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Mechanism of-respiration

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Mechanism of-respiration

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Mechanism of-respiration

  1. 1. Regents Biology [ Mechanism of Respiration ] 2015/2016 Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  2. 2.  ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM… Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  3. 3. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  4. 4. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  5. 5. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  6. 6.  MECHANICS OF BREATHING.... Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 2 PROCESSES 1-) Inspiration- Inflow of atmospheric air into lungs. 2-) Expiration- Outflow of air from lungs into atmosphere.
  7. 7.  EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION... Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  8. 8.  EXTERNAL RESPIRATION Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 1) External respiration-Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungs 2) Exchange of gases -Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the lungs 3) Transport of gases- Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transported by blood to and from tissues 4) Internal respiration- Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between tissue and blood
  9. 9.  INTERNAL RESPIRATION .... Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 1) Cellular metabolism 2) Anaerobic glycol sis 3) Aerobic oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria
  10. 10.  MECHANICS OF BREATHING.... Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 1) Eupnoea.- 2) Inspiration.- active process. 3) Expiration.- passive process.
  11. 11.  THE TRANSMURAL PRESSURE GRADIENT INFLATES THE LUNGS Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 1) Thoracic cavity larger than lungs 2) Tran mural (Across Lung Wall) pressure gradient holds thoracic wall and lungs in close apposition 3) This pressure gradient is balanced by the elastic forces in the alveoli producing equilibrium
  12. 12.  RESPIRATORY PRESSURES Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 TWO TYPES 1-) Intraalveolar pressure or Intra pulmonary pressure (760 mm Hg) 2-) Intrapleural pressure or Intrathoracic pressure (758 mm Hg) Atmospheric pressure. 760 mm Hg.
  13. 13.  MUSCLE OF INSPIRATION.... Muscle of normal tidal inspiration- Diaphragm External intercostal Accessory Muscle of inspiration- i. Sternocleidomastoid ii. Scalene iii. Serratus Anterior iv. Pectoralis major and minor Laryngeal muscle Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  14. 14.  MUSCLE OF EXPIRATION Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 Internal intercostals Abdominal muscles include- 1) Abdominal Recite 2) Transverses Abdomen's 3) Internal oblique
  15. 15. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  16. 16. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  17. 17. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016  Rib movement.  1 Pump handle movement.(2-6th)  2 Bucket handle movement.(7-10th)  Contraction of external intercostal muscles.
  18. 18.  CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE….. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016  Transaction of spinal cord. above 3rd cervical spinal segment- fatal – needs artificial respiration. below 5th cervical spinal segment – not, Phrenic nerve that innervate diaphragm ( C 3,4,5)
  19. 19.  ACCESSORY MUSCLES OF INSPIRATION….. Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016  Scalene & sternocleidomastoid  Intrinsic muscles of larynx 1) Abductors of vocal cords – post cricoarytenoids – supplied by recurrent laryngeal nerve, branch of vagus. 2) Paralysis – Inspiratory Stridor.
  20. 20.  EXPIRATION… Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 1) Return of ribs to rest position causes diminishing of lung volume 2) Return of diaphragm to rest position also causes diminishing of lung volume 3) Diminishing of lung volume causes pressure in lung to raise to a higher value than atmospheric pressure 4) Air flows out of the lungs
  21. 21.  PRESSURE AND VOLUME CHANGES DURING VENTILATION Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016
  22. 22.  PRESSURE CHANGES DURING VENTILATION Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016  INTRAPULMONARY PRESSURE,( INTRA-ALVEOLAR PRESSURE) 1) In quite breathing = 0 atmospheric pressure i.e. 760 mm Hg. 2) During inspiration -- 759 mm Hg. 3) During expiration -- 761 mm Hg.  Factors affecting intrapulmonary pressure. 1) Valsalva manoeuvre (+100 mm Hg) 2) Muller’s manoeuvre (-80 mm Hg)
  23. 23.  PRESSURE CHANGES DURING VENTILATION Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 INTRAPLEURAL PRESSURE,(INTRA- THORACIC PRESSURE)  In quite breathing (-2 mm Hg.)  Reason – balance between 1) Lung – Tendency to collapse due to Intraalveolar negative pressure.. 2) Thoracic cage – Tendency to expand due to ribs and elastic tissue.
  24. 24.  INTRAPLEURAL PRESSURE,(INTRA-THORACIC PRESSURE) Mohamed M.Elsaied 2015/2016 Factors affecting intra pleural pressure. Physiological  Deep inspiration (-30 mm Hg.)  Valsalva manoeuvre (+60-70 mm Hg.)  Effect of gravity. (-7 apex, -2 Base) ○ Clinical significance – during first part of inspiration more of inspired gas goes to apices than to bases.

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