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Physics sound.pptx

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Physics sound.pptx

  1. 1. B.Ed. Course 205 = 15 PHYSICS Pedagogy of School Subject Dr. Namita S. Sahare Tilak College of Education , Pune India
  2. 2. WAVE INTERACTIONS 205 – 15 : Physics Understanding disciplines and Pedagogy of school subject
  3. 3. Introduction • Sound originates from vibrating or oscillating objects, such as vocal cord in the human throat , the skin of the drum . • The vibrations are then passed through a medium, they strike the ear drum, the ear converts the vibrations into nerve impulses, which pass to brain where they are interpreted as sounds.
  4. 4. Some Definitions • Periodic Motion • Oscillatory or Vibrating Motion • Oscillation • Period of Oscillation(T) • Frequency(n) • Amplitude
  5. 5. Types of Waves • Mechanical Waves: Waves which require material medium for their propagation are mechanical waves. Ex.: Waves over a stretched string, waves on the water surface, sound waves, etc • Electromagnetic Waves: One of the waves that are propagated by simultaneous periodic variations of electric and magnetic field intensity. Ex.: Light Waves, Radio Waves, Xrays, etc
  6. 6. Sensors
  7. 7. Longitudinal Wave wave particles vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels. Compressional Wave
  8. 8. • Compressions The close together part of the wave • Rarefactions The spread-out parts of a wave
  9. 9. Longitudinal Wave • A wave in which particles of medium vibrate in a direction parallel to the direction of propagation of the direction parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave is called Longitudinal wave.
  10. 10. Sound As A Longitudinal Wave Motion • Sound wave are longitudinal wave which can travel through gas, liquid or solid medium. The propagation of sound wave in air can be easily understood by considering the vibrations of tuning fork.
  11. 11. Transverse waves wave particles vibrate in an up-and-down motion.
  12. 12. Transverse waves • Crests Highest part of a wave • Troughs The low points of the wave
  13. 13. Amplitude- is the maximum distance the particles in a wave vibrate from their rest positions. Frequency - the number of waves produced in a given time
  14. 14. Waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Frequency= waves/time
  15. 15. Wave Velocity - is the speed with which a wave crest passes by a particular point in space It is measured in meters/second. Wave Velocity = Frequency  Wavelength
  16. 16. Speed of Sound • Medium velocity m/sec air (20 C) 343 air (0 C) 331 water (25 C) 1493 sea water 1533 diamond 12000 iron 5130 copper 3560 glass 5640
  17. 17. II. Properties of Sound Pitch - description of how high or low the sound seems to a person Loudness- how loud or soft a sound is perceived to be.
  18. 18. Ultrasound - sound waves with frequencies above the normal human range of hearing. Sounds in the range from 20-100kHz Infrasound - sounds with frequencies below the normal human range of hearing. Sounds in the 20-200 Hz range
  19. 19. Interference • the result of two or more sound • waves overlapping
  20. 20. Different sounds that you hear include (A) noise, (B) pure tones, and (C) musical notes.
  21. 21. Standing sine wave patterns of air vibrating in a closed tube. Note the node at the closed end and the antinode at the open end. Only odd multiples of the fundamental are therefore possible.
  22. 22. Standing waves in these open tubes have an antinode at the open end, where air is free to vibrate.
  23. 23. Relation Between Velocity, Wavelength & frequency • Period (T): The time required to complete one vibration by a particle of medium is called period (T) of wave. Each particle of medium vibrates with same period. It’s SI unit is second(s). • Frequency (n): The number of vibrations performed by any particle of medium per second is called frequency (n) of wave. The frequency is related to period as n=1/T. SI unit of frequency is called hertz (Hz). • Wavelength : The distance between two successive particles, which are in same state of motion or in same phase is called wavelength ( ) of wave.
  24. 24. Wavelength • Wavelength ( ): The distance between two successive particles, which are in same state of motion or in same phase is called wavelength ( ) of wave.
  25. 25. Relation Between Velocity, Wavelength and frequency • Velocity (v): The distance covered by the disturbance or a wave per second is called velocity of the wave. In one period (T), the wave covers the distance equal to wavelength( ). Therefore velocity of wave is given by Magnitude of velocity = v = but n = v = n Wave Velocity = Frequency  Wavelength
  26. 26. Doppler Effect is the apparent change in the frequency of a sound caused by the motion of either the listener or the source of the sound.
  27. 27. • Sounds from Moving Sources. – A moving source of sound or a moving observer experiences an apparent shift of frequency called the Doppler Effect. – If the source is moving as fast or faster than the speed of sound, the sound waves pile up into a shock wave called a sonic boom. – A sonic boom sounds very much like the pressure wave from an explosion

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