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  2. 2. Who is a secretary? An Executive Secretary is one who • Possesses mastery of office skills • Demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision • Exercises initiative and judgment • Makes the decisions within the scope of assigned authority
  3. 3. The term “SECRETARY” means keeper of secrets. The secretary is the first one to learn about the many confidential developments involving the office staff and company policies through meetings, letters, and memos she/he types, in her filing, and dictation given by her boss, etc.
  4. 4. Difference Between a Secretary & an Executive Secretary Secretary vs Executive secretary  Clerical & Administrative support  Typing, filing, phone calls & appointments  Research  Interacting with vendors  Product selection  Database Management
  5. 5. WORK ACTIVITIE S Word Processing Dictation & Typing Writing Minutes Letter Writing Creating & Maintaining filing system Telephone & Email Inquiries Photocopying Arranging meetings & Making appointments Data Entry Travel Arrangements
  6. 6. Emerging Role • Answer customer correspondence • Gather research data for reports • Prepare statistical reports involving sales figure or budgetary information • Attend meetings in place of supervisor and report activities that took place • Purchase office equipment and participate in the evaluation and selection of some automated office systems
  7. 7. Emerging Role • Set up meetings and conferences • Write a company newsletter • Keep department expenditure records in accordance with a budget • Read and sort incoming mail and answer it when necessary • Acquaint new employees with company systems and equipment • Supervise one or more employees
  8. 8. Executive Secretary - Competencies Business Writing Key boarding & Shorthand Interpersonal Relations Knowledge of business math and accounting Organization & Planning
  9. 9. Areas of Work • Working with others Assigned tasks
  11. 11. PERFORMANCE TRAITS Accuracy Good Judgment Initiative Follow through Resourcefulness
  12. 12. HUMAN RELATIONS TRAITS Consideration Tact Loyalty Objectivity discretion
  13. 13. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS Communication skills are the key to good interpersonal relationships. And a secretary needs them most as she/he has to coordinate with internal and external customers. Definition of Communication “The transference and understanding of meaning.”
  14. 14. Communication model EFFECT EFFECT Source /Encoder Receiver/Decoder Source/ Encoder Receiver/Decoder NOISE M E S S A G E
  15. 15. For successful communication, one should have: • Good oral skills • Understanding of body language • Effective listening skills
  16. 16. ORAL SKILLS Whenever you are required to talk face to face or on telephone: • Be prepared what you are going to say • Gather the information carefully • Understand the issue thoroughly • State what you are going to say with confidence • Make sure statements are not defensive or aggressive • Simplify the messages for understanding
  17. 17. BODY LANGUAGE Body language consists of facial expressions, eye contact, posture and hand gestures. We should always be watchful of our body language as certain body language signals convey negative messages.
  18. 18. 55% 38% 7% Body Language Words Vocal
  19. 19. Body Language & The Message it Conveys Negative Body Language Negative Message Conveyed • Arms tightly folded against chest • Clasped hands, fiddling with rings, necktie, lapels • Biting of fingernails • Lack of eye contact • Slouching while standing or sitting • Holding hand over mouth while talking • Insecurity; Defensiveness • Nervousness, stress Unreliability; nervousness • Lack of interest; nervousness • Lack of interest; Nervousness • Boredom; laziness • Fear; insecurity
  20. 20. LISTENING Pakistan Institute of Management
  21. 21. "We were given two ears but only one mouth, because listening is twice as hard as talking." Pakistan Institute of Management
  22. 22. LISTENING Listening is the total physical and psychological process of receiving informational input from others. It is different than hearing. According to the research, we understand and absorb only 25% of what is communicated to us.
