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Od 1 - Organisation Development

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Organisational Development – An Overview
Organisational Diagnosis, Renewal and Change
OD Interventions
OD Effectiveness
OD is an effort (1) planned (2) organization wide (3)managed from the top (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s processes, using behavioral science knowledge.

Human resources
Changing nature of the workplace
Global markets
Accelerated rate of change
better quality of work.
It creates higher job satisfaction
Team work is improved and encouraged
It finds better solution for conflicts
Commitment to objectives
Increases the willingness to change
Absenteeism is reduced.
Turnover is lower

Publicado en: Liderazgo y gestión
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Od 1 - Organisation Development

  1. 1. Organization Development (OD) presented by Naresh Sukhani NET, M.Com- MGMT, Masters in HRM, MBA Human Rights, B.Sc Comp Science,
  2. 2. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Objectives 1. To understand the concept of Organisational Development and its Relevance in the organisation 2. To Study the Issues and Challenges of OD while undergoing Changes 3. To get an Understanding of Phases of OD Programme 4. To Study the OD Intervention to meet the Challenges faced in the Organisation 5. To get an Insight into Ethical Issues in OD
  3. 3. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Syllabus 1 Organisational Development – An Overview 2 Organisational Diagnosis, Renewal and Change 3 OD Interventions 4 OD Effectiveness
  4. 4. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Books to be Read: 1. Organization Development – French & Bell 2. Organization Development – V. G. Kondalkar 3. Organization Development & Change – Cummings & Worley 4. Organizational Development & Transformation- French, Bell & Zawacki Prof. Naresh Sukhani
  5. 5. Definition-what is an organization An organization is the planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goal, through division of labor and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility –(Edgar Shein)
  6. 6. Definition Organization Development (OD) OD is an effort (1) planned (2) organization wide (3)managed from the top (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s processes, using behavioral science knowledge. (Richard Beckhard)
  7. 7. Why Study OD ?  Can improve individual performance  Create better morale Increase organizational profitability
  8. 8. Journey of Life……
  9. 9. Why Study OD ? • Organizational Development or O.D. is a planned effort initiated by process specialists to help an organization develop its diagnostic skills, coping capabilities, linkage strategies( in the form of temporary and semi-permanent systems) and a culture of mutuality. • A planned effort – thinking and planning • initiated by process specialists • Diagnostic skills- data collection-overtime • Coping capabilities-problem-solving,confront and cope • Linking strategies-Indl.& Organl. Goals • Culture of Mutuality-OCTAPACE-fostering of certain values and open and proactive systems viz. openness,confrontation, trust, authenticity,pro-activeness, autonomy, collaboration and experimentation.
  10. 10. Related to OD • Vision and Mission • Behavior of the Organization • Individual Behavior • Structure of the Organization • Culture of the Organization
  11. 11. WHY DO OD? • Human resources • Changing nature of the workplace • Global markets • Accelerated rate of change
  12. 12. Distinctive Features of OD • an OD program is a long range, planned and sustained effort that is based on an overall strategy. • consultant establishes a unique relationship with the client system: the consultant seeks and maintains a collaborative relationship of relative equality with the organization members
  13. 13. Benefits • It mainly tries to deal with the changes throughout the organization or in any one of the major units. • It develops greater motivation. • It increases productivity. • A better quality of work. – It creates higher job satisfaction – Team work is improved and encouraged – It finds better solution for conflicts – Commitment to objectives – Increases the willingness to change – Absenteeism is reduced. – Turnover is lower
  14. 14. Limitations • Organizational development is long-way process and requires more time. • It consists of substantial expense, delayed payoff periods • Failures are possible • Possibility for invasion of privacy • Possible for psychological harms • It emphasizes only in group process compared to performance • Conceptual ambiguity is possible.
