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Biometric Techniques
MIA02108
Introduction to Biometric
Technologies and Applications
(Lecture 1-2)
1
What are Biometrics?
• ƒThe term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek
words bio (life) and metric (to measure).
ƒ
• For ...
What are Biometrics?
“A biometric is a physiological or behavioral
characteristic of a human being that can
distinguish on...
Biometrics as Authentication
Authentication depends on
• Something you know, like a password or pass
phase
• Something you...
Something you know
• Passwords
• Pass phrases
• PINs
• Secret handshakes
5
Something you know
• Strong Passwords
1. Min. 8 characters
2. Include upper and lower cases
3. Contain numeric and non num...
Something you have
• Anything that is unique and that the user is
required to possess can be used as an
authenticating tok...
Something you have
• Token fall into two general categories:
1. Storage tokens
2. Dynamic tokens
8
Something you have
• Storage tokens: Token + Password
a) Smart cards
b) Unique information stored on the token that
identi...
Something you have
• Dynamic tokens: Token + Password + One
time authentication code
a) Storage token + One time authentic...
Something you are
• Any physical trait that can be reliably measured
can be used to authenticate and is called a
biometric...
Problems with current security systems
• Based on Passwords, or ID/Swipe cards
• Can be Lost.
• Can be forgotten.
• Can be...
Problems with current security systems
• With increasing use of IT technology and need to
protect data, we have multiple
a...
Some statistics on User/Passwords
• Case Study: Telesis Community Credit
Union(CA), a California based financial
services ...
Some statistics on User/Passwords
• In fact within 30 seconds the team was able to
identify 80% of people’s passwords!
• T...
• Traditional means of automatic
identification (before biometrics)
– Knowledge-based
• Use “something that you know”
• Ex...
• Problems with traditional approaches
– Token may be lost, stolen or forgotten
– PIN may be forgotten or guessed by the i...
Frauds in industry happens in the
following situations:
• Bank transaction like ATM withdrawals
• Access to computers and ...
• MANY PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT
SECURITY AUTHENTICATION
SYSTEMS.
• ANSWER: USE BIOMETRIC
TECHNOLOGY
• SSO (Single-Sign-On)
19
Some Examples of Different Biometrics
• Face
• Fingerprint
• Voice
• Iris
• Hand Geometry
• Retina Scan
• Signatures
• Key...
• Requirements for an ideal biometric
– Universality
• Each person should have the characteristic
– Uniqueness
• No two pe...
• Issues in a real biometric system
– Performance
• Identification accuracy, speed, robustness, resource
requirements
– Ac...
• “Physiological and/or behavioral characteristics”
1. Behavioral:
– User speaks.
– Types on a keyboard.
– Signs name.
2. ...
Key factor of Biometric System
• Enrollment
• Template
• Biometric algorithm
• Live template
• Verification
1. FAR (False ...
Enrollment
• In a biometric system, a physical trait needs to
be recorded.
• Recording is referred to as an enrollment.
• ...
Template
• Digital representation of a physical trait.
• Long string of alphanumeric characters, based
on a biometric algo...
Biometric algorithm
• The biometric algorithm can be viewed as the
recipe for turning raw ingredients- like a
physical tra...
Live template and verification
• Live template and stored template are
compared, the system calculates how closely
they ma...
• “Determine or Authenticate identity”
 Identification Systems:
– Who am I?
– Determine Identity
 Verification Systems:
...
• “Determine or authenticate identity”
 Verification Systems (cont):
– More accurate.
– Less expensive.
– Faster.
– More ...
 Benefits:
– Security
• PC, Network, Web
• Physical access to Buildings/Rooms
– Accountability
• Audit Trails
• Recordkee...
Books
• Biometrics for Network Security, Pearson,
Paul Reid
• Biometrics, McGraw Hill, John D. Woodward,
and Nicholos M. O...
Thank You
33
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Basic of Biometrics Technology

