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Shirk tabarruk, talisman 1.0.ppt

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Shirk: definition; history; dangers; categories; causes, Deviations in Worship (Talismans, Magic, Astrology, etc.) Tabarruk; Tawassul; Shafa'aah;

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Shirk tabarruk, talisman 1.0.ppt

  1. 1. Shirk
  2. 2. • The Qur’ān and Sunnah have defined shirk.• Sūrah al-Baqarah 2:22 as: “So do not make, along with Allāh,partners (andād) while you know (that He is the true Creator).”• Shirk is defined as taking a partner alongside Allāh.• Ibn Mas‘ūd (raḍyAllāhu ‘anhu) asked the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ‘alayhiwa sallam), “What is the greatest sin?” He replied: “To takealongside Allāh a partner (nidd) even though it was He that createdyou.”• In General Term: An easier way to understand shirk is: Shirk means givingthe rights of Allāh to other than Allāh. Anything that is a right of Allāh andbelongs to Allāh, if you give it to other than Allāh, you have committedshirk. Once we have defined shirk to be giving the rights of Allāh to otherthan Him, we understand that it is broader than just prostrating to an idol.Any time any right of Allāh is given to other than Allāh, shirk has occurred.Shirk
  3. 3.  Acts of worship will not be accepted by Allāh unless tawḥīd is perfected. Likewise, the only way that any person will save himself from the Fire ofHell is by avoiding shirk and dying upon tawḥīd; if he is not even aware ofthe essence of shirk, then how can he avoid it? The primary incentive to avoid shirk is to appreciate its dangers. Shirk is of many different types and categories. It is only through a criticalstudy of these categories that a person can ensure that he is free of alltypes of shirk.Importance of Knowing Shirk
  4. 4. • Shirk is the only unforgivable sin in the sight of Allāh.Sūrah Al-Nisā’ v. 48: Allāh says that He will never forgive the sin of shirk but willforgive the sin lesser than that. This is a reference to those who have died withoutrepenting from shirk.This means that a person who commits shirk will never enter Jannah.• Shirk prohibits a person from entering Paradise, and obligates apermanent abode in Hell.Sūrah Al-Mā’idah v. 72: “Whoever commits shirk with Allāh, Allāh has madeJannah ḥarām for him and his abode will be the Fire of Hell.” This means that nomatter what good you have done, Allāh will not accept it.• Shirk is so evil that it destroys all of a person’s good deeds.Sūrah Al-Zumar v. 65: “I have revealed to you and to those before you, if youcommit shirk, all of your good deeds will be nullified.” The ‘you’ refers to theProphet(ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and Allāh is speaking in the first persondirectly to Rasūlullāh, which shows the importance of this verse because it is rarein the Qurʾān.Dangers of Shirk
  5. 5. • If a person dies in a state of shirk, it is prohibited for his Muslimfriends and relatives to seek forgiveness for him.When the uncle of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) died, he said, “I amgoing to continue to ask forgiveness for you until Allāh forbids me to do so.” SūrahAl- Tawbah v. 113. Allāh says, “It is not appropriate for the Prophet and for thosewho believe that they seek forgiveness for the people who do shirk even if they beclose relatives.”• Allāh has described those who commit shirk as being najas, or filthy.Shirk is so evil that Allāh has described those who commit it with the term najas.This is a spiritual najas. Allāh says in Sūrah Al-Tawbah v. 28: “Those who commitshirk are najas.”Dangers of Shirk
