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Teaching method

  1. Presented by- Mr. Abhishek Jain M.sc. Nursing –Pediatric Nursing Principal MTCN
  2. Teaching- Learning MeThods Teaching Methods Refers to the orderly, logical course of action to accomplish a particular educational goal.
  3. Guideline for the selection of Teaching Method Method should be suited to objective and contents of the subject matter Method should suit the level of the student. Method should be used creatively Method should suit teachers style. Method should address the challenge. Selection should consider available resources.
  4. Abhishek Jain M.sc. Nursing –Pediatric Nursing Principal MTCN
  5. A lecture is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject.
  6. Types of Lecture A. Traditional oral essay  The teacher is an orator and the only speaker. B. Participatory Lecture  begins with learners brainstorming ideas on the lecture topic on what they have read in preparation.
  7. C. Feedback Lecture  Consists with mini lectures with 10-minute small group discussion  opportunity to manipulate the lecture content D. Mediated Lecture  Use of media such as films, slides, Web- based images along with traditional lecture.
  8. Component of Lecture Method 1. Introduction of Lecture: Starting with idea taking 2. The Body Of Lecture: Content matter 3.Conclusion: Feedback with question- Answer
  9. Purposes of Lecturing Lectures can be an efficient means of introducing learners a new topic. It can be used to stimulate students’ interest in a subject. It can also be used to inspire people. To integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge. (Parker, 1993) “The lecture is valuable where knowledge is advancing and up-to-date textbooks are not available.” (Jones,1990)
  10. Advantages of the Lecture Method 1. It is economical in terms of student time.  A great deal of information can be communicated in a one hour lecture.  More pertinent information can be taught to a student. 2. The lecturer can supplement a textbook by enhancing a topic and making it come to life.
  11. 3. The teacher serves as a role model for students. 4. Lectures bring enjoyment to the learners. 5. It helps students develop their listening skills.
  12. Disadvantages of the Lecture Method 1. It lends itself to the teaching of the facts while placing little emphasis on problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking, or transfer of learning. (Black. 1993) 2. Lecturing is not conducive to meeting students’ individual needs. 3. Lecturing brings with it the problem of limited attention span on the part of the learners.
  13. Delivering the Lecture 1. Control your anxiety.  An effective control mechanism is imaging. 2. Spontaneity  Avoid reading to the class.  Do not write your lecture out in full sentences.  Rehearse the delivery at home.
  14. 3. Voice quality Beware of lecturing in monotone. 4. Body language Do not stand glued to the podium. Use your hand for emphasis but not too much. Be aware of your body language. Maintain eye contact.
  15. 4. Speed of delivery Affects both the learner’s comprehension and enjoyment of the material. 5. Getting of the right foot Casual conversation for a minute to establish rapport Give an opening “attention getter”
  16. What is Demonstration? Demonstration is ‘an act of showing something by giving proof or evidence’ ‘an instance of some body showing and explaining how something works or is done’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)
  17. What is Demonstration Method? Demonstration method is a visual approach to examining information, ideas and processes. It is a teaching method that allows students to see the teacher actively engaged as a learner and a model rather than merely telling them what they need to know.
  18. Types of Demonstration 1. Pure Demonstration - Purely visual method of instruction 2. Demonstration with commentary - Harmonious blend of visual and verbal modes of instruction 3. Participative Demonstration - Allows students to attempt either to replicate all or parts of demonstrations
  19. Steps to carry out effective Demonstrations 1. Carefully plan the demonstration 2. Practice the demonstration 3. Develop an outline to guide the demonstration 4. Make sure everyone can see the demonstration 5. Introduce the demonstration to focus attention 6. Ask and encourage questions 7. Plan a follow up to the demonstration
  20. Component of Demonstration Before Demonstration- Planning During Demonstration- Action After Demonstration- Feedback
  21. Advantages 1. This method of teaching serves as model laboratory instruction. 2. Experiment shown as demonstration points out this matter of observation and indicates this inference. 3. It makes the pupils familiar with the nature and use of apparatus. 4. Experiments requiring special skill will merely be shown by the teacher. In this method no time is wasted. 5. Teacher's time is properly utilized in watching the students doing experiments. 6. While doing practical, there remains no necessity for explaining except educating precautions. 7. This method proves more useful if the pupils are told beforehand that they are going to do practical in the laboratory.