  1. 1. Biometric Techniques MIA02108 Introduction to Biometric Technologies and Applications (Lecture 1-2) 1
  2. 2. What are Biometrics? • ƒThe term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). ƒ • For our use, biometrics refers to technologies for measuring and analyzing a person's physiological or behavioral characteristics. • These characteristics are unique to individuals hence can be used to verify or identify a person. 2
  3. 3. What are Biometrics? “A biometric is a physiological or behavioral characteristic of a human being that can distinguish one person from another and that theoretically can be used for identification or verification of identity.” 3
  4. 4. Biometrics as Authentication Authentication depends on • Something you know, like a password or pass phase • Something you have, like a token • Something you ARE, a measurable trait Know HaveBe 4
  5. 5. Something you know • Passwords • Pass phrases • PINs • Secret handshakes 5
  6. 6. Something you know • Strong Passwords 1. Min. 8 characters 2. Include upper and lower cases 3. Contain numeric and non numeric characters. 4. Used for certain time period 5. Cannot contain a substring of the user name. • Weak Passwords • As user convenience increases, the strength of authentication decreases. 6
  7. 7. Something you have • Anything that is unique and that the user is required to possess can be used as an authenticating token. • A token is generally issued to one user. It is used with a password, PIN and user ID. • If it has been lost or stolen, and if the user ID presented with it matches, the user is authenticated. 7
  8. 8. Something you have • Token fall into two general categories: 1. Storage tokens 2. Dynamic tokens 8
  9. 9. Something you have • Storage tokens: Token + Password a) Smart cards b) Unique information stored on the token that identifies the processor. c) Multi-factor authentication d) Still has the weakness of passwords e) Example: ATM card, and Employee ID card etc. 9
  10. 10. Something you have • Dynamic tokens: Token + Password + One time authentication code a) Storage token + One time authentication code b) Strong authentication c) But this is inconvenient for the user. d) Example: Smart cards 10
  11. 11. Something you are • Any physical trait that can be reliably measured can be used to authenticate and is called a biometric. • A biometric is a physical or psychological trait that can be measured, recorded, and quantified. • By doing this, we can use that trait to obtain a biometric enrollment. • This way, we can say with a degree of certainty that someone is the same person in future biometric authentication based on their previous enrollment authentications. 11
  12. 12. Problems with current security systems • Based on Passwords, or ID/Swipe cards • Can be Lost. • Can be forgotten. • Can be stolen and used by a thief/intruder to access your data, bank accounts, car etc. 12
  13. 13. Problems with current security systems • With increasing use of IT technology and need to protect data, we have multiple accounts/passwords. • We can only remember so many passwords, so we end up using things we know to create them (birthdays, wife/mother name, dog, cat) • Its is easy to crack passwords, because most of our passwords are weak! • If we create strong passwords (that should be meaningless to us) we will forget them! And there is no way to remember multiple such passwords. 13
  14. 14. Some statistics on User/Passwords • Case Study: Telesis Community Credit Union(CA), a California based financial services provider that manages $1.2 billion in assets. • The VP of IT, lead a team to run a network password cracker as part of an enterprise security audit last year to see if employees were following Telesis’ password policies. • Result: They were far from doing so. 14
  15. 15. Some statistics on User/Passwords • In fact within 30 seconds the team was able to identify 80% of people’s passwords! • The team asked employees to change their passwords and comply with password policies. • A few days later, the IT team run their password cracking exercise again. • This time they still were able to crack 70% of the passwords! 15
  16. 16. • Traditional means of automatic identification (before biometrics) – Knowledge-based • Use “something that you know” • Examples: password, PIN – Token-based • Use “something that you have” • Examples: credit card, smart card, keys 16
  17. 17. • Problems with traditional approaches – Token may be lost, stolen or forgotten – PIN may be forgotten or guessed by the imposters • (25% of people seem to write their PIN on their ATM card) • Estimates of annual identity fraud damages per year: – $1 billion in welfare disbursements – $1 billion in credit card transactions – $1 billion in fraudulent cellular phone use – $3 billion in ATM withdrawals 17
  18. 18. Frauds in industry happens in the following situations: • Bank transaction like ATM withdrawals • Access to computers and emails • Credit Card purchase • Purchase of house, car, clothes or jewellery • Getting official documents like birth certificates or passports • Obtaining court papers • Drivers licence • Getting into confidential workplace 18
  19. 19. • MANY PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT SECURITY AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS. • ANSWER: USE BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY • SSO (Single-Sign-On) 19
  20. 20. Some Examples of Different Biometrics • Face • Fingerprint • Voice • Iris • Hand Geometry • Retina Scan • Signatures • Keystroke scan • DNA 20
  21. 21. • Requirements for an ideal biometric – Universality • Each person should have the characteristic – Uniqueness • No two persons should be the same in terms of the characteristic – Permanence • The characteristic should not change 21
  22. 22. • Issues in a real biometric system – Performance • Identification accuracy, speed, robustness, resource requirements – Acceptability • Extend to which people are willing to accept a particular biometric identifier – Faked protection • How easy is it to fool the system by fraudulent methods 22
  23. 23. • “Physiological and/or behavioral characteristics” 1. Behavioral: – User speaks. – Types on a keyboard. – Signs name. 2. Physiological: – Fingerprint – Hand – Eyes – Face 23
  24. 24. Key factor of Biometric System • Enrollment • Template • Biometric algorithm • Live template • Verification 1. FAR (False acceptance rate) 2. FRR (False rejection rate) 24
  25. 25. Enrollment • In a biometric system, a physical trait needs to be recorded. • Recording is referred to as an enrollment. • Enrollment based on the creation of a template. 25
  26. 26. Template • Digital representation of a physical trait. • Long string of alphanumeric characters, based on a biometric algorithm, characteristics or features of the physical trait. 26
  27. 27. Biometric algorithm • The biometric algorithm can be viewed as the recipe for turning raw ingredients- like a physical trait- into a digital representation in the form of a template. • The algorithm will also allow the matching of an enrolled template with a new template just created for verifying an identity, called a live template. 27
  28. 28. Live template and verification • Live template and stored template are compared, the system calculates how closely they match. • If the match is close enough, a person will be verified. • FAR: Someone else is trying to verify you • FRR: You fail to match against your own template 28
  29. 29. • “Determine or Authenticate identity”  Identification Systems: – Who am I? – Determine Identity  Verification Systems: – Am I who I claim to be? – Authenticate Identity 29
  30. 30. • “Determine or authenticate identity”  Verification Systems (cont): – More accurate. – Less expensive. – Faster. – More limited in function. – Requires more effort by user. 30
  31. 31.  Benefits: – Security • PC, Network, Web • Physical access to Buildings/Rooms – Accountability • Audit Trails • Recordkeeping – Convenience – Savings 31
  32. 32. Books • Biometrics for Network Security, Pearson, Paul Reid • Biometrics, McGraw Hill, John D. Woodward, and Nicholos M. Orlans 32
  33. 33. Thank You 33
  • ashwinimali3

    Sep. 30, 2016

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