  6. 6. • Allāh says in Sūrah Nūḥ v.23: “The people of Nūḥ said, ‘We will nevergive up our gods Wadd, Suwā‘ā, Yagūth or Ya‘ūq.’”Ibn ʾAbbāscommented and gave a tafsīr and a summary is as follows:Between Ādam and Nūḥ were ten generations upon tawḥīd. For ten generations,people did not even know what idolatry and shirk was. The Prophet Nūḥ lived for aperiod of time we do not know, and he gave da‘wah for 950 years. We believe thatearly man lived for longer periods of time because the earth needed to bepopulated. People lived longer and had more children.Origin of Shirk
  7. 7. 1. Shirk in Rubūbiyyaha. Shirk by Denial: Denying that creation has a Creator.a. Total Denial : This is atheism.b. Partial denial:b. Shirk by Affirmation:a. Total Affirmation: Jupiter, Zeus, Brahma, Krishna.b. Partial Affirmation: Quraysh, Jesus ChristCategories of Shirk
  8. 8. 1. Shirk in Asmā’ wa’l-Ṣifāta. Deification: Comparing creation to Allāhb. Anthropomorphism: Comparing Allāh to creation2. Shirk in Ulūhiyyah : This is to direct an act of worship to other an Allāh.a. Major:a. Theoretical:b. Practical: Action Basedb. Minor:a. Minor Shirk in Worship :: Riya :: Show off in prayerb. Minor Shirk in Tongue :: Only can swear by Allah but not extremec. Minor Shirk of Limbs :: Amulets, charms.Categories of Shirk
  9. 9. • TawakkulAllāh tells us in over 50 verses that we must have tawakkul in Him.Sūrah Al-Mā’idah v. 23: “Put your tawakkul in Allāh if you truly have īmān.”Sūrah Yūnus v. 84: “And Moses said, ‘O my people, if you have believed in Allāh, then relyupon Him, if you should be Muslims.’”A bedouin said, “Oh Messenger of Allāh, when I go to sleep at night, if I don’t tie my camel, itwill go away. Should I tie my camel up or should I leave it untied and put my tawakkul inAllāh?” The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Tie your camel and trust in Allāh.”This is the reality of our religion: we do both together.True tawakkul necessitates actions. Tawakkul is something that exists in the heart and is notmanifested in the body. True tawakkul means that you do what you can but your heart isattached is to Allāh.• SabrPatience is also a manifestation of worship, and we must be patient for the sake of Allāh.Patience for the sake of Allāh is an integral part of Īmān. Over 70 verses in the Qurʾāntalkabout patience.Sūrah Al-‘Imrān v. 200: “Oh you who believe, be patient and advise others to be patient.”Manifestations of ‘Ibādah
  10. 10. • DuaDu‘ā is one of the greatest acts of worship. It is the essence of worship.There are over 500 verses in the Qurʾānin which Allāh says, “Do not make du‘ā to otherthan Allāh.” “Whoever makes du‘ā to other than Allāh will be of the losers.”“And invoke not besides Allāh, any that will neither profit you, nor hurt you, but if you didso, you shall certainly be one of the ẓālimīn.” - Sūrah Yūnus 10:106• Isti‘ādhahIsti‘ādhah means seeking spiritual refuge in other than Allāh.The Qurʾāntells us that when an evil thought comes to you, then seek refuge in Allāh whoHears and Knows. Sūrah Fuṣṣilat v. 36 “And if there comes to you from Satan an evilsuggestion, then seek refuge in Allāh. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing.”• Seeking Help (Isti‘ānah and Istighāthah)Istighāthah means help against an enemyManifestations of ‘Ibādah
  11. 11. • Vowing (Nadhr)A nadhr is a religious promise that one is allowed to make with Allāh. It is not recommendedin and of itself, but if done, must be in Allāh’s name.Shahih Bukhārī: The Prophet (saw) said, “A nadhr (vow) only extracts from the miserlyperson and doesn’t change the qadr of Allāh.”• Sacrifice (Udhiyah)This means sacrificing an animal. In our religion, an animal must be sacrificed using theName of Allāh.• TawāfTawāf is only done around the Ka‘bah. To do ṭawāf around another icon or structureintending to please that being is major shirk.• ProstrationSajdah is an action of worship that is done to Allāh (SW).Sūrah Fussilat v. 37: “Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but rather prostrate toAllāh (SW) who created them if you truly worship Him.”Manifestations of ‘Ibādah
  12. 12. Tabarruk, Talisman, Omens etc.
