuseks iseenda vastu. Hoiatus, mis selle inimliku pahe kaudu üles kerkib, mõjub esialgu uskumatult. Sest ükski inimene ei taha omaks võtta tõsiasja, et on hetki, kui me iseennast ei väärtusta.
  • Man Ray 1890-1976 painter, photographer and film-maker After taking classes at the Francisco Ferrer Social Center, Man Ray – pseudonym of Emmanuel Radnitsky – spends time at an artist’s colony in Ridgefield, New Jersey, before setting up his studio in New York City.  There he comes in contact with the European avant-garde, particularly in visits to the 291 gallery, directed by Alfred Stieglitz, and the Armory Show of 1913.  His works from this period alternate between painting and collage.  In 1915, he meets Marcel Duchamp, whose oeuvre he was already well conversant with, and the two artists would come to forge a lifelong friendship.  In 1918 Man Ray starts working with photography, and in 1920 he and Duchamp found a dada group in New York.  A year later the American leaves for Paris, and forms ties with surrealist circles there.  In 1922, he develops a variant of the photogram and dubs it the &apos;Rayograph&apos;.  He wins commissions to photograph for top magazines like Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar , while at the same time taking innumerable portraits of his surrealist friends.  In 1934, he makes his Surrealist chessboard , a photomontage integrating portraits of twenty fellow surrealists, including René Magritte, with as well Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico, Joan Miró and Man Ray himself.  He leaves for Los Angeles during WWII, returning for good to Paris in 1951.
  • http://www.musee-magritte-museum.be/Typo3/index.php?id=61&amp;L=0%27 After having first working as an accountant for a couple of fraught years, Joan Miró decides to turn to painting.  From 1918 he develops a style that is rather &apos;naive&apos; and détailliste. Two years later he makes his first sojourn to Paris, and would often return to work there throughout his life. His oeuvre gradually distances itself from this early meticulous realism, the change much owing to his association with the surrealist group. As a wink to Miró, who in 1925 paints Ceci est la couleur de mes rêves , Magritte in 1929 completes The Treachery of Images  depicting a pipe with, written below, the phrase &apos;Ceci n&apos;est pas une pipe&apos;. In contrast to Miró who underscores the sense of wonder with a title that reinforces the scintillating blue of his painting, Magritte at once creates a visual and cognitive shock by the apparent non-sense that exists between image and text. Outbreak of civil war in Spain in 1936 forces Miró to settle in Paris.  Five years later, the MoMA in New York mounts the first grand retrospective of his work. After WWII, Miró creates a very diverse body of work, including painting, sculpture, ceramic work and frescoes.
  • Andre Masson (1896-1987) was one of the major early French Surrealist painters. A close friend of Andre Breton, Joan Miro and Max Ernst, he joined the Surrealist movement in the early 20s, then disassociated with it in the early 30s, focusing instead on the human condition - the fundamental impulses of love and hatred - and reacting to the Spanish Civil War. In the early 40s, Masson moved to America and became interested in mythical imagery. Many of his paintings from this period show a focus on African American and Native American myths, and the style of his expression and brushwork influenced many young American painters. Although Masson is most often associated with Surrealism, his work evades definition through any one twentieth-century movement. In some ways, the identification with Surrealism has been confusing. Not only has it focussed attention on a partial aspect of his career, but has obscured profound differences between them. If it is true that some of his finest paintings were produced when he was closest to Surrealism, it is also the case that they were generated by deep tensions: as he wrote himself, &amp;quot;Painful contradictions are sometimes the source of the greatest riches&amp;quot;. Masson had especially close relations throughout his life with poets and writers, and they in turn responded to the qualities in his work that spoke to their shared concerns. But that is not to say that he was a literary painter. Andre Breton, for instance, celebrated the chemistry of the intellect&amp;quot; that marked for him Masson as the painter who understood the full implications of the surrealist project. But before his encounter with Surrealism in 1924, others had made him their elective artist: Michael Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, and a little later Georges Bataille. For them, who were to be the &amp;quot;dissident&amp;quot; surrealists, or, in the case of Bataille, &amp;quot;Surrealism&apos;s old enemy from within&amp;quot;, Masson&apos;s work possessed another, Dionysian, character, as Leiris called it, that was to challenge Surrealism on its own grounds. From &amp;quot;Masson&amp;quot;, Dawn Ades Masson was born in Oise, France, but shortly after his birth, his parents moved the family to Brussels. He began to draw at a very early age, and in 1912, his parents sent him to to Paris to study mural painting at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. After trying various trades, he met dealer D. H. Kahnweiler in 1922. Kahnweiler gave Masson financial support. Masson joined the surrealist group in 1924, and did drawings, paintings, and sand paintings. He left the movement in 1929. He joined with George Bataille to illustrate his review, Acephale, in 1934. He designed the sets and the costumes for Jean-Louis Barrault’s production of Numance in 1937. That same year, he reconciled with the surrealists and produced a series of &amp;quot;paroxysm paintings.&amp;quot; He immigrated to the United States during World War II and published Anatomie de mon univers (1943). In 1945, he returned to France and did stage designs for Jean-Paul Sartre’s play Morts sans sepulture. In 1947, he completed his large painting Niobe, and then settled near Aix-en-Provence to paint haunted landscapes. In 1954, he won the Grand Prix National des Arts, and in 1962, he became a member of the Council for National Museums. His late large paintings, Flayed men and women in armour (1963), and Malevolent wizards threatening the people from the heights (1964) contained the same violence as his earlier works.
