1. Mohamed Ayman EL-Sayed
Ministry of Higher Education Course: File organization- INF 221
Higher Technological Institute
Computer Science Department
Sheet 1: Introduction to file organization Theoretical
1. What is the difference between data structures and file structures?
Data structure: used or deal with main memory.
File structures: used or deal with secondary storage.
2. Draw the block diagram for computer architecture?
3. Describe the memory hierarchy?
It’s a data at which must be maintained across program executions, this required storage devices that retain information when the
computer is restarted. Which is the primary storage usually volatile and the secondary storage are nonvolatile.
2. 4. Compare between the main memory and secondary storage?
Main memory: faster than, smaller than, more expensive and volatile storage except (ROM which is non volatile)
the secondary storage.
Secondary storage: slower than, larger than, cheaper than and more staple than the main memory.
5. What are the features of good file structure design?
It will be faster access to great capacity.
Reduce number of disk access.
Collecting data into buffers, blocks or buckets.
Manage growth by splitting these collections.
6. Describe in details the history of file structure design?
First it was sequential access which is search by sequence process.
,Then it become direct access which is access to position in array.
,Then it become index which is allows direct access to a large primary file.
,Then it become a binary search tree which had a very wrong way which was the unbalanced tree, so they made the B+ tree.
,Then they made the hashing table which search by hashing value.
And Then they made the Dynamic hashing which is more qualified for us if the file changes continually.
7. Make research report to survey for C/C++.
C: is a general-purpose programming language created by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Laboratories in 1972. It is a very popular
language, despite being old. C is strongly associated with UNIX, as it was developed to write the UNIX operating system.
Why Learn C:
It is one of the most popular programming language in the world
If you know C, you will have no problem learning other popular programming languages such as Java, Python, C++, C#, etc,
as the syntax is similar
C is very fast, compared to other programming languages, like Java and Python
C is very versatile; it can be used in both applications and technologies
C++: is an object-oriented programming language which gives a clear structure to programs and allows code to be reused, lowering
development costs. C++ is portable and can be used to develop applications that can be adapted to multiple platforms. C++ is fun
and easy to learn.
Why use C++:
C++ is one of the world's most popular programming languages.
C++ can be found in today's operating systems, Graphical User Interfaces, and embedded systems.
C++ is an object-oriented programming language which gives a clear structure to programs and allows code to be reused,
lowering development costs.
C++ is portable and can be used to develop applications that can be adapted to multiple platforms.
C++ is fun and easy to learn!
As C++ is close to C, C# and Java, it makes it easy for programmers to switch to C++ or vice versa.
Difference between C, C++
C++ was developed as an extension of C, and both languages have almost the same syntax.
The main difference between C and C++ is that C++ support classes and objects, while C does not.