  24. 24. • Perceptions • Language • Semantics • Personal Interests • Emotions • Inflections • Environment – noise • Preconceived notions/expectations • Wordiness • Attention span • Physiological • Speed of thought
  25. 25. Questionnaire Debrief
  26. 26. Guidelines for effective listening • Be prepared to listen • Be interested • Keep an open mind • Listen for the main ideas • Help the speaker • Listen critically • Resist distraction • Take notes
  27. 27. How can we improve our listening skills?  Eliminate distractions  Concentrate  Focus on the speaker  Maintain an open mind  Look for nonverbal cues  Do not react to emotive words  Ask questions  Sit so you can see & hear  Avoid prejudices  Take notes  Ask for clarification
  28. 28. The Don’ts of listening • Don’t listen without looking • Don’t interrupt the speaker • Don’t allow distractions • Don’t appear judgmental • Don’t look bored • Don’t yawn during a meeting with your clients, if you do, apologize!
  29. 29. DOs & Don’ts of Perfect Secretary
  30. 30. CAREER DEVELOPMENT • Smile at people: There is nothing as nice as cheerful word of greeting. It takes 65 muscles to frown: only 15 to smile. • Call people by name: The sweetest music to anyone’s ears is the sound of his own name. • Be friendly and helpful: If you would like to have friends, be friendly. • Be cordial: Speak and act as if everything you do were a genuine pleasure. • Be genuinely interested in people: You can like everybody if you try.
  31. 31. • Be generous with praise; cautious with criticisms. • Be considerate with the feelings of others. It will be appreciated: There are three-sides to controversy: yours, the other fellow’s, and the right one. • Be Thoughtful to Opinion Of Others • Be alert to give service: What counts most in life is what we do for others.
  32. 32. Preparing to Write Business Messages Business Writing is … • Purposeful. It solves problems and conveys information • Economical. It is concise • Reader-oriented. It focuses on the receiver, not the sender
  33. 33. The 3*3 Writing Process • Phase 1: Prewriting Analyzing, anticipating, adapting • Phase 2: Writing Researching, organizing, composing • Phase 3: Revising Revising, proofreading, evaluating
  34. 34. Hidden Negative Messages Writers are sometimes unaware of the hidden messages conveyed by their words
  35. 35. Quick activity
  36. 36. Hidden Negative Meanings • You overlooked…. (You are careless) • You failed to …… (You are careless) • You state that….. (But I don’t believe you) • You claim that….. (It’s probably untrue) • You are wrong…. (I am right)
  37. 37. Hidden Negative Meanings • You do not understand ……. (You are not very bright) • Your delay…….. (You are at fault) • You forgot to…… (you are not only inefficient but also stupid and careless)
  38. 38. Write cooperative and energetic responses
  39. 39. THE DIRTY WORD LIST Irritated or Hesitant Cooperative and Energetic “You have to call extension 25.” “Sir, will you please call extension 25” “ I have referred your complaint to my supervisor.” “I have referred your question to my supervisor.” “What can we do to solve your problem?” “What can we do to solve this situation?” “You can’t come in on Saturday; our head office is closed.” “You can come in Monday through Friday between 9:00a.m. and 5:00p.m.” “You can’t talk to Mr. Wajeeh until tomorrow.” “You can reach Mr. Wajeeh tomorrow after 9:00a.m.” “I’ll try to get that information for you.” “let me check if Mr.. Ahsan in productions is in .He might have the information you need.”
  40. 40. Routine Letters & Goodwill Messages
  41. 41. Frontload in the opening • Main Idea • Why you’re writing Explain in the body • Details of request/response • Group similar ideas together Be specific & courteous in the closing • Indicate the action & deadline • Courteous concluding thought
  42. 42. The Five Ss of Goodwill Messages In expressing thanks, recognition, or sympathy: • Be selfless Emphasize the receiver, not the sender • Be specific Focus on specifics rather than generalities • Be sincere Show your honest feelings by using unpretentious language • Be spontaneous Make the message sound natural, fresh and direct. Avoid canned phrases • Keep the message short Although goodwill messages may be as long as needed, they are generally fairly short.