  • Andre Masson (1896-1987) was one of the major early French Surrealist painters. A close friend of Andre Breton, Joan Miro and Max Ernst, he joined the Surrealist movement in the early 20s, then disassociated with it in the early 30s, focusing instead on the human condition - the fundamental impulses of love and hatred - and reacting to the Spanish Civil War. In the early 40s, Masson moved to America and became interested in mythical imagery. Many of his paintings from this period show a focus on African American and Native American myths, and the style of his expression and brushwork influenced many young American painters. Although Masson is most often associated with Surrealism, his work evades definition through any one twentieth-century movement. In some ways, the identification with Surrealism has been confusing. Not only has it focussed attention on a partial aspect of his career, but has obscured profound differences between them. If it is true that some of his finest paintings were produced when he was closest to Surrealism, it is also the case that they were generated by deep tensions: as he wrote himself, &amp;quot;Painful contradictions are sometimes the source of the greatest riches&amp;quot;. Masson had especially close relations throughout his life with poets and writers, and they in turn responded to the qualities in his work that spoke to their shared concerns. But that is not to say that he was a literary painter. Andre Breton, for instance, celebrated the chemistry of the intellect&amp;quot; that marked for him Masson as the painter who understood the full implications of the surrealist project. But before his encounter with Surrealism in 1924, others had made him their elective artist: Michael Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, and a little later Georges Bataille. For them, who were to be the &amp;quot;dissident&amp;quot; surrealists, or, in the case of Bataille, &amp;quot;Surrealism&apos;s old enemy from within&amp;quot;, Masson&apos;s work possessed another, Dionysian, character, as Leiris called it, that was to challenge Surrealism on its own grounds. From &amp;quot;Masson&amp;quot;, Dawn Ades Masson was born in Oise, France, but shortly after his birth, his parents moved the family to Brussels. He began to draw at a very early age, and in 1912, his parents sent him to to Paris to study mural painting at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. After trying various trades, he met dealer D. H. Kahnweiler in 1922. Kahnweiler gave Masson financial support. Masson joined the surrealist group in 1924, and did drawings, paintings, and sand paintings. He left the movement in 1929. He joined with George Bataille to illustrate his review, Acephale, in 1934. He designed the sets and the costumes for Jean-Louis Barrault’s production of Numance in 1937. That same year, he reconciled with the surrealists and produced a series of &amp;quot;paroxysm paintings.&amp;quot; He immigrated to the United States during World War II and published Anatomie de mon univers (1943). In 1945, he returned to France and did stage designs for Jean-Paul Sartre’s play Morts sans sepulture. In 1947, he completed his large painting Niobe, and then settled near Aix-en-Provence to paint haunted landscapes. In 1954, he won the Grand Prix National des Arts, and in 1962, he became a member of the Council for National Museums. His late large paintings, Flayed men and women in armour (1963), and Malevolent wizards threatening the people from the heights (1964) contained the same violence as his earlier works.
  • Biography: Tanguy was an officer cadet in the French Merchant Navy, like his father. In 1925, Tanguy and his friend Jacques Prevert both joined the surrealist group. His worked fell into three stages. There was the aerial universe between 1926 and 1930. From 1930 to 1948, he painted stretched of beaches littered with minerals. In 1939, he moved to America with his wife, Kay Sage, and was naturalized in 1948. Thus began his third period, identified by the piling up of stones in his paintings, and the illustraion of a submarine world. After 1950, his third period began to include very large paintings. Imaginary Numbers (1954) was one of his last paintings. Six years after his death, his wife, also an artist, committed suicide.
