4. Fisheries in India
Fisheries is divided into three main types:
• Freshwater Fisheries (Inland Fisheries)
• Brakishwater Fisheries
• Marine Fisheries
Inland Fisheries are of two types:
i) Capture Fisheries
ii) Culture Fisheries
5. i) Capture Fisheries: it is mainly concerned
with catching fishes from rivers(Riverine
Fisheries), Reservoir Fisheries, Lakes
(Lacustrine Fisheries), estuaries
ii) Culture Fisheries: it is provided by small
water bodies (tanks, jheels, ponds etc.)
where important culturable fishes are
rared and bred on scientific lines by
constructing Fish Farm.
6. Riverine Fisheries In India
Rivers in India constitute the backbone of
There are 114 major and minor rivers along
with their tributaries.
Combined length: 45,000 km
Catchment area: 720,000 sqkm
7. Principal Riverine fishery resources
1) The Ganges River System
2) The Brahmaputra River System
3) The Indus River System
4) The East Coast River System
5) The West Coast River System
9. The Ganga River System
It is the largest river system in India. It is the
perennial river originating from the Gangotri
near Himalayas, enters the plains at Haridwar
passes through the states of UP, Bihar & West
Bengal & ultimately joins the Bay of Bengal.
The principal tributories are rivers Ramganga,
Gomati, Ghagra, Gandak, Kosi, Yamuna &
Length : 8047 km
Catchment area: 9.71 lakh sq. Km
10. • Phytoplankton: Amphora, Navicula,
Cymbella,Chlorella, Closterium, Denticula,
Spirogyra, Anabaena, Nostoc, Oscilatoria
• Zooplankton: Rotaria, Keratella,
Monostyla, Polyarthra etc.
• Fisheries : major carps, minor carps,
catfishes, cluipeids, murrels, featherbacks,
freshwater eel and prawns.
12. The Brahmaputra River System
This river system originates from glacier mass
near Mansarowar Lake, crosses through Tibet,
Arunachal, Assam & Bangladesh joins the
Ganga at Goalundo & ultimately joins the Bay
of Bengal through Meghna estuary.
Tributaries: Jiodhal, Ranganadi, Phulamari,
Champamali (north side); Dihang, Disang,
Jhanji, Digru, Krishna etc. (south side)
Length : 2900 km
Catchment area: 2 lakh sq. Km
13. • Phytoplankton: Spirogyra, Ulothrix,
Gomphonema, Navicula, Oscillatoria,
• Zooplankton: Brachionus, Cyclops,
Bosmina, Daphnia, Nauplius etc.
• Fisheries : Wallago attu, Labeo rohita,
Minor carps, Hilsa, Tor tor, Labeo gonius,
Mystus menoda, M. bleekeri, Rita rita,
Channa spp., Heteropneustus, fossilis,
Noyopterus spp., Catla catla, Cirrhinus
mrigala, C. reba etc.
14. Major Fishes Of Brahmaputra
Labeo gonius Notopterus notopterus
Puntius sarana Wallago attu
15. The Indus River System
The Indus rises about 100 km North of
Mansarowar & flows NorthWest through Tibet
before entering Kashmir. After flowing about 800
km it turns south through Ladakh range. It enters
Pakistan through Kashmir.
It has five tributories in its left bank, namely:
Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas & Sutlej and
ultimately joins the Arabian Sea.
The fishes found here are of mixed varieties.
such as major carps (Catla, Rohu, and Catfishes)
16. The East Coast River System
It constitutes of four major rivers :
Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna & Kaveri.
The East Coast rivers ultimately joins the Bay of
Main fishes of Godavari river are: 1465 km (length),
315,980 sq. Km (catchment area)
Catla catla Channa striatus
17. Main fishes of Krishna river are :1401km
(length), 233,229 sq. Km (catchment area)
Main fishes of Cauveri river are : 800 km
(length), 4,70000 sq. Km (catchment area)
Tor putitora Barbus dubias
Mystus seenghala Hilsa ilisha
18. The Peninsular River System
The Western Coast river system is also known
as Peninsular river system. It has two imp.