  15. 15. Basic Organization Development Model Adapted from Exhibit 14-4: Basic Organization Development Model Diagnosis of Situation Introduction of interventions Progress Monitoring Feedback
  16. 16. Organization Development Interventions Organization Development Structural TechniquesRelationship Techniques T-group Training Team Building Survey Feedback Job Redesign Management by Objectives Supplemental Organizational Processes Adapted from Exhibit 14-5: Organization Development Interventions
  17. 17. Definition of Interventions An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.
  18. 18. Characteristics of Effective Interventions • Is it relevant to the needs of the organization? – Valid information – Free and Informed Choice – Internal Commitment • Is it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? • Does it transfer competence to manage change to organization members?
  19. 19. The Design of Effective Interventions • Contingencies Related to the Change Situation • Readiness for Change • Capability to Change • Cultural Context • Capabilities of the Change Agent
  20. 20. Contd………….. • Contingencies Related to the Target of Change – Strategic Issues – Technology and structure issues – Human resources issues – Human process issues
  21. 21. Intervention Overview • Human Process Interventions • Techno structural Interventions • Human Resources Management Interventions • Strategic Interventions
  22. 22. Major Types of Interventions in OD . • Human Process Interventions • Techno structural Interventions • Human Resources Management Interventions • Strategic Interventions
  23. 23. Human Process Interventions • Coaching • Training and Development • Process Consultation and Team Building • Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) • Organization Confrontation Meeting • Intergroup Relationships • Large-group Interventions
  24. 24. Techno structural Interventions • Structural Design • Downsizing • Reengineering • Employee Involvement • Work Design
  25. 25. Human Resources Management Interventions • Goal Setting • Performance Appraisal • Reward Systems • Career Planning and Development • Managing Work Force Diversity • Employee Stress and Wellness
  26. 26. Strategic Interventions • Integrated Strategic Change • Mergers and Acquisitions • Alliances and Networks • Culture Change • Self-designing Organizations • Organization Learning and Knowledge Management
  27. 27. Organizational Development Techniques Sensitivity Training Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction Provides increased awareness of others and self Increases empathy with others, improves listening skills, greater openness, and increased tolerance for others
  28. 28. Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Survey Feedback Approach The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested
  29. 29. Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Process Consultation (PC) A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement.
  30. 30. Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Team Building Activities • Goal and priority setting • Developing interpersonal relations • Role analysis to each member’s role and responsibilities • Team process analysis Team Building High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness
  31. 31. Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Intergroup Problem Solving: • Groups independently develop lists of perceptions • Share and discuss lists • Look for causes of misperceptions • Work to develop integrative solutions Intergroup Development OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other
  32. 32. Human Process Interventions • Coaching • Training and Development • Process Consultation and Team Building • Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) • Organization Confrontation Meeting • Intergroup Relationships • Large-group Interventions
  33. 33. Techno structural Interventions • Structural Design • Downsizing • Reengineering • Employee Involvement • Work Design
  34. 34. Human Resources Management Interventions • Goal Setting • Performance Appraisal • Reward Systems • Career Planning and Development • Managing Work Force Diversity • Employee Stress and Wellness
  35. 35. Strategic Interventions • Integrated Strategic Change • Mergers and Acquisitions • Alliances and Networks • Culture Change • Self-designing Organizations • Organization Learning and Knowledge Management
  36. 36. Relationship Techniques T-group Training Team Building Survey Feedback
  37. 37. Team Building Tips Get the right people together for a large block of uninterrupted time to work on high-priority problems or opportunities that they have identified and have them work in ways that are structured to enhance the likelihood of realistic solutions and action plans, which are then implemented enthusiastically and followed up to assess actual versus expected results.