  13. 13. • Definition of BarakahLinguistically: Barakah has two meanings:1. To remain and linger. To remain in one place and stay on.2. To nurture and generate.• Islamically: It refers to the presence of divine blessings in an objectand increasing those blessings.Defination of Tabarruk
  14. 14. • Some things which are blessed with barakah– 1. The Qur’ān– 2. All prophets, especially the Prophet (saw)– 3. Angels– 4. Pious people• Some places which are blessed– 1. The Ka‘bah, the city of Makkah and surrounding holy sites.– 2. Prophet’s Masjid and the city of Madinah– 3. Masjid al-Aqṣa specifically, and Shām in general– 4. All Masājid (the most beloved places to Allāh…)• Some timings which are blessed– 1. The month of Ramaḍān, specifically Laylat al-Qadr.– 2. The ten days of Dhul-Ḥijjah– 3. The Sacred Months (Dhul Qa‘dah, Dhul Ḥijjah, Muḥarram and Rajab)– 4. Friday (the best day that the sun rises). Friday is the holiest day of the week.– 5. Last third of the night.– 6. Early morning (especially for obtaining worldly blessings…).Blessing
  15. 15. • Factors that bring barakah– Ikhlas– Mentioning Allāh’s name at the beginning of any act.– Following the proper sunnahs.• Tabarruk with the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) after his death– Allowed• Every Muslim agrees that you are allowed and should get barakah from the Prophet(saw) by following him, believing in him, and studying who he was. The main factorthat you get barakah from him is by believing in him and acting upon his Sunnah andreading about his life and times.– Prohibited• i. Traveling with the intention to visit his grave.• ii. Seeking blessings by kissing/touching the grave.• iii. Asking the Prophet to make du‘ā to Allāh.• iv. Seeking the exact places that the Prophet (saw) prayed in ‘accidentally’ (vs.intentionally).• v. Seeking blessings by doing ‘sunnah’ or ‘bid‘ah’ acts on the day of his birth.• Tabarruk with ‘saints’Blessing
  16. 16. • These evidences show that unchecked tabarruk can lead to serious problems.• 1. Ḥadīth of Abu Wāqid al-Laythi: In another ḥadīth, we learn the dangers of excessive / improperbarakah: Abu Wāqid al-Laythi was a new Muslim and the next day he joined the army of the Prophet (saw).They passed by a tree that was used to hang the weapons of the jāhiliyy army before they would go tobattle for good luck. They would then take the weapons and go into battle. Abu Wāqid said, “O Messengerof Allāh, why don’t you make for us a tree that can give us blessings?” The Prophet (saw)said, “SubhānAllāh, wallāhi you have asked me exactly what the children of Isrā’īl asked Mūsa when theycrossed over the Red Sea and passed by a nation worshipping an idol when they said, ‘O Mūsa, make for usa god like they have.’ You have asked me to build a false god.” Abu Wāqid did not ask for an idol, but whathe asked for was a ‘good luck charm’ and a source of barakah. The Prophet (saw) equated that with askingfor another god. You are making the object the source of power and blessings instead of Allāh. What AbuWāqid was asking for is in itself shirk. If a person seeks blessings from an icon or an object or a saintthinking that the grave or saint has the power to bless, then that person has made a god besides Allāh.• In contrast, if a person is asking for blessings from an object he think Allāh has blessed, then this is bid‘ahand not shirk.• 2. Basis of the two idols; al-Lāt and al-’Uzza: Al-Lāt and al-’Uzza were the main idols of Arabia. Al-Lātwas the main idol of Tā’if and was the rival of the idols of Makkah. It was a huge structure. What is Al-Lāt?In a hadīth in sahih Bukhārī, Ibn ʾAbbāssaid that “Al-Lāt was a man who used to feed the pilgrims soup, sowhen he died, the people built a monument over his grave and that monument eventually became Al-Lāt.”Al-Lāt was in fact a holy, righteous man who was lifted above his level. The basis of shirk is to take a goodperson and place him higher than he deserves. These people sought blessings from the grave of Al-Lāt. Al-Lāt became the biggest idol in that region. To this day, the number one problem of shirk in the ummahrevolves around the grave of the righteous.Tabarruk with ‘saints’