  22. Disadvantages 1. There is danger of students being dishonest when teacher has to play the main role in the discussion and demonstration of the topic. 2. Teachers may be tempted to lecture rather than to teach. 3. Teachers do not try for more experiments than those given in the text book prescribed. 4. Oral discussion may not be encouraged, since it will go to restrict the demonstration experiment. 5. Practical as required may not go hand in hand with demonstration work.
  23. Abhishek Jain-M.sc(N)
  24. Introduction Exchange of ideas between several people is the best process of learning and teaching from one another. In the classroom environment ,discussion is the best way of promoting conducive learning and convenient teaching situation. It refers to the method of instruction which give pupils an opportunity to express their views or opinions orally on certain issues.
  25. One person speaks at a time,while others are listen. It doesn't always involve the presentation of new information and concepts. It also invoves sharing of ideas and experiences ,solving problems and promoting tolerance with understanding.
  26. Purposes and Advantages of Discussion Method 1. Give learners an opportunity to apply principle, concepts, and theories. 2. Clarification of information and concepts 3. Students can learn process of group problem solving. 4. Attitudes can be changed through discussion.
  27. Disadvantages of the Discussion Method  It takes a lot of time.  It is effective only to a small group.  One person or a few people monopolized the discussion.
  28. Discussion Techniques 1. Make your expectations clear. 2. Set the ground rules. 3. Arrange the physical space. 4. Plan a discussion starter. 5. Facilitate, don’t discuss. 6. Encourage quiet group members. 7. Don’t allow monopolies. 8. Direct the discussion among members. 9. Keep the discussion on track. 10. Clarify when confusion reigns. 11. Tolerate some silence. 12. Summarize when appropriate
  29. The seminar method is the most modern and advanced method of teaching. A seminar is an advanced group technique which is usually used in higher education. It is an instructional technique it involves generating a situation for a group to have a guided interaction among themselves on a theme. It refers to a structured group discussion what usually follows a formal lecture or lectures often in the form of an essay or a paper presentation on a theme.
  30. (Basic Principles) to be included in the seminar: This seminar method depends with the lingual, social and emotional instances and its maturity level.  The complex and undefined concept or article must be read and discussed for the meaningful learning experiences and new concept. The value and success of the seminar depends on the path of the learner and their learning experiences through the discussion. Both the group and learner can transform their ideas and to derive a new conclusion also be anticipated.
  31.  In the lower level of learning experiences the concepts are explanatory but in this higher level of learning experience the theme or concept centered and need more evidences and explanations through the discussion.  The interactions in this method develop observation and questioning skills, evaluation skills using their own learning experience.
  32. Advantages and special features of Seminar Method. This seminar method gives good motivation and learning experience.  Help to evaluate the learn-ability of learners.  Regulate the creating and organizing of facts and information.  Develop the self reliance and self confidence.  Students’ interaction is possible in participation and production of teaching learning process.  Traditional monotony is abolished in this method.
  33. Ensures the understandability and enhances the capability of the students learning.  Seminar is always subject / theme specific, so that sufficient knowledge about the concerned subject can be developed.  The presenter or the reader of the article can get further clarifications in his subject.  Develop the questioning skills. The student receives good information from his teacher and the fellow students.
  34. Types of Seminar Mini seminar : Its coverage and scope are small and simple. Major seminar : The seminar conducted at an institutional or departmental level for a specific topic or subject National seminar : academic or professional interest or an organization (Government, Firm, etc.,) conducts the seminar at National level International seminar : Usually the seminar conducted by an international organization or agency
  35. Seminar Committee: 1. Chairperson or President / Convenor of Seminar Naturally, S/he may be the apex person of the Institution / Department / Government / Firm / Policy maker of the concerned body or agency. 2. Organizing Secretary of Seminar Usually he is nominated by the Chair person or President of the Seminar committee. S/he must be a good administrator and subject expert in the field proposed theme of the seminar. 3. Chairperson of the Technical Session of seminar S/he must be the person with expertise in the theme proposed for the seminar. S/he would have a good experience to perform all the activities of technical session which is vital to the seminar.