  • Ernst studied philosophy at Bonn University, before being influenced by August Macke and taking up painting. In 1919, he and Johannes T. Baargeld founded the Cologne dadaist group. Together, they published the review Die Schammade, though only one edition was published in 1920. In 1922, Ernst moved to Paris, where he became on of the founding fathers of surrealism. He invented &amp;quot;frottage&amp;quot; in 1925, and this allowed for some of his most remarkable work. His greatest period began with the paintings entitled Garden Aeroplane Trap (1935 – 1936), as well as the sequence of paintings including the Nymph Echo and Joie de vivre (1936), produced using decalcomania. He continued this period in America between 1941 and 1953, with Antipope (1942), Rhenish Night (1944), and The Eye of Silence (1945). Ernst remained true to the surrealist movement when he returned to France. In 1954, he won the Grand Prix at the Venice Biennale. His traditional paintings, such as Messalina as a Child and The Famous Dream-Smith (1959), while decent in artistic merit, are believed to be far less original than those created in his surrealist period.  Ernst kuulub sürrealistide esimesse põlvkonda. Ernsti ei huvitanud ei dada ega poliitilised ja karikatuursed võimalused, tema jaoks oli oluline kujutada „kõige veidramaid poeetilisi sädemaid, tuues kokku kaks pealtnäha seostamatut elementi taustal, mis pole kummagagi seotud” – efekt, mille ta saavutab näiteks kollažimeetodit kasutades. Ernst on tuntud just oma tehnilise meisterlikkuse poolest, tema väljamõeldiseks on kolaaž-romaanid – fantastilise mütoloogiaga pilt-romaanid, mille peategelaseks oli lindude kuningas Loplop. Tema kuulsaimaks leiutiseks on frotaaž ehk hõõrumistehnika. Frotaaž tekib reljeefsele pinnale asetatud paberi hõõrumisel joonistusvahendiga, mille tulemuseks on reljeefi kõrgemate osade tekitatud graafiline jälg. Ernst võrdles frotaaži automaatse kirjutamisega, reljeefina kasutas puupaneele, riideesemeid jms. Kunstniku maalidel esinevad olendid on sageli sünged, aeg-ajalt esitleb kunstnik neid ka oma absurdsest huumorist vürtsitatult. Otsiva ja püsimatu vaimuna ei saanud Ernst pikalt kindlatesse raamidesse püsima jääda ja oma tegevusega astus ta sageli vastu Bretoni väljakuulutatud tõekspidamistele. Sürrealistlikust liikumisest lahkus ta 1938. aastal.
  • Magritte . Belglase Magritte tehnika oli akadeemiline, naturalistlik, täpne ja proosaline. Ta on tuntud peamiselt juba hilisemate „argielu metaloogikat” käsitlevate maalide põhjal, samuti tema maalides tegutsevate kõvakübarastatud härrasmeeste kaudu. Magritte põhivõteteks on figuuride ja esemete vastandamine ootamatutes seostes, esemete, olendite või omaduste kombineerimine; metamorfoosid, elusa ja elutu ühendamine ja deformatsioonid, sisemise-välimise, ligidal-kaugel asuva ruumi ühendamine. Magritte oli täiuslik konventsioonide lõhkuja, kes ei hoolinud mõõtkavast(õun täidab kogu toa, vedur sõidab välja hiigelsuurest kaminast), eitas gravitatsiooniseadusi, maalis niisuguse taeva, et sellest sai tüki välja lõigata ja selle maalipukile tõsta. Objekti ja selle maalitud kujutise mitmemõttelisust rõhutab Magritte pidevalt, nt maal See pole piip. Magritte vahendid on küll napid aga meeleolu see-eest jahe ja irooniline.
  • http://www.musee-magritte-museum.be/Typo3/index.php?id=66 Max Ernst 1891-1976 painter, sculptor and writer Max Ernst may be counted as one of the most influential artists of the dada and surrealist movements. He studies philosophy in Bonn from 1909 to 1912.  In 1920, he founds the dada group Zentrale W/3 in Cologne. In 1921, André Breton puts Ernst’s work on show in Paris, and he moves to that city a year later. As member of the surrealist group, over the following years he develops the frottage (rubbing) and the grattage (scraping), techniques close to &apos;écriture automatique&apos;. With the onset of the Second World War, Ernst flees to the United States, where he paints a series of canvases using dripping, a radically new &apos;automatic&apos; technique that deeply marks a young generation of American painters. In 1961, Max Ernst acquires Magritte’s work Force of habit (1960) that depicts a green apple with the superscription &apos;This is not an apple&apos;. A year later, upon the apple Ernst paints a bird in its cage, with below the phrase: &apos;This is not a Magritte&apos;. According to Dorothea Tanning, Ernst’s wife, Magritte &apos;forced a laugh&apos; when seeing the addition to his painting.