  38. 38. Structural Techniques Job Redesign Management by Objectives (MBO) Supplemental Organizational Processes
  39. 39. OD interventions are.......... • Unique in nature • Reflexive • Self-analytical • Self-skill building in nature
  40. 40. •Interpersonal Interventions
  41. 41. What are T-Groups? • T-groups (“T” for training) are unstructured small-group situations in which participants learn from their own actions • T-groups evolved from the laboratory training research of Kurt Lewin (1945) • T-groups focus on the what, how and why of interpersonal communication. • T-groups are used by consultants to help managers learn about the effects of their behavior on others
  42. 42. Goals of T-groups • Increased understanding about one’s own behavior • Increased understanding about the behavior of others • Better understanding of group process • Increased interpersonal diagnostic skills • Increased ability to transform learning into action • Improvement in the ability to analyze one’s own behavior
  43. 43. Sensitivity training • Aim is to: (1) encourage participants to recognize the effects of their behavior on others (e.g. by developing good observation and listening skills) (2) get participants to know themselves (e.g. by asking others for feedback) and to share aspects of themselves to others (self-disclosure)
  44. 44. Diagnostic skills • Encourage participants to perceive accurately relationships between each other • The focus is on recording/observing who is taking an active role in the discussion (and who is not and WHY) • How satisfied do participants feel in the group discussion?
  45. 45. Group action skills • Encourage participants to select and act out (role play) behaviors required by the situation – to learn from the experience • Aim is to support coaching/counseling skills • Common interventions are role plays, team building meetings, adventure games
  46. 46. Johari Window • Technique for illustrating the quality of interpersonal communication – identifiers a person’s interpersonal style of communication • Process consultants use the model to help people process data about themselves in terms of how they see themselves and how others see them • Interpersonal communication judged more effective when there is fit (congruence) between how we see ourselves (private face) and how others see us (public face).
  47. 47. Johari Window • Unknown to Others Known to others Hidden Spot Open Window Unknown Window Blind Spot Known to Self Unknown to Self
  48. 48. Improving Communications Using the Johari Window Reduce Hidden Area Through Disclosure to others Open Window Reduce Blind spot through feedback from others Unknown to Others Known to Others Known to Self Unknown to Self
  49. 49. Process Consultation An OD method that helps managers and employers improve the processes that are used in organizations Outside consultant: Enters organization Defines the relationship Chooses an approach Gathers data Diagnoses problem Intervenes Leaves organization
  50. 50. Process Consultation • In process consultation, the consultant observes individuals and groups in action – helping them learn to diagnose and solve their own problems • Often used in conjunction with teambuilding, self- directed work teams, quality circles, and other interpersonal interventions
  51. 51. Process Consultation: How is it Done? • Consultant observes the communication processes between individuals and workgroups • Interventions used such as listening, probing, questioning, clarifying, reflecting, synthesizing and summarising
  52. 52. Process Consultation: Key Questions • How well do group members seek and give information? Ask questions? Summarize? Listen to others? • How well do group members perform ‘group maintenance roles’ such as compromising? Harmonizing? Supporting? • How well do group members solve problems? Make decisions? • How well do group members deal with power and authority issues? • How well do group members exercise leadership?
  53. 53. Third Party Peace Making • Intermediaries (or "third parties") are people, organizations, or nations who enter a conflict to try to help the parties de-escalate or resolve it.
  54. 54. WALTON’S APPROACH TO THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING • Walton has presented a statement of theory and practice for third-party peace making interventions that is important in its own right and important for its role in organization development.
  55. 55. WALTON’S MODEL IS BASED ON FOUR ELEMENTS The conflict issues. Precipitating circumstances. Conflict relevant acts. The consequences of the conflict.
  56. 56. SOURCES OF CONFLICT  Sustentative issues.  Emotional issues.
  57. 57. WALTON’S HAS OUTLINED THE INGREDIENTS OF A PRODUCTIVE CONFRONTATION Mutual positive motivation. Balance of power. Synchronization of confrontation efforts. Differentiation and integration of different phases of the intervention must be well paced. Conditions that promote openness should be created. Reliable communicative signals. Optimum tension in the situation .
  58. 58. ORGANIZATION MIRROR INTERVENTION It is a technique designed to work units feedback on how other elements of organization view them. Designed to improve relationships between teams.