  36. 4. Speaker of Seminar: S/he is the active participant of seminar presenting his / her paper among the other participants in the presence of Chair Person of Technical session of seminar. 5. Participants / Paper presenters of seminar The people who are presenting papers and observing the paper presentation by participating in the seminar are termed as Paper presenters and Participants of the seminar.
  37. Steps involved in Seminar: The seminar is a process which allows the persons to discuss a theme in a peer group with subject experts in an objective method. The steps of the seminar method are classified in to following three steps: - Before seminar (pre seminar phase) - At the course of seminar (seminar phase) - After the seminar (post seminar phase)
  38. Limitations of Seminar method Setting up of a seminar for every topic in the Text is not feasible.  The subject area to be taught must be relevant to the theme of the seminar.  The seminar themes must conform the learning experiences to be inculcated to the students.  This method found fit for higher learning only.  Implementation of this method for lower classes is boring.  Only matured and balanced minded teachers can make this method successful.  The teacher must be resourceful (both in academic and administrative) in nature.  Time management is some what difficult.
  39. Seminar method – An example. Topic in the Text book to be taught under seminar method: Water Pollution & its Preventive measures and awareness to public.  Teacher discusses about the topic of seminar and selects the organizing secretary for the Seminar. The organizing secretary prepares a panel of subject experts with the help of teacher. With the advice of Head master, organizing secretary and the teacher form a committee and select the Chair person for Technical Session and Speakers.  The organizing secretary classifies the seminar theme into sub-themes which are relevant with the learning experiences with the help of teacher and selected eminent students.  The organizing secretary prepares a circular for information about the Seminar theme and its sub-themes, Venue, Time, requirements etc.
  40. A sample circular: Dear Student Teacher I am pleased to furnish below the details of the Seminar on Water Pollution & its Preventive measures and awareness to public' to be held on Nov 14th, 2014, at Gothava. Your active participation is highly solicited and get the benefit of this event. I also request you to kindly share information regarding the Seminar with your friends of the academic circle. Kindly refer the circular enclosed for further information. [Abhishek Jain] Organizing Secretary
  42. Panel of IPL
  43. Introduction Panel Discussion An orderly and logical conversation on a given topic by 4 or more experts in the presence of a moderator, in front of an audience. Topic is discussed from many angles But not all aspects of the topic are covered Moderator should keep it logical and balanced Audience is passive, except ‘panel-forum’ A discussion in which few persons ( panel) carry on a conversation in front of the audience.
  44. Large group Benefit of small discussion group for large Different point view Free exchange of opinion Not to solve a problem Clarify thinking Respect others opinion
  45. Parts Chairman/ moderator Members of the panel/ panelists Audience
  46. Panel:  Panel 4-8 members Facing the audience Quick thinkers No rehearsal Need individual preparation
  47. Chairman ::  Chairman Neutral referee Sense of fair play Wide mental flexibility Focus on the subject Provide equal opportunity
  48. Audience : Audience Opportunity to ask questions to specific speakers Evaluate replay Make constructive contributions
  49. Process : Introduce the panel by name and experience Announce the topic Limit the discussion in specific areas Start from a comment or a question towards a speaker Occasional summary Encourage different view to express General summary and discussions open to the audience
  50. Types Public panel discussion Educational panel discussion
  51. Public panel discussion These are organized for common men problems. Objectives: To provide factual information regarding current problems To determine social values To recreate the common men E.g. annual budget, educated unemployment , increase in price of things.