  17. 17. • Talismans:– The extention of barakah is to carry around an object or a talisman that youthink will give you blessings and is a ‘good luck charm’ or an icon that willprotect you from evil or your lucky stone or lucky ring. A talisman is an object.An omen is something that you see around you. The concept is the same.– Talismans and omens are used either to derive barakah or to deny barakah, i.e.good luck or bad luck. In Islām, there is no such thing as luck. Everything thathappens is from Allāh and nothing is random. To ascribe any supernaturalpower to other than Allāh or to believe that any object in and of itself cancause harm or good is pure shirk.• Omens:– The Qurʾānand Sunnah clearly dissociate from omens. The reason they areconsidered to be impermissible is the same as that for talismans. You arereading in the power of good luck or bad luck in things that are completelymeaningless. Who cares if a black cat crosses your path? To believe thatsomething is going to happen to you is a sign of paganism and backwardnessand has nothing to do with the religion of Islām.Talismans & Omens
  18. 18. • Fake Magic:– When we talk about sihr, we are not talking about the magic that you see ontv. It is not pulling rabbits out of a hat. This is just an illusion and trickery anddeceit. You can find out how they are doing these tricks. This type of magic isvery childish but is not called sihr.• Real Magic:– Real sihr involves the jinn. If you understand what and who the jinn are, then you will understandwhat magic is, and once you understand this, then you have nothing to fear from it because yourealize it that it is completely natural and only seems supernatural from our limited minds. Only Allāhhas Power. Lā hawlā wa lā quwwata illā billāh. The jinn are a creature-like animal that Allāh hascreated.– how can man control the jinn? The jinn can hide from you, but you can’t hide from it. The magician isalways the subservient. Go back to psychology and the inferiority complex. The jinn wants to be theboss. By giving the magician commands, the jinn becomes the boss. They make the magician do themost ridiculous things. The actions of worship that the jinn requires of man are actions of humiliationfor man. It will tell man to do things that are so demeaning and humiliating. Much of what themagician does involves najas and his body. Every magician gets involved with najas. This shows thatliterally the magician sells his soul to the devil. In reality, the magician is the servant of the jinn. Whenthe magician worships the jinn, the jinn has accomplished two things: 1) ego boost and 2) he hascaused the man to fall into shirk.Magic and Astrology
  19. 19. – This leads to a crucial point: you cannot have siḥr without shirk. The two are necessarilylinked together. Every single sāhir is a mushrik. All madh-habs of sihr are shirk. Everysingle sāhir has to practice shirk to get the jinn to do what it wants; therefore, shirk andsihr go hand in hand.– Therefore, it is harām to even study magic.– Sūrah Al-Baqarah v. 102 tells us the origins of siḥr. Allāh says, “Sulaymān did not commitkufr, it was the shayātīn who committed kufr and were teaching mankind sihr.” Theshayātīn committed kufr by teaching mankind sihr. Simply teaching magic is kufr.• Types of Magic:– 1. Summon jinn to attack or even kill other people, or take over their bodies.– 2. Summon jinn to break marriages, prevent or hinder intercourse– 3. Blow on knots with incantations– 4. Those whom others go to with the pretext of lifting magic spells, but who use magicinstead—fight magic with magic.– 5. Those whom the jinn whisper to, while pretending to see the future; any type offortune-tellers.– 6. Look at the stars attempting to predict the future.Magic and Astrology
  20. 20. Astronomy :– Physical science, which maps the movement of the stars. This is a legitimate branch ofscienceAstrology :– Paranormal, metaphysical craft, which pretends to predict the future. Zodiac signs comeunder this category.– Astrology is the attempt to predict the future. It is a branch of magic because it attemptsto predict the future. The Prophet (ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said in a hadīth in AbuDāwūd: “Whoever learns a branch of astrology has learned a branch of magic. The moreyou increase, *meaning astrology+ the more you shall increase *meaning magic+.”Astrology vs. Astronomy