Rivers, namely: Narmada & Tapi.
The Narmada originates in the Amarkantak
Hills, M.P & terminates in the Gulf of Cambay
after crossing Gujarat state.The catchment area
is about 94,235 sq.km.
The Tapi river has its origin in Mount Vindhya
crosses through M.P, Maharashtra & Gujarat &
ultimately joins the Arabian Sea. The
catchment area is about 48,000 sq.km.
19. Major Fishes Of Peninsular
Main fishes of Narmada river are:
Notopterus notopterus Labeo calbasu
Main fishes of Tapi river are:
Mystus seenghala Tor tor
GANGA 8047 96.6 m ha 265 Sp; Schizothorax sp,
fishes(siluridae), Labeo sp,
Feather backs etc Gangetic
Major carps inlower stretches
4027 5,80,000 126 sp; Tor sp, chocolate
mahseer, Bagarius sp:,
catfishes, major carps, Hilsa
Middle – catfishes dominates
INDUS --- ---- JHELUM - commercial fishery
Brown trout, common carps,
loaches, Labeo dero etc
21. EAST COAST
SIMILAR TO GANGA. Hilsa
at lower reaches
Carps, Large Cat fishes,
Dam construction affect
Tor sp: and cat fishes
Mahseer, Labeo sp, Wallago
attu, Channa sp etc
Mahseer, Labeo kalbasu,
Mystus sp, Wallago attu.
22. Crafts and gears
• Shallow waters
Nets: trap and cast nets
• Deep waters
Seines, drag nets, gill nets, drift net, dip net,
bag nets, fixed trap nets, hooks and lines.
24. RESERVOIR FISHERIES
• Reservoir is a natural or artificial place where water is
collected and stored for use, especially for supplying a
community, irrigating land, furnishing power etc.
• Cover more than 1% of the country’s land surface. Total
area : 31.5 lakh ha
• Yield : 20 kg/ha/yr
• Majorly used for Power generation, irrigation, flood
• Fishery is considered as bye product.
• Major reservoir of India:
Beas dam, Pong dam, Pandoh dam, Gandhi sagar,
Hirakund, Rana partap sagar.
27. TYPES AREA (ha) NUMBER
LARGE > 5000 56
MEDIUM 1000 – 5000 180
SMALL <1000 19134
Hirakud Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the country
with an area of 74592 ha .
Peninsular states account for more than 56 % of the
total area . 94% of the small and 34% of the reservoirs
T N has the maximum number of reservoirs (8906)
Karnataka(4679) and A P (2937)
Present fish production from reservoirs is estimated at
0.94 lakh t
Small reservoirs contribute the catches(74%)followed
by the large (19%)medium(7%)
Average fish production of large and medium reservoirs is
13kg/ha(11- 15kg/ha) and that of small reservoirs is
28. • Lentic water bodies and temperate
reservoirs develop thermal stratification due
to which reservoir has different fishery than
river and natural lakes.
• Local fishes as well as exotic fishes.
• Catla catla, Labeo rohita, L. calbasu, and
• Cyprinus carpio spp.
• Reservoirs support natural hybridisation
which leads to production of intergeneric
• Gears used in reservoir fisheries:
34. ESTUARINE FISHERIES
• Estuaries are the water passages where
the river currents mix with the tides.
• Shallow, well oxygenated , temperature
varies with depth and season.
• More productive than river and sea.
• Serve as nursery grounds for juveniles
because conditions are conductive to rapid
35. Open estuarine fishery
•Ex: Mogul parsia,
•Migrate from sea
to fresh water
rivers to spawn.
•Ex: Hilsa ilisha,
fresh water to sea
38. Healthy estuaries can provide many different values
and perform many important functions.
Production of biomass
39. MARINE FISHERIES
Marine Fisheries:-The marine fisheries deal
with the fishing activities in the oceans and
Indian coast 4667 km. (Main Land)
Continental shelf 259 lakh sq. km.
West coast is more productive than east