10 de May de 2017

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  2. ......__NTBPWU3rd TriDr. Ilag (Ecology)Urie Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory.mp4
  3. MESOSYTEM • The Mesosystem refers to those situations  or events in which two Microsystems  come together in some respect. • Mesosystem is an opportunity to build a  bridge between two settings in the child’s  life that might otherwise be unrelated
  4. • this layer provides the connection between  the structures of the child’s microsystem • Examples: the connection between the  child’s teacher and his parents, between  his church and his neighborhood, etc. • In other wards, a mesosystem is a system  of microsystems. 
  5. • comprises the interrelations among two or  more settings in which the developing  person actively participates. • Mesosystems connect two or more  systems in which child, parent and family  live. • Mesosystems provide the  connection between the  structures of the child's  microsystem 
  6. • For a child...the relations among home,  school, and neighborhood peer group;  • For adult… among family, work, and social  life.”  • The pattern of interrelationships  among microsystems for a child  or an adult can influence his or  her perceptions and behavior  within any of the settings where  he or she is presently located.
  7. Parenting Styles • Authoritarian • Permissive Style • Democratic Style FAMILY
  8. The Authoritarian Style • Parents are like the police officer or judge. • They control the problem-solving process, and  tend to be loud and angry. • Children obey their parents out of fear.  • It is a win-lose dynamic and parents usually win. Firm, But Not Respectful
  9. How Children Respond • Anger • Rebellion • Submission • Blaming Others • Lying, Hiding Feelings • Fear of Trying Something New …
  10. Drawbacks of Authoritarian Style • It does not teach children about responsibility, problems solving and respectful communication. • It teaches children to be dependent on adults.
  11. Why So Many Parents Use This Style? • Most parents use it because they were raised that way themselves. • It feels natural, and parents do not question its effectiveness.
  12. The Permissive Style • Permissive parents use different ways to persuade children to cooperate. • The underlying belief is that kids will cooperate when they understand that cooperation is the right thing to do. Respectful, But Not Firm
  13. Why It Is Not Working? • Permissiveness is a guidance system based on yellow lights. • Stopping is optional, not required. • Kids know it, but permissive parents are not aware that their signals do not really require stopping.
  14. What Children Learn? • Rules are for others, not for me. • Parents serve children. • Parents are responsible for solving children’s problems. • Dependency, disrespect, self- centeredness.
  15. Drawbacks of This Approach • While parents protect the children from suffering from consequences of their poor choices, children lose the opportunities to learn from their mistakes.
  16. Democratic Style • The Democratic approach is a win-win method which combines firmness with respect. • It accomplishes all of our basic training goals. Firm and Respectful
  17. Parents’ Beliefs • Children are capable of solving problems on their own. • Children should be given choices and allowed to learn from their choices. • Encouragement is an effective way to motivate cooperation.
  18. What Children Learn? • Responsibility • Cooperation • Independence • Respect for rules and authority • Self-control
  19. How Children Respond? • More cooperation. • Less limit testing. • Resolve problems on their own. • Regard parents’ words seriously Revolving Child - Short Film.mp4
  20. • Children need family to: – provide basic material necessities. – encourage learning. – develop self-respect. – nurture peer relationships. – ensure harmony and stability.
  21. - Schools hold a central place in the developmental agenda set forth for children in almost all nations. - Educational institutions play a central role in both promoting children’s acquisition of knowledge and shaping the ways in which they learn to regulate their attention, emotions and behavior. SCHOOL
  22. The School's Role in Child Development • Academic Development • Social Development • Character Building • Experiences
  23. Types of School-Family Involvement Communicating: Schools must reach out to families with information about school programs and student progress. This includes the traditional phone calls, report cards, and parent conferences, as well as new information on topics such as school choice and making the transition from elementary school to higher grades.
  24. Types of School-Family Involvement Volunteering: Parents can make significant contributions to the environment and functions of a school. Schools can get the most out of this process by creating flexible schedules, so more parents can participate, and by working to match the talents and interests of parents to the needs of students, teachers, and administrators.
  25. Types of School-Family Involvement Learning at Home: With the guidance and support of teachers, family members can supervise and assist their children at home with homework assignments and other school-related activities.
  26. Types of School-Family Involvement Decision-making: Schools can give parents meaningful roles in the school decision- making process, and provide parents with training and information so they can make the most of those opportunities
  27. Types of School-Family Involvement Collaboration with the Community: Schools can help families gain access to support services offered by other agencies, such as healthcare, cultural events, tutoring services, and after-school child-care programs.
  28. Effects of Family-School Involvement • Improved grades and test scores. • Positive attitude toward schoolwork. • Positive behavior. • Work completion. • Increased participation in classroom activities. • Increased attendance.
  30. PEER • A group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests. ‘prodigies should spend as much time as possible with their peer group’
  31. How can we help preschool children get along with their peers?
  32. -Teach social skills (through stories, pictures, puppets) and practice them (through role-plays and games). They can also teach children how to deal with various social situations (sharing a toy, taking turns, apologizing, etc.). -“Coach” young children on how to initiate play, ask questions and support their peers. -Reinforce positive interactions between children in the classroom and provide opportunities for play.
  33. Playing with others is important
  34. - learn to share and express their feelings with words; -learn social skills such as collaboration and cooperation; - develop positive relationships with their peers.
  35. Helping children to avoid abusive relationships
  36. -positively assert themselves; -get protection from friendly peers; -end uncomfortable relationships.
  37. Teens and Peer Relationships • emotional maturity increases their relationships with their peers change as they become more vulnerable and emotionally intimate with their peers. • greater trust among peers. • demonstrate their growing independence.
  38. -a social, religious, occupational, or other group sharing common characteristics or interests and perceived or perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society within which it exists (usually preceded by the): the business community; the community of scholars. COMMUNITY
  39. What is in a suburban community? Rural farmland, homes and buildings spread out Urban cities, homes and buildings close together Suburban places outside the city Categories of Community 1. A Community Interest -TV show, a celebrity figure or a subject area such as an historical event.
  40. 2. A Community of Practice -who share a profession or craft come together to share experiences and expertise, and thereby improve themselves professionally or personally. 3. A Community of Inquiry -the aim being to bring together people involved in considering a problem from an empirical or conceptual perspective.
  41. 4. A Community of action -focused on bringing about change in the world. 5. A Community of place -co-located – this might include a neighbourhood watch scheme, a parent-teacher association at the local school, or a group of independent shop keepers from the same part of a town.
  42. 6. A Community of circumstance -people who come together to share experiences related to being in a particular life situation or other circumstance, rather than a shared interest.
  43. Conclusion ......__NTBPWU3rd TriDr. Ilag (Ecology)Je