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Presentation on geotextile testing.pptx

  1. What is a Geosynthetic material?  According to ASTM D4439, a geosynthetic is defined as follows: A planar product manufactured from polymeric material used with soil, rock, earth, or other geotechnical engineering related material as an integral part of a human-made project, structure, or system  In short it can be defined as a natural or artificial product that is used along with geomaterials to in geotechnical engineering/construction
  2. Why Geosynthetic materials?  Geosynthetics have entirely changed the way geotechnical engineering is practiced.  Innovative solutions to solve difficult problems expediently  They are invariably cost competitive against soils or other construction materials  Wide variety of geosynthetic products are available to meet specific needs  Enables the use of local materials – sustainable solutions  Unskilled labor can be employed  Installation does not require heavy machineries  Carbon footprint is very much lower than traditional solution
  3. Type of Geosynthetics  Geotextile  Geogrids  Geonets  Geomembranes  Pre-fabricated vertical drain (PVD)  Geosynthetic clay liners (GCL)  Geocells  Geocomposites  Geomats  Geopipes  Geofoams
  4. Geogrids Geonets Geomembranes Geotextile
  5. Pre-fabricated vertical drains Geosynthetic clay liners Geocells Geocomposite
  6. Geomats Geopipes Geofoams
  7. Geotextile  According to ASTM D4439, a geotextile is defined as, A permeable geosynthetic comprised solely of textiles. Geotextile are used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering related materials as an integral part of a human- made product, structure, or system  In short, Engineering sheet like products made of natural or synthetic materials Manufacture of Geotextile Manufacturing of Geotextiles are mainly differentiated by the  Polymer type  Fiber type  Manufacturing process
  8. Polymers  Geotextiles are generally made from synthetic fibers rather than natural fibers.  The synthetic materials or polymers are made in chemical processing plants from the polymerization of thermoplastics.  Short term and long term properties of geotextile depend on the polymer that used to make the product  Geotextiles are commonly made from the polymers of  Polypropylene  Polyester  Polyethylene  Polyamide
  9. Fibers  Fibers are made of polymers by drawing and stretching the melted polymers through a narrow opening of spinneret –similar to shower head  This fiber filaments are cooled and hardened -wet, dry or melt process  Fibers are hard and strong compared to the raw polymer because of the stretching process  Stretching reduces fiber diameter and orients the molecules to gain higher strength and stiffness There are 4 main fiber types which are used to manufacture woven geotextiles  Monofilament  Multifilament  Slit-film monofilament  Slit-film multifilament
  10. Monofilament Multifilament
  11. fiber types used to manufacture nonwoven geotextiles are  Continuous filament fibers  Staple fibers Continuous filament fibers Staple fibers
  12. Types of Geotextile Yarns or fibers are made into textile in two methods  Woven: Weave pattern is visible Plain Weave : Common weave pattern, one up and one down Basket weave : Tow or more warp and /or filling yarn used Twill Weave :Diagonal weave pattern with yarn intersection one pick higher Plain Weave Basket Weave Twill weave
  13. Types of Geotextiles  Non woven: Fibers are randomly oriented, no weave pattern is visible Melt or heat bonded : Fibers are spread on a roller and joined by melting at cross over point Resin bonded : Fibers are bonded by spraying acrylic resin Needle Punched : Fibers are entangled with each other to the form of continuous fabric sheet Melt or heat bonded Resin bonded Needle punched
  14. Geotextile Types at a Glance
  15. Function of Geotextile  Separation  Reinforcement  Filtration  Drainage  Protection  Erosion Control
  16. Erosion Control Embankment Protection
  17. Testing of Geotextile  Identification of product  Selection of suitable materials as per design specification  Quality control – during production stage  Quality assurance – during the construction stage  Maintaining smooth operation  Performance checking at site condition
  18. Properties of Geotextile  Physical Properties  Mechanical Properties  Hydraulic Properties  Endurance and Durability Properties
  19. Geotextile - Mechanical properties Following tests are conducted for determination of Mechanical properties  Compressibility  Tensile Strength  Seam Strength  Tear Strength  Burst Strength  Puncture Test  Impact Test  Pullout Test  Frictional Behavior Test
  20. Geotextile – Hydraulic properties Following tests are conducted for determination of Hydraulic properties  Apparent Opening Size  Cross Plane Permeability  In Plane Permeability  Gradient Ratio  Long Term Permeability
  21. Geotextile – Endurance and Durability properties Following tests are conducted for determination of endurance and durability properties  Abrasion Resistance  UV resistance  Melt Flow Index  Asphalt Retention
  22. Function of Geotextile Separation