  59. 59. What is a “confrontation meeting?” • One day meeting of entire management of an organization in which they take a reading of their own organizational health • Organizational confrontation meeting: brings together all of the managers of an organization to meet to confront the issue of whether the organization is effectively meeting its goals
  60. 60. Process 1. Climate setting 45-60 min. 2. Information Collecting 60 min. 3. Information Sharing 60 min 4. Priority setting and group action planning 75 min. 5. Action Planning 60-120 minutes 6. Immediate follow-up by top team 60-180 min. 7. (Four-six weeks later) Progress review 120 minutes
  61. 61. When is it appropriate to conduct a confrontation meeting? • Need for the total management group to examine its own workings • Very limited time available for the activity • Top management wishes to improve conditions quickly • Enough cohesion in the top team to ensure follow-up • Real commitment by top management to resolve the issue • Organization is experiencing , or has recently experienced, some major change
  62. 62. Coaching & Mentoring The main reasons why organizations need coaching and mentoring activities are as follows: To maximize knowledge transfer To increase the skill levels For succession planning
  63. 63. Contd…….. To maximize knowledge transfer  Coaching & Mentoring provides a learning channel that effectively transfers knowledge within the organization  Critical knowledge is maintained in the organization  Contextual learning is evident
  64. 64. Contd……. To increase skill levels  The coaches and mentors can very effectively transfer core skills  Customization of skills in relation to the core activities of the business is retained  Cross training of staff can be achieved
  65. 65. Contd…. For succession planning  The ability for the organization to identify ‘fast track’ candidates and prepare them for new jobs is enhanced by coaching & mentoring  Coaching & Mentoring can ensure continuity of performance when key staff leave the organization because core skills have been transferred
  66. 66. Beneficiaries of Coaching & Mentoring The Coach / Mentor The Employee The Department The Organization
  67. 67. Benefits to The Coach / Mentor Benefits to the Coach / Mentor can be described as:  Job Satisfaction  Further development of own skill level  Involvement in strategic activity
  68. 68. What does a mentor actually do? • Encourage • Convey sincere belief in protégé ability to succeed • Give advice • Give constructive feedback • Give formal and informal instruction (technical, clinical, political) • Introduce to colleagues, etc. • Provide opportunities for protégé to demonstrate his/her skills
  69. 69. Contd…. • Serve as career and lifestyle role model • Attend meetings, conferences, and other events together • Provide observation experience • Provide role-playing experience • Exchange/discuss ideas • Co-authoring • Challenge protégé to and assist with career planning and development; emphasis on planning!
  70. 70. Contd.. • Review resumes, cover letters • Provide sense of direction/focus • Help in problem solving • Practice communication/interpersonal skills • Assist in career planning • Help set goals
  71. 71. What about mentees? • Potential to succeed • Capacity for self-disclosure • Willing to learn • Confident to try new things • Communicate well • Trust others • Ambitious • Internal focus of control • High job investment • Values relationships • Sees relationship between personal and professional growth • Active learner • Focused • Learn from, but not have to please the mentor • Knows limits/ when to get help • Ethical • Takes initiative • Goal oriented • Organization/ time management skills • Open minded
  72. 72. What Coaching and Mentoring Are • Coaching is a core competency necessary for knowledge transfer – Mentoring is a two-way process of dialogue and planning – – People helping each other to find their way on the job, in the organization and over a lifetime
  73. 73. Both require . . . . . . • observation, dialogue, and agreement. . . . . targeted at building individual and team capabilities. . . . . .to foster continuous improvement in organizations.
  74. 74. STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF COACHING AND MENTORING Coaching and mentoring as knowledge transfer: Everyone has unique knowledge to exchange with others Insist on the discipline of a 50/50 split in time
  75. 75. Structural interventions • Socio technical systems (STS). • Self-managed teams. • Work redesign. • Management by objectives (MBO). • Quality circles. • Quality of work life projects (QWL). • Parallel learning structures (or collateral organizations). • Physical settings. • Total quality management (TQM). • Reengineering. • Large-scale systems change.
