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Notes yb lab 3 and lab 4 heat energy on the move and its just a phase

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These notes are for Heat and Thermal Energy Labs (Formerly the Yellow LabGuide)

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Notes yb lab 3 and lab 4 heat energy on the move and its just a phase

  1. 1. InvestigatingHeat and Temperature
  2. 2. Lab Stations:Lab Stations: Lab 3: “Energy on the Move”Pages 23 - 42 Lab 4: “It’s Just a Phase”Pages 43 - 55
  3. 3. Energy on the Move:Energy on the Move:Investigating Energy TransferInvestigating Energy Transfer
  4. 4. Objectives:Objectives: The student will: Compare and Contrast thetransfer of energy byconduction, convection andradiation while providing andexplaining common examples ofeach
  5. 5. Objectives:Objectives: Investigate and understandpractical and technologicalapplications of thermal energy Explain how a coiled thermostatworks
  6. 6. Key Terms:Key Terms: Thermal Conductor Thermal Insulator
  7. 7. Thermal Conductor Any substance thatconducts, absorbsenergy andincreasestemperaturequickly allowingthermal energy tocollect and passthrough it
  8. 8. Thermal Insulator Any substancethat does not allowthe transfer ofthermal energy orimpedes thermalenergy transfer
  9. 9. Essential Learnings Materials that allow energy tomove through them are calledthermal conductors Metals generally conduct thermalenergy well but at different rates Depending on the metal’s density
  10. 10. Essential Learnings Convection is the transfer ofthermal energy within fluids andgases (air is considered a fluid forthis purpose) by the movement ofmolecules from place to place. Molecules carry the energy withthem
  11. 11. Essential Learnings The circular motion of fluids(related to temperature) due todensity differences is known asconvection currents
  12. 12. Essential Learnings Radiation is the transmission ofenergy in the form ofelectromagnetic waves Radiation travels in transversewaves This type of energy does notrequire matter to transfer
  13. 13. P4P4It’s Just a Phase:It’s Just a Phase:Investigating Phase ChangesInvestigating Phase Changes
  14. 14. Objectives The student will illustrateand explain the results ofthe addition andsubtraction of thermalenergy on the motion ofmolecules
  15. 15. Objectives The student will: Create and examine atemperature graph of phasechangesLabel each phase changeDetermine Freezing, melting,condensation and boilingpoints from a graph
  16. 16. Key Terms:Key Terms: Phase Change Freezing Point Melting Point Boiling Point Vaporization Condensation
  17. 17. Phase Change When mattertransforms from asolid to a liquid orto a gas Ice  Water Water Vapor
  18. 18. Freezing Point The temperatureor point when aliquid becomes asolid Water  Ice
  19. 19. Melting Point The temperatureor point when asolid substanceturns into aliquid Ice  water
  20. 20. Freezing & Melting Melting andFreezingpoints areactually thesametemperature!
  21. 21. Boiling Point The maximumtemperature atwhich a liquid canremain in liquidform beforeturning to vaporor gas
  22. 22. Vaporization When a liquidbecomes a gas Water  Steam(water vapor)
  23. 23. Condensation Point The temperatureor point whenvapor becomes aliquid Vapor  Cloud rain
  24. 24. Boiling & Condensation Boiling andCondensationpoints areactually thesametemperature!
  25. 25. Essential Learnings: Vaporization is the change ofstate from liquid to gas Condensation is the change ofstate from gas to liquid Both processes take place at theboiling point of a substance
  26. 26. Essential Learnings: The melting/freezing point andboiling/condensing point for a puresubstance are characteristicproperties Pure water melts/freezes at 0oC, and itboils/vaporizes at 100oC at 1 atmosphereair pressure (sea level)Higher above sea level
  27. 27. Essential Learnings: As thermal energy is added to asystem the temperature does notalways increaseTemperature will not increase duringa phase change This is because the energy is needed tobreak down the physical forces that bondthe molecules to one another
  28. 28. Essential Learnings: Phase changes are indicated by ahorizontal or flat line with no slope,called a plateau Water has two plateaus duringheatingOne at freezing(melting point)One at vaporization (boiling point)
  29. 29. Essential Learnings: All solids are “Frozen” Freezing is not necessarily “cold’ The freezing point is the temperature atwhich a liquid becomes a solid For a pure substance freezing point is acharacteristic property and isindependent of the amount of thesubstance
  30. 30. Essential Learnings: A substances’ cooling graph shows aplateau at condensation point and thefreezing point The temperature will remain constantduring the entire phase change After the phase change coolingcontinues until thermal equilibrium isreached