  21. 21. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said:Those who go to fortunetellers fall into three categories:– 1 – The one who goes to a fortuneteller and asks him things without believing in what he says.This is haraam, and the punishment of the one who does that is that his prayers are notaccepted for forty days, as it is narrated in Saheeh Muslim (2230), that the Prophet (peace andblessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever goes to a fortuneteller and asks him aboutsomething, his prayer will not be accepted for forty days.”– 2 – When a person goes to a fortuneteller and asks him about something and believes what hesays. This is disbelief in Allaah (kufr), because he is believing the fortuneteller’s claim to haveknowledge of the unseen, and believing a human’s being claim to have knowledge of theunseen constitutes disbelief in the verse in which Allaah says : “Say: None in the heavens andthe earth knows the Ghayb (Unseen) except Allaah” *al-Naml 27:65].– Hence it says in the saheeh hadeeth: “Whoever goes to a fortuneteller and believes what hesays has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaahbe upon him).”– 3 – When he goes to a fortuneteller and asks him questions so that he can explain to thepeople what he is really doing, which is deceiving people and leading them astray. There isnothing wrong with this. The evidence for that is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessingsof Allaah be upon him) went to Ibn Sayyaad. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah beupon him) though of something to himself. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah beupon him) asked him what he was thinking of and he said, “Al-dukh” meaning al-dukhaan(smoke). End quote. Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 2/184Astrology vs. Astronomy
  22. 22. • State of any being worshipped besides Allāh– Allāh (SW) describes them as being created themselves:• “...And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not evena Qitmīr. If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call, and ifthey were to hear, they could not grant it to you. And on the Day ofResurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none caninform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.” - Sūrah Fātir 35:13-14• True Worshippers of Allāh• “Those whom they call upon *like ‘Īsa, angels, etc.] desire (for themselves)a means of access to their Lord, as to which of them shall be the nearest,and they hope for His Mercy and fear His Torment. Verily, the Torment ofyour Lord is something to be afraid of!” - Sūrah al-Isrā’ 17:57• Description of the Prophet Muḥammad (saw)• Say: ‘I possess no power of benefit or hurt to myself except as Allāh wills. IfI had the knowledge of the ghayb, I should have secured for myself anabundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but awarner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe.’” - Sūrah al-A‘rāf 7:187-188Exalting the Status of Saints
  23. 23. • Intercession - Asking an intermediary to plead one’s request in front of another.• Worldly Shafa’ah:(Allowed with Condition)– Sahih International: Whoever intercedes for a good cause will have a rewardtherefrom; and whoever intercedes for an evil cause will have a burdentherefrom. And ever is Allah, over all things, a Keeper. [Surah An-Nisa 4 : 85]– Example :: Someone intercedes for you when apply for job• Religious:– Sahih International: Say, "To Allah belongs [the right to allow] intercessionentirely. To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. Then toHim you will be returned." [Surah az-Zumar 39 :: 44]• For any intercession to be accepted by Allāh• 1. Allāh must allow the intercessor permission to intercede.– Allāh must allow the intercessor to intercede.• 2. Allāh must be pleased with the person on whose behalf intercession issought.– Allāh must be pleased with person asking someone to do shafā‘ah.Intercession: Its Meaning & Types