  44. 44. Goals in Communicating Bad News • To make the reader understand and accept the bad news • To promote and maintain a good image of the writer and writer’s organization • To make the message so clear that additional correspondence is unnecessary • To avoid legal liability
  45. 45. The Indirect Pattern Buffer Reasons Bad News Close
  46. 46. The Indirect Pattern • Buffer A neutral or positive opening that does not reveal the bad news • Reasons An explanation of the causes for the bad news • Bad news A clear but understandable announcement of the bad news that may include an alternative or compromise • Close A personalized, forward looking, pleasant statement.
  47. 47. Acting Cautiously • As an agent of an organization, be sure your views reflect those of your organization. • Use plain paper for your personal views or personal business. • Avoid supplying information that could be misused. • Don’t admit or imply responsibility without checking with legal counsel
  48. 48. Handling conflict and difficult situations through assertiveness
  49. 49. CONFLICT Conflict is defined as disagreement between two or more parties resulting from in-compatibility of goals, interests, values and perceptions.
  50. 50. Pakistan Institute of Management Handling conflict and difficult situations Types of conflict • Goal conflict: where one person or one group desires a different outcome from others • Cognitive conflict: Where one person or one group holds ideas that are in conflict with those held by others • Affective conflict: Where one person’s or group’s emotions, feelings or attitudes are incompatible with others. • Behavioral conflict: Where one person or group behaves in a way that is unacceptable to others
  51. 51. Pakistan Institute of Management Handling Conflict • People show three styles of behavior when handling conflict or diffusing difficult situations • Passive style: low self-esteem, unable to express, not aware of his/her rights, bottled up feelings • Assertive style: Confident, know their rights as well as others’ • Aggressive style: very high self-esteem, ego- centric, do not recognize others’ rights
  52. 52. How to recognize an Aggressive Person BODY LANGUAGE 1.Very stiff and straight. 2. Stares fixedly. 3. Inclined to point, jab a finger, bang the table etc., to emphasize a point. 4. Folds arms across body.
  53. 53. Verbal Language of an Aggressive Person • ‘ I want you to’ • ‘ You must….’ • ‘ Do what I tell….’ • ‘ You are stupid!’
  54. 54. How to Recognize a Submissive Person BODY LANGUAGE • Avoids eye contact. • Has a stooping posture • Speaks either very quietly or in a whining tone • Backs away when spoken to • Fidgets--- wringing hands or plucking at clothes.
  55. 55. Verbal Language of a Submissive Person • ‘ I am sorry to bother you but….’ • ‘ Oh dear…’ • ‘ It is my fault ….’
  56. 56. How to Recognize an Assertive Person BODY LANUAGE • Stands straight but in a relaxed way. • Appears composed • Maintains eye contact without staring fixedly • Smiles
  57. 57. Verbal language of an Assertive Person • ‘ Let’s…’ • ‘ How shall we do this?’ • ‘ I think…what do you think?’ • ‘ I would like…’
  58. 58. Questionnaire Debrief
  59. 59. Pakistan Institute of Management Managing yourself assertively- Principles • Taking the initiative- not to be a victim • Speaking for yourself • Identifying what you want • Analyzing risks and taking responsibility of the outcomes
  60. 60. Pakistan Institute of Management Managing yourself assertively • Describe the situation • Describe your reaction • Describe what you want • Keep your tone and body language positive
  61. 61. As an assertive person you can do the following: • Use feeling talk • Talk about yourself • Make greeting-talk • Accept compliments • Use appropriate facial talk • Disagrees mildly • Ask for clarification • Ask why • Express active disagreement • Speak up for his/her rights • Be persistent • Avoid justifying every opinion
  63. 63. TELEPHONE SKILLS • The telephone is one of the most used but least understood business tool. • It’s function is to enable you to communicate with people over large distances, saving your time and money.
  64. 64. Consider: • How much of your working day is spent using the telephone? • How much of your organization’s working relies on the telephone? • How reliant are you personally on the telephone to enable you to do your job?