  76. 76. Socio technical Systems (STS) • Largely associated with experiments that emerged under the auspices of the Travistock Institute in Great Britain. • Efforts generally attempted to create a better “fit” among the technology, structure, and social interaction of a particular production unit in a mine, factory, or office. • Two basic premises: – Effective work systems must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts. – Such systems must effectively managed the boundary separating and relating them to the environment. – Highly participative among stakeholders: Employees, engineers, staff experts, and managers. – Feature the formation of autonomous work groups (i.e. self-managed). – Theory suggested that effectiveness, efficiency, and morale will be enhanced.
  77. 77. Self-Managed Teams • Problems in implementation: – What to do with the first-line supervisors who are no longer needed as supervisors. – Managers that are now one level above the teams will likely oversee the activities of several teams, and their roles will change to emphasize planning, expediting, and coordinating. • They need considerable training to acquire skills in group leadership and ability to delegate; skills to have participative meetings, planning, quality control, budgeting, etc.
  78. 78. Work Redesign • Hackman and Oldham – theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call ‘high internal work motivation.’ • Model approach has the characteristics of OD; use of diagnosis, participation, and feedback. • Model suggested that organizations analyze jobs using the five core job characteristics; then redesign of group work: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback from job.
  79. 79. MBO and Appraisal • Management by objective (MBO) programs evolve from a collaborative organization diagnosis and are systems of joint target setting and performance review designed to increase a focus on objectives and to increase frequency of problem solving discussions between supervisors and subordinates and within work teams. • MBO programs are unilateral, autocratic mechanisms designed to force compliance with a superior’s directives and reinforce a one-on- one leadership mode.
  80. 80. Quality Circles • The concept is a form of group problem solving and goal setting with a primary focus on maintaining and enhancing product quality. • Extensively used in Japan. • Quality circles consist of a group of 7 – 10 employees from a unit; who have volunteered to meet together regularly to analyze and make proposals about product quality and other problems. • Morale and job satisfaction among participants were reported to have increased. • Quality circles contributes toward total quality management.
  81. 81. Quality of Work Life (QWL) • Organizational improvement efforts. – Attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organization. – To institute a mechanism which introduces and sustains changes over time. • An increase in participation by employees and increase in problem solving between the union and management.
  82. 82. Parallel Learning Structures • Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: – Study what changes are needed in the organization, – Make recommendations for improvement, and – Then monitor the resulting change efforts.
  83. 83. Physical Setting and OD • Physical settings are an important part of organization culture that work groups should learn to diagnose and manage, and about which top management needs input in designing plants and buildings. • Sometime, physical setting were found to interfere with effective group and organizational functioning. • Examples: A personnel director having a secretary share the same office; resulting lack of privacy and typewriter noise, thus adversely affect the productivity of the director. • Management encouraged group decision making, yet providing no space for more than 6 people to meet at one time.
  84. 84. Total Quality Management (TQM) • Also called continuous quality improvement. • A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. • Features that characterize TQM: – Primary emphasis on customers. – Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. – An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. – Competitive benchmarking. – Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. – Participative management. – An emphasis on teams and teamwork. – A major emphasis on continuous learning. – Top management support on an ongoing basis.
  85. 85. Reengineering • Definition – the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. • Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. • Reengineering seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining, eliminating, or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. • Reengineering is a top-down process; assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making.
  86. 86. Self-Design Strategy • It is a “learning model” to help organization develop “the build-in capacity to transform themselves to achieve high performance in today’s competitive and changing environment. • Basic components: – An educational component consisting of readings, presentations, visits to other companies, and attendance at conferences. – Clarification of the values that will guide the design process. – Diagnosis of the current state of the organization using the values as template. – Changes are then designed and implemented in an interactive manner.
  87. 87. Large-Scale Systems Change and Organizational Transformation • Large-scale systems change; mean organizational change that is massive in terms of the number of organizational units involved, the number of people affected, the number of organizational subsystems altered, and/or the depth of the cultural change involved. – Example: a major restructuring with objectives including a reduction in hierarchical levels from 8 to 4. • Organizational transformation; second-order change – requires a multiplicity of interventions and takes place over a fairly long period of time (5-year plan).