  52. EDUCATIONAL PANEL DISCUSSIONS Used in educational institutions to provide factual & conceptual knowledge and clarification of certain theories and principles. Some times these are organized to find out the solutions of certain problems
  53. Objectives To provide factual information and conceptual knowledge To give awareness of theories and principles To provide solution of certain problems
  54. Characteristics of panel discussion: Used in university & college level to organize teaching at reflective level Develops the ability of problem solving Helps to understand nature, problem or theme of discussion Develops ability of presentation of theme and giving their point of view logically. Develops right type of attitude and ability to tolerate anti- ideas of others Helps in creative thinking Develops manners of putting Qn.s & answering them
  55. Advantages Encourages social learning Cognitive and affective objectives are achieved  Problem solving ability and logical thinking Respect to others ideas and feelings Opportunity of assimilation of content Creativity as well as criticism
  56. Limitations Deviation from the theme while discussion Some members dominate Sometimes do not provide a conducive learning environment Time consuming
  58. Introduction Symposium is Series of prepared talks by 2-5 persons with a chair-person, in front of an audience 10-20 minutes each, on different aspects of a topic Audience is passive except when allowed question time, ‘symposium-is Best for presentation of new ideas/ controversial topic. Formal atmosphere / passive audience
  59. Meaning “Conference on a particular topic.” Meeting of persons to discuss a problem or theme . The views on a theme are presented in a sequence , the specific aspect of a theme is presented by an expert of the theme .
  60. Definition  “ A meeting or conference for discussion of a topic, especially one in which the participant from an audience and make presentations”.  “ A collections of writing on a particular topic, as in a magazine” “ A conference organized for the discussion of some particular subject”
  61. Objectives To identify and understand two various aspects of theme and problems To identify the ability to take decision and judgment regarding a problem To develop values and feelings regarding a problem
  62. Principles Primary objectives stated Chairperson competent for his role original presentations are as objective and accurate as possible Always include a summary at the conclusion
  63. Characteristics Broad understanding of the topic or problem  Opportunities are provided to the listeners to take decision about the problem Used for higher classes for specific themes and problems Develops the feeling of cooperation and adjustment  Provides different views
  64. Purposes Investigate a problem from several points of view Makes the students to study independently Boosts the students ability to speak in a group
  65. Technique of symposium Teacher should plan the programme ahead of time Each member of the class , as well as the student speakers should known the Objectives of symposium and breadth of the topic Chairman introduces the topic The topic is presented by the students taking 15- 20 min Conclusion by the chairperson
  66. Advantages It is suited to a large group class Can be used fluently to present broad topics Gives deeper insight into the topic Directs the students for continues independent study Lends itself to the teaching of the clinical subjects This method can be used in the political meetings
  67. Disadvantages Inadequate opportunity for all the students to participate actively The speech is limited to 15-20 minutes Limited audience participation Possibility of overlapping of subjects or information
  68. Field Trips
  69. What is a Field Trip A field trip is defined as any teaching and learning excursion outside of the classroom. There are two types of field trips – Physical and Virtual.
  70. Physical Field Trip Examples school playground, school board outdoor education centres,, protective wet lands, science centres, museums, zoos, fire stations, veterinary clinics, agricultural operations.
  71. Virtual Field Trip Examples Ministry Licensed Software The Digital Field Trip to the Wetlands, Rainforest etc. http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/cti/virt.html website will allow you to visit and explore by subject various educational learning field trips, create your own field trip or visit other virtual field trips that are located across the web. 
  72. Advantages To make a connection between reality and theory. Can be used as an introduction to a unit . To provide an authentic learning experience Exciting, children get to meet and interact with others They can experience all five senses, see, touch, feel, smell, taste Children remember the field trips because they learn using different methodology .
  73. How to Plan and Run a Successful Physical Field Trip Planned and effectively organized Check for school/board policy on field trips Children to supervisor ratios Transportation procedures Fund raising Plan with children as much as possible Involve school principal and vice-principal Ensure field trip compliments the curriculum by meeting specific expectations Ensure students have necessary background knowledge prior to field trip. Be sure to visit the site ahead of time, in order to plan for safety, resources and resource personnel, facility. Plan on route activities to enrich their experience during the field trip. Provide parents with rationalization for the field trip