  65. 65. Most frequent caller complaints
  66. 66. "They place me on hold for sometimes, it seems, hours.“ "The telephone rings for a long time before it is answered.“ "The line is busy for hours it seems.“ "They are very rude and get offensive when asked their full name or sometimes just won't give it.“ "They let me talk on and on only to realize that they're not the person I should be talking to.“ ‘If I call the wrong department for help, they don't give me suggestions to where I should be calling, they just say, 'I don't know, not our department.'
  67. 67. "Sometimes they disconnect me while transferring my call." "They don't clearly listen to my needs before they transfer me to the wrong person." "They told me to call back, but never gave me a name or number or division to ask for." "The person says, 'Wait', and then talks to other co-workers without putting me on hold so that I can't hear their small talk." "They answer with an aggravated voice, as if I disturbed them by calling."
  68. 68. Talking on the Telephone  Create a professional image  Tone of your voice reveal feelings  You need to convey:  a positive approach  enthusiasm  a genuine desire to help  a warm and cheerful manner
  69. 69. Listening on the Telephone • Stop fidgeting • Reschedule the call if undivided concentration is impossible • Remain focused • Keep calm– don’t argue with irate caller and offer constructive advice
  70. 70. Listening on the Telephone • Jot down key points • Read between the lines • Ask questions to test your understanding • Stay neutral as emotions inhibit listening • Summarize the conversation
  71. 71. 10 Golden Telephone Rules: 1. Be prompt; answer within 3-4 rings. No one likes to be kept waiting. 2. If you are absent from your station, be sure to have your calls diverted. 3. Answer with a smile – it comes across in your voice. 4. On answering give a verbal handshake, announcing your company name, your department and your name. 5. When making a call, try and make sure that it is a convenient time for the receiver.
  72. 72. 10 Golden Telephone Rules: 6. Show empathy, build an instant relationship by using a friendly tone. 7. Establish the needs of the caller immediately by asking “How may I help you?”. 8. Use open questions to find out facts and information and closed questions to clarify and check understanding. 9. If you can, answer the caller’s questions promptly and efficiently. If not, tell them what you can do for them. 10. Use continuity noises to show that you are listening.
  73. 73. Planning Outgoing Calls Planning outgoing calls 2.Plan & prepare in advance 3. Why are you calling 4. Leave a message 1. Keep your objective in sight
  74. 74. A Six-Step Guide to dealing with Complaints 1. Introduction: The objective of this step is to reassure the caller that they are in efficient and sympathetic hands. Do Use the caller’s name. Treat the caller as an individual. Speak clearly, and take your time. Show empathy for the caller’s feelings. Use a calm and reassuring voice. Don’t Be abrasive or defensive. Say “this sort of thing does not usually happen.” Ask pointless questions.
  75. 75. 2. Ask questions and probe for information: Find out what you need to know about the nature of the complaint, and find out exactly how the caller feels. Do Use open questions to ascertain exactly the nature of the complaint. Give your caller all the time you feel is needed. Be responsive to the caller’s needs. Don’t Fire a checklist of questions. Sound like you are scripted. Sound rushed and harassed.
  76. 76. 3. Listen, empathize and reflect: At this stage it is important to show the caller that you understand the extent of their situation and that you empathize with their disappointment and maybe even their anger. Do Let the caller get it off their chest. Paraphrase and summarize what the caller has said. Recap certain key points to show that you listened actively. Accept that the caller has the right to feel how they do. Don’t Say “yes but….” Argue or play down the complaint. React in a defensive way. Say, “Oh, that is nothing compared to….” Sound as though you have heard it all before.
  77. 77. 4. Suggest options: Work towards a mutually acceptable solution, something that will satisfy the caller in order to retain their loyalty while remaining acceptable to your organization. Establish what concessions each party is prepared to make. Do Make the proposal tentative at this stage. Suggest the benefit of your proposal to the caller. Phrase the suggestion as an open question. Don’t Quote figures yet. Put pressure on the caller. Ask the caller to appreciate your point of view as well.