  24. 24. • - General for all creation (as long as previous two conditions are met):• 1. Raise their ranks in Paradise– The most common type of shafā‘ah which will be given to every single Muslimis to raise the ranks of loved ones up to their level in Jannah. “Them and theirchildren…” Ḥadīth: “A person is with whom he loves.”• 2. Saved from Fire of Hell before entering it– This is given to many people but not everyone. This is the quota of the shahīdand the Hāfiẓ and others. This is an honor. Many will get it, but not everyone. Itis a prestige; therefore, it is a badge of honor that Allāh will bless millions ofpeople with. They will be given a quota to save some people, and it is up toAllāh to accept.• 3. Removed from Fire after having entered it, before their time is completed– Someone may deserve to go to Jahannam, and somebody in Jannah asks Allāhto forgive him, and Allāh forgives him for a Wisdom known to Him. Allāh givesthis to whomever He chooses.Types of Religious Intercession
  25. 25. • Specific for Prophet– 1. Intercession to start the Reckoning on the Day of Judgment– 2. Intercession on behalf of his entire ummah to enter Paradise– 3. Intercession to open the gates of Paradise• Best Way to Receive Intercession– Abu Hurayrah (ra) asked the Prophet (saw), “Oh Messenger of Allāh, who hasthe right to receive your shafā‘ah the most?” The Prophet (saw) said, “The onewho says lā ilāha illa Allāh sincerely from his heart.” *sahih Muslim] This meansthat the person perfects tawhīd.Intercession
  26. 26. • Definition:– The word wasilah only occurs once in the Qurʾānand comes from wasala,which means ‘to bring you closer.’ Wasilah is a means that brings you closer tothe end result.• Linguistic: That which brings you closer to another object• In Islāmic Sciences:– General - each & every good deed that brings you closer to Allāh– Specific - ways to increase the chance of du‘a being acceptedTawassul
  27. 27. • 1. With Allāh’s Names and Attributes:• Sūrah Al-‘Arāf v. 180: “To Me belong the Most Beautiful Names so make du‘ā using thoseNames.”• 2. With one’s state, past and present (Du‘ā of Zakariyyah):• Using our own pitiful state is another wasilah. Sūrah Maryam v. 4: Zakariyyah said, “Oh myLord, my bones have grown feeble and weak and my hair is sprouting white, have pity on me. Ineed a child.”• In Sūrah Al-Qasas v. 24: Mūsa in the valley of Midian said, “Oh Allāh, I am a faqīr to You.” This istawassul through your state. You are allowed to do this.• 3. With one’s good deeds• The Qurʾānsays in more than 5 verses: Rabbanā innanā āmannā faghfirlanā. “Oh Allāh we havebelieved, therefore forgive us.”• Ḥadīth in Sahih Bukhārī: The three people who were trapped in a cave by a rock each used onegood deed to open the rock. The first described his honesty, the second described his goodnessto his parents, and the third described his chastity.• This is another reason to continue to do good deeds. “Oh Allāh if I did this *…+ for YourSake, please give me this and this.”• 4. With the du‘ā of a living person:• It is permissible to ask people to make du‘ā for you. Abu Hurayrah (ra) asked the Prophet (saw)to make du‘ā that his mother become a Muslim.Types of Tawassul
  28. 28. • Obligatory:– 1. By following his Sunnah– 2. By loving him– 3. By defending his honor• Innovation: By asking Allāh through his status, body or honor.Tawassul through the Prophet
  29. 29. • 1. The Prophet (saw) prohibited mosques over graves.• 2. Forbade burying the dead inside mosques• 3. Forbade worshipping Allāh at places where shirk occurs or has occurred• 4. Forbade worshipping Allāh at times when shirk occurs• 5. Forbade exaggeration in general• 6. Forbade the Muslims from excessively praising him• 7. Forbade the Companions to stand up in his presence• 8. Forbade image-making• 9. Forbade undertaking a religious journey except to the three places that Islām hasmade sacred.• 11. Forbade the Muslims from imitating the disbelievers• 12. Commanded to level all raised graves• 13. Reminded Muslims regarding the true purpose of visiting graves• 14. Forbade certain phrases which lead to shirk• 15. Prohibited making an oath or swearing by any created objectProtection of Tawhīd