  • Man Ray 1890-1976 painter, photographer and film-maker After taking classes at the Francisco Ferrer Social Center, Man Ray – pseudonym of Emmanuel Radnitsky – spends time at an artist’s colony in Ridgefield, New Jersey, before setting up his studio in New York City.  There he comes in contact with the European avant-garde, particularly in visits to the 291 gallery, directed by Alfred Stieglitz, and the Armory Show of 1913.  His works from this period alternate between painting and collage.  In 1915, he meets Marcel Duchamp, whose oeuvre he was already well conversant with, and the two artists would come to forge a lifelong friendship.  In 1918 Man Ray starts working with photography, and in 1920 he and Duchamp found a dada group in New York.  A year later the American leaves for Paris, and forms ties with surrealist circles there.  In 1922, he develops a variant of the photogram and dubs it the &apos;Rayograph&apos;.  He wins commissions to photograph for top magazines like Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar , while at the same time taking innumerable portraits of his surrealist friends.  In 1934, he makes his Surrealist chessboard , a photomontage integrating portraits of twenty fellow surrealists, including René Magritte, with as well Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico, Joan Miró and Man Ray himself.  He leaves for Los Angeles during WWII, returning for good to Paris in 1951.
  • http://www.musee-magritte-museum.be/Typo3/index.php?id=65&amp;L=0 Salvador Dalí is a multi-facetted surrealist artist: ever the painter, he also devotes himself to sculpture, photography and cinema.  During his studies at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid from 1921 to 1926, Dalí discovers artistic avant-gardes like futurism and cubism.  Frequenting anarchist circles, he meets the young poet Federico García Lorca and film-maker Luis Buñuel. Starting in 1927, Dalí develops his personal style, but he comes to the attention of the surrealist movement only two years later with the appearance of the film Un chien andalou , a collaboration between Dalí and Luis Buñuel.  René Magritte meets Dalí for the first time in Paris, during the making of this film.  Next, the Magrittes spend their vacation with him at the Spaniard’s home at Cadaqués, also in the company of Paul Eluard and his wife Gala (who would finally marry Dalí in 1934).  Salvador Dalí’s first solo show is in Paris in 1929 at the gallery of Belgian Camille Goemans.  A year later, Dalí and Magritte exhibit together in Collages et papiers collés (March 28th – April 12th 1930) again at Galerie Goemans.  Beginning this same year, 1930, Dalí creates multiple surrealist objects and develops the &apos;méthode paranoïaque critique&apos; in his painting. During WWII, he flees to the United States, where he also works on illustrations and ad-campaigns.  At war&apos;s end, Dalí devided his time between the United States, France and Spain.
  •   This amazing double image painting is aptly titled &amp;quot;Gala Contemplating the Mediterranean Sea which at 20 Meters Becomes the Portrait of Abraham Lincoln&amp;quot;. Dali utilizes his vision of perceptual switching by incorporating a number of techniques to create two paintings in one. This accurate rendition of Dali&apos;s iconic painting is printed on canvas using the giclee process and applying one color at a time. The high quality pigmented inks allow consistent quality for a life time and yield a high resolution with brilliant color, giving the appearance of an original oil painting. Mounted on a wooden stretcher and sold unframed, it can be hung as is, or add your own frame. Produced and licensed by the Dali Museum, St. Petersburg
  • http://www.musee-magritte-museum.be/Typo3/index.php?id=65&amp;L=0 Salvador Dalí is a multi-facetted surrealist artist: ever the painter, he also devotes himself to sculpture, photography and cinema.  During his studies at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid from 1921 to 1926, Dalí discovers artistic avant-gardes like futurism and cubism.  Frequenting anarchist circles, he meets the young poet Federico García Lorca and film-maker Luis Buñuel. Starting in 1927, Dalí develops his personal style, but he comes to the attention of the surrealist movement only two years later with the appearance of the film Un chien andalou , a collaboration between Dalí and Luis Buñuel.  René Magritte meets Dalí for the first time in Paris, during the making of this film.  Next, the Magrittes spend their vacation with him at the Spaniard’s home at Cadaqués, also in the company of Paul Eluard and his wife Gala (who would finally marry Dalí in 1934).  Salvador Dalí’s first solo show is in Paris in 1929 at the gallery of Belgian Camille Goemans.  A year later, Dalí and Magritte exhibit together in Collages et papiers collés (March 28th – April 12th 1930) again at Galerie Goemans.  Beginning this same year, 1930, Dalí creates multiple surrealist objects and develops the &apos;méthode paranoïaque critique&apos; in his painting. During WWII, he flees to the United States, where he also works on illustrations and ad-campaigns.  At war&apos;s end, Dalí devided his time between the United States, France and Spain.

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