  78. 78. 5. Reaching agreement: The objective, now that you have agreed the kind of concession, is to settle on the lowest value concession, provided it is acceptable to the caller. Do Plan the steps in your bargaining procedure. Start lower, but be prepared to move up. Continue to acknowledge the caller’s right to feel upset. Don’t Offer maximum concessions right away. Suggest that the caller is being unreasonable [even in the tone of your voice]. Give them benefits that are not relevant to them. Promise anything that you cannot deliver.
  79. 79. 6. Agree and confirm: Clarify the details of the agreement and leave the caller feeling good about your profession and you. Do Check the details with the caller. Tell them what will happen next. Invite them to come back to you in the event of any further queries. Tell them that you are happy that you have been able to resolve the situation. Leave the caller with a clear picture of what they should do if they have any further questions. Reinforce the message repeating your name and letting the caller know how they can contact you in the future. Don’t Finish the call without confirming the details of your agreement. Sound as though you are happy to get them off the line.
  80. 80. Rules of Etiquette 1. Learn to listen actively and without interrupting others. 2. When you are out of the office or away from your desk for more than a few minutes, forward your phone to voicemail or have someone take over in your absence. 3. Use the hold button when leaving a line so that the caller does not accidentally overhear conversations being held nearby. 4. If the caller has reached a wrong number, be courteous. Sometimes a caller is transferred all over campus with a simple question and the caller gets frustrated.
  81. 81. Rules of Etiquette 5. Speak directly into the mouthpiece. If this is a problem because you use other equipment while on the telephone (i.e., computer), consider purchasing a headset 6. Don’t eat or chew gum while talking on the telephone 7. If someone walks into your office while you’re talking on the telephone, DON’T cover it with your hands (the caller may hear what you’re saying). Depress the HOLD button. 8. Don’t place the handset in the cradle until you’ve depressed the HOLD button.
  82. 82. Placing Callers On Hold • Ask your caller “May I put you on hold?” before doing so. • If you ask your caller to hold, be sure to listen to the response. • After placing your caller on hold, check back periodically (between 30-45 seconds). Give them the option to continue to hold if it will take longer to find information OR offer to call them back. • When returning to your caller, remember to thank them for waiting. • If your caller cannot hold, offer to take a message; transfer to another party; or arrange for them to return the call at a specific time. • If you are not in a position to ask your caller to hold, tell the
  83. 83. Taking Phone Messages • A good phone message includes: • Name of person for whom the message was left • Caller’s name (get the correct spelling), company or dept. and number • Date and time • Message • Action to be taken (i.e. “Please Call,” “Will call back,” or “URGENT”) • It is important to deliver the message as soon as possible and maintain confidentiality with all messages
  84. 84. FILING
  85. 85. Creation Utilization Storage Retrieval Retention/Destruction FILING CYCLE
  86. 86. Basic Filing Procedure • Inspecting • Marking • Follow up • Sorting • Filing
  87. 87. Knowledge of the filing system  Organization of files  Maintenance of records  Storage of records  Retrieval – ultimate test of filing system
  88. 88. Knowledge of the filing system Organization of files  Divide in major Groups, further divide alphabetically and kept in file pockets with name on label  Example: Major Group - Office Staff, Sales, Finance, Administration etc. Sales may contain individual files Zone A, Zone B, Zone C etc.