  30. 30. • First Argument– We don’t commit shirk with Allāh; rather, we testify that He is the Rabb, the Lord, etc.And we believe that Muaammad (saw) is His prophet and messenger. But we also realizethat we are sinful people, so we go through these saints and prophets because Allāhloves them, and will grant their requests.• Second Argument– These verses were revealed concerning Idol-worshippers. Are you comparing thissaint, or the Prophet (saw) with these idols?• Third Argument– The mushrikūn actually worshipped these objects, intended to please them. As for me, Ionly go through them to reach Allāh, and I use them as intercessors.• Fourth Argument– These people whom you are using as an example did not testify to lā ilāha illa Allāh orbelieve in the Qur’ān, the Prophet or the Day of Judgment. How can you make Muslimswho perform these acts that you criticize equivalent to the pagans of old?– This is used by the shaykhs of the tarīqas to refute our understandings. They claim thatthere is a huge difference between Abu Jahl and them and that Abu Jahl opposed thereligion and never said lā ilāha illa Allāh. They say that we are Kharijites and extremists.Arguments to Justify Shirk
  31. 31. • Pray to Allāh at a grave :: Sunnah / bid‘ah / tabarruk• Travel to a grave. :: bid‘ah• Asking the shaykh to ask Allāh (i.e. by the status / rank of the shaykh)• This is tawassul in Arabic. This type of tawassul is bid‘ah. (It cannot be shirkbecause it is asking Allāh).• Asking the shaykh to ask Allāh– i) At the grave :: bid‘ah– ii) Away from the grave.• Ask the shaykh for your need.Common Types of Deviations that Occur
  32. 32. • Shirk in ulūhiyyah can be divided into 2 categories: major shirk (shirkakbar) and minor shirk (shirk asghar). Only ulūhiyyah is divided into majorand minor, and every other type of shirk is major. Who divided shirk intotwo categories? This derivation is referenced in the Sunnah.• The Prophet (saw) said, “The thing that I fear the most for you is minorshirk.” *sahih Bukhārī]– When he (saw) said this, it clearly indicates that there is somethingcalled major shirk. He (saw) was asked what minor shirk is, and he said,“It is to show off one’s deeds.”Minor Shirk: Definition and Examples
  33. 33. • The differences between major and minor shirk– 1. Major shirk expels a person from Islām.• Major shirk makes a person a non-Muslim. Minor shirk does notexpel you from Islām, and minor shirk is committed by Muslims.Therefore, with this difference in mind, the rest of the differencesfollow.– 2. Major shirk necessitates a person’s eternal punishment in the Fire ofHell– 3. Major shirk nullifies all of a person’s good deeds.• Minor shirk only nullifies the one deed that you did it with. Ifsomeone prayed and wanted to show of his prayer, then thatprayer is null and void. If a person worshipped an idol, all fasting,prayer, charity and other good deeds are nullified.– 4. Major shirk makes it permissible for a Muslim State to take the lifeand property of its practitioner.Minor Shirk: Definition and Examples
  34. 34. • Minor shirk can occur in the heart, tongue, and the limbs– Minor shirk in acts of worship pertaining to the heart• 1. Riyā’: worshipping Allāh, based upon the sunnah, but to impress people.– The Prophet (saw) said, “What I fear the most for my ummah is riyā’.”• 2. Performing a good deed purely for a worldly benefit• 3. Relying on the cause instead of the Creator of the cause• 4. Making something which Allāh has not made a cause into acause (while believing that Allāh is the Rabb)– Minor shirk in statements of the tongue• 1. Swearing by other than Allāh while believing that Allāh is the Rabb.• 2. Equating Allāh with the creation using the conjunctive ‘and’.• 3. Naming created objects with names that go against pure tawhīd– Minor shirk in actions of the limbs• 1. Amulets and charms• 2. Certain types of riyā’Minor Shirk: Definition and Examples
  35. 35. • Some of the summarize the improper perceptions of tawhīd.– Philosophers– Extreme Sūfīs :: Note: Moderate sūfīs do not believe this.– Mu’tazilah– Jabariyyah– Ashā‘irah & MāturidiyyahIncorrect Perceptions of Tawhīd
  36. 36. • ???Conclusion