  88. 88. Do’s Of OD Interventions Inform in advance of the nature of the intervention and the nature of their involvement. OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization. Directed by appropriate managers. Based on accurate diagnosis .
  89. 89. Contd…. • commitment to OD at all stages. • Evaluation is the key to success. • Show employees how the OD effort relates to the organization's goals and overriding mission.
  90. 90. Open Systems Model Inputs • Information • Energy • People Transformations • Social Component • Technological Component Outputs • Goods • Services • Ideas Environment Feedback  Source Waddell, Cumming and Worley (2007) Organisation Development & Change. Thomson, South Melbourne Australia
  91. 91. Organisation-Level Diagnostic Model Inputs General Environment Uncertainty in social, technological, economic , ecological and political forces Industry Structure Five forces – suppliers, buyer, threats of entry, threats of substitutes and rivalry among competittors Design Components Outputs  Source Waddell, Cumming and Worley (2007) Organisation Development & Change. Nelson, South Melbourne Australia Strategy The way a company uses its resources human economic or technical to gain and sustain competitive advantage Organisation design Organisation performance Productivity Stakeholder satisfaction
  92. 92. Goal Clarity Task Team Structure Functioning Group Group Composition Norms Design Components Outputs Organisation Design Team Effectiveness Group-Level Diagnostic Model Inputs  Source Waddell, Cumming and Worley (2007) Organisation Development & Change. Thomson, South Melbourne Australia
  93. 93. skill Variety Task Identity Autonomy Task Feedback Significance about Results Individual-Level Diagnostic Model Inputs Design Components Outputs Organisation Design Group Design Personal Traits Individual Effectiveness  Source Waddell, Cumming and Worley (2007) Organisation Development & Change. Thomson, South Melbourne Australia
  94. 94. O. D. PROCESS: Diagnosis, Action & Program Management The O. D. process consists of three components-diagnosis, action and program management. Diagnosis component consists of continuous collection of data about the total system, its sub-units its processes, and its culture. The action component consists of all the activities and interventions designed to improve the organization’s functioning. The program management component is designed to ensure success of the program. Diagnosis involves; 1. What are its strengths? 2. What are its problems? 3. What are its unrealized opportunities? 4. Discrepancy between desired situation and current situation?
  95. 95. Elements of the OD process 1. Entering and contracting 2. Diagnosing ( Organization, groups and jobs) 3. Planning and implementing change 4. Evaluating and institutionalizing
  96. 96. 1. Entering and contracting • Entering & Contracting are the initial steps in the OD process • Entering and Contracting set the initial Para meters for carrying out the subsequent phases of OD : –Diagnosing the organization –Planning & Implementation changes –Evaluating and Institutionalizing them
  97. 97. • Entering into an OD relationship comprises of three (3) elements- i.e. - Clarifying the Organizational Issue - Determining the relevant Clients - Selecting the appropriate OD Practitioner
  98. 98. Clarifying the Organizational Issues • An Organization generally starts an OD programme by presenting the problem. i.e. the issue that caused them to consider an OD process. It may be Specific,( e.g. :decrease in market share, increase in absenteeism, Increase in industrial disputes or General (eg: Organization growing too fast, needs a rapid change) • At this stage, presenting the problem is only a symptom of an underlined problem
  99. 99. Determining the relevant client • Generally the relevant client includes those organization members who can directly impact on the change issue. • Unless these Members are identified and included in the entering and contracting process, they may with hold their support for and commitment to the OD process. • E.g. In trying to improve the productivity of a unionized plant the relevant client may include union officials as well as Managers and staff personnel. • It is not unusual for an OD project to fail because the relevant client was inappropriately defined.