  89. 89. Knowledge of the filing system Maintenance of records  Read and then file  Do not file junk mail  Return files to filing cabinet as soon as possible  If more than one person uses filing system then check out cards  When file too bulky close it. Open new file – Sales Volume 2
  90. 90. Knowledge of the filing system Maintenance of records  Remove some papers and put in Volume 2 for back-up information  Write File closed see Volume 2 for further correspondence and file as last sheet in Volume 1  Buy reasonably good quality products  Maintain a Master file
  91. 91. Knowledge of the filing system Storage of records  If no sufficient space on average one drawer can carry 15 files  If bulky files not closed, they will tear file pockets  Books and Journals best in bookcase  Overhaul filing system during slack times- close fat files. Put in store, make a list, replace torn files or file pockets, open new subject files  Five year old files- ask what to do
  92. 92. Knowledge of the filing system Retrieval  If simple anyone can find a file  If difficult break into big groups and sub-groups. Explain to everyone who uses files  Keep closer to user or general access area  If letter relates to more than one subject copy and keep in both files. Cross –reference helps retrieval
  93. 93. Take Charge of Your Desk A desk is not a filing cabinet. Nor are window sills Manage your desk top so that it is clean. Clear it by end of day You will have more energy when working Inside your desk retain items you use weekly Minimum items mean more efficiency Less clutter and greater your sense of control
  94. 94. What You Can Gain by Efficient Filing 1.You become a power station for all important correspondence 2.When you read before filing, you become well informed about the office 3.By retrieving filed papers instantly, you gain respect of your boss and colleagues 4.You also become a sought-after office professional, just by filing papers efficiently
  96. 96. BASIC FILING SYSTEMS Alphabetical Filing 1. Personal names are inverted for filing in surname, forename, and middle initial sequence. Name Indexing Order Ali Ahmed Ahmed Ali Jamal A. Siddiqui Siddiqui Jamal A. S. M. Shoaib Shoaib S. M. 2. A single letter is indexed as a single word. Name Indexing Order MSS Services M S S Services
  97. 97. BASIC FILING SYSTEMS Alphabetical Filing 3. The article the and words such as and, for, on, in, by, and of are disregarded in indexing. Name Indexing Order Mahmood the Vendor Mahmood (the) Vendor The Washington Post Washington Post (The) 4. Abbreviations such as St. and Mr. are indexed as though they are spelled in full. Name Indexing Order St. Mary’s School Saint Mary’s School Mr. Saud’s Bakery Mister Saud’s Bakery
  98. 98. BASIC FILING SYSTEMS Alphabetical Filing 5. A personal or professional title is not indexed. Name Indexing Order Rafay Hasan, Ph.D. Hasan Rafay (Ph.D.) Dr. Saeed Ismail Ismail Saeed (Dr.) 6. A number is indexed as if it were spelled in full. Name Indexing Order The 21 Club Twenty-One Club (The)
  99. 99. BASIC FIILING SYSTEMS Numeric Filing Numerical filing refers to all systems in which documents are pre numbered to distinguish them from each other or from alpha documents. Numerical systems can be as simple as numbering and filing from the lowest number to the highest Numeric filing has several advantages: • It permits unlimited expansion. • It enables quick and accurate re-filing. • Data processing systems work more efficiently with numbers.
  100. 100. BASIC FIILING SYSTEMS Geographic Filing Geographic filing is a variation of alphabetical filing, and its purpose is to cluster together the records pertaining to particular sales or distribution territories. Thus the first filing priority would be geographic followed by alphabetical or numeric.
  101. 101. BASIC FIILING SYSTEMS Subject Filing This is the arranging of material by given subject. It is filing by descriptive feature instead of by name or number. Such filing involves choosing a word or phrase to stand for each subject or to point out one phase of it.
  102. 102. CHRONOLOGICAL FILING • In this method, files and folders of documents are arranged in an order of their date, day, and time. In an office, several letters and documents may be received and dispatched. They all are arranged according to time and date when they were received and dispatched
  104. 104. PROCESSING DOCUMENTS Filing cabinets overflow with irrelevant information Files are bulging and not kept up to date Reading material is stuffed into file and forgotten Memos and junk mail cover computer Important contact name is stuck on side of computer Papers obscure telephone Waste bin needs emptying, as litter is overflowing Waste paper covers floor
  105. 105. MAKING INSTANT CHANGES Organizing Paperwork Note actions you need to take Handle file or delegate Throw away everything else
  106. 106. ORGANIZING YOUR WORKSTATION • Duplicate the important numbers in your telephone file. • Alphabetize and organize file information on the spot. • Compose on the keyboard rather than taking the time to first write letters and memos etc. in long hand. • Organize your paper work into categories of extremely urgent, urgent, important, not so important etc.