  100. 100. 2. Diagnosing Organization • Diagnosis is the process of understanding current functioning of the organization. It will provides the information necessary for designing change interventions. It generally follows from successful entry and contracting. • This is a collaborative process between organization members and OD consultants to collect pertinent information, analyze it and draw conclusions of action planning and interventions . • Diagnosis may be aim uncovering causes for specific problems or it may be directed at assessing the overall functioning of the organization / department to discover the areas for future development.
  101. 101. 2. Organizational Diagnosis (Contd.) 1. Think of visiting your health care, computer or auto mechanic professional. What is a diagnosis? 2. What does s/he do to diagnose (Dx) your condition? 3. What are the uses/purposes of a Dx; What does it allow you to do? 4. What, therefore, are the criteria for a sound Dx? 5. How is a diagnosis derived?
  102. 102. 3. Planning and implementing change • In this stage ,organization members and practitioners jointly plan and implement OD interventions. • They design interventions to achieve the organization's vision or goals and make action plans to implement them. • There are several criteria for designing interventions ,including the organization's readiness for change ,its current change capability, its culture and power distributions and change agent’s kills and abilities . • Depending on the outcomes of diagnosis, there are four major types of interventions in OD
  103. 103. Comparison of Planned Change Model Problem identification Consultation with Behavioural Science Expert Data gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis Feedback to Key Client of Group Joint Diagnosis of Problem Joint Action Plan Action Data Gathering after Action Unfreezing Movement Refreezing Initiate the Inquiry Inquiry into Best Practices Discover Themes Envision a Preferred Future Design and Deliver Ways to Create the Future (A) Lewin’s Planned Change Model (B) Action Research Model (C) Positive Model
  104. 104. 4. Evaluating and Institutionalizing • The final stage in planned change involves evaluating the effects of the intervention and managing the institutionalization of successful change programs . • Feed back to organization members about the intervention’s results provide information about whether the changes should be continued ,modified or suspended. • There are several criteria for designing interventions ,including the organization's readiness for change ,its current change capability, its culture and power distributions and change agent’s kills and abilities . • Depending on the outcomes of diagnosis, there are four major types of interventions in OD
  105. 105. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Kurt Lewin’s Three –Stage Model : as modified by Lippitt & others 1. Developing a need for change. (Lewin’s unfreezing phase) 2. Establishing a change relationship. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship 3. Clarifying or diagnosing the clients system’s problem 4. Examining alternative routes and goals; establishing goals and intentions of actions
  106. 106. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Kurt Lewin’s Three –Stage Model : as modified by Lippitt & others 5.Transforming intentions into actual change efforts.Phases 3, 4 and 5 correspond to Lewin’s moving phase 6.Generalizing and stabilizing change. This corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase 7.Achieving a terminal relationship, that is, terminating the client-consultant relationship
  107. 107. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change (a)First-order change- transactional, evolutionary, adaptive, incremental, or continuous change (b)Second-order change- transformational, revolutionary, radical, or discontinuous change n.b.. O. D. programs are directed toward both first-order and second order change with an increasing emphasis on second –order transformational change.
  108. 108. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change First-Order Second-Order 1. Structure 1. Mission and Strategy 2. Management Practices 2. Leadership 3. Systems 3. Organizational Culture (Transactional) (Transformational) Distinguishing Organizational Climate and Organizational Culture. Climate- people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organization Culture- deep seated assumptions about values and beliefs that are enduring, often unconscious and difficult to change
  109. 109. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT( First) Management Practices Structure Systems Policies & Procedures Work Unit Climate Motivation Individual Needs & Values Task Requirements & Individual Skills / Abilities Individual & Organizational Performance Individual Needs & Values
  110. 110. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT(Second) External Environment. Leadership Mission & Strategy Organizational Culture Individual & Organizational Performance
  111. 111. The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change External Environment Leadership Organizational Culture Mission & Strategy Structure Management Practices Systems (Policies & Procedures) Work Unit Climate Motivation Individual & Organizational Performance Task Requires & Individual Skills/ Abilities Individual Needs & Values

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