  107. 107. ORGANIZATION OF YOUR WORKSTATION • Don't use your desktop for storage. • Use an adjustable paper holder. • Rely on one calendar or planner for everything. • Photocopy the important pages of your planner in case the original is lost.
  108. 108. ORGANIZATION OF YOUR WORKSTATION • If you can procure it, keep a compact paper shredder that fits on top of your waste basket. • Conduct a thorough inventory of all your documents and files every three months. • Avoid the temptation of making your in basket a storage bin. • Use colorful post its for telephone messages. • Keep a set of up dated printed directories for all your computer files.
  109. 109. STANDARDIZED TECHNIQUES • Handle papers only once • Do not use small pieces of paper • Write everything down in a note book • Keep your desk clear • Finish one job before starting another • Avoid distractions
  110. 110. Time Management
  111. 111. TIME MANAGEMENT • Work smarter. Reduce the stress of work overload. • Personal time management skills are essential skills for effective people. • Wasting time, over-committing yourself, and devoting too much time to low priority tasks are tremendous obstacles to achievement.
  112. 112. The Problem is Severe By some estimates, people waste about 2 hours per day looking for papers, documents and files- 60 percent of which are not needed anyway.
  113. 113. TIME WASTERS
  114. 114. Use of time Planning • Daily, weekly, and long range planning is essential if you are to accomplish the maximum amount of work in the most efficient way possible. • The first step in developing your plans is to identify and list the tasks that must be completed. Most time – management experts suggest that an “ABC” system be used to assign priorities to the various tasks The “A” priority The “B” priority The “C” priority
  115. 115. Time management Use of time must be: • Analyzed • Planned • Scheduled • Controlled Priority status can be determined as : Rush- R, Same day- SD, Next day- ND, Later-L etc. • Prioritize • To-do List
  116. 116. • Most and least productive times at work place • Hours of the day when most interruption occurs • Time spent on crises • Time spent on personal concerns • Tasks that can be streamlined, delegated or eliminated • Tasks requiring short time are priority tasks or time fillers • Tasks which are urgent can be scheduled/started earlier • Large tasks which can be broken into smaller segments • Times when pace was slow or fast Time management: The daily log helps give insight on:
  117. 117. The 10 principles of managing time 1. Find out where your time goes, by keeping a daily log of your activities and how much time it takes to do them (time diary) 2. Learn why your time goes where it does. Use time as capital and invest it where the returns are the highest. 3. Minimize your time commitments. Take on what fits into your daily agenda and your goals. Don’t be a “popular” loser. 4. Sort out your priorities and classify them. 5. Be ruthless about distractions & time wasters
  118. 118. The 10 principles of managing time 6. Review job description: List what you should be doing and what you do. 7. Locate information in a hurry. 8. Break the procrastination habits. 9. Delegate according to ability and to the right person. 10. Act smarter not harder
  119. 119. The four-quadrant TO DO List 1 2 3 4 Important Not Important Urgent Not Urgent
  120. 120. Why do we put off things • Complicated tasks. • Preference to socialize rather than do your job. • Lack of concentration and self-discipline. • Unfamiliarity with the task. • Wanting to stay in your comfort zone • Fear of making mistakes.
  121. 121. 1.Learn the job 2.Prioritize, in order to finish jobs. 3.Adopt a flexible plan 4.Manage details 5.Control a large project 6.Work on one task at a time 7.Start the day with a difficult task 8.Group similar tasks 9.Program relaxation in your schedule 10.Get it right the first time 11.Use bits and pieces of time Establishing effective work habits
  122. 122. Establishing effective work habits 12. Prepare in advance 13. Complete a task 14. Cope with interruptions 15. Make a daily plan 16. Position materials and tools within easy reach 17. Be a self starter, take initiative. 18. Do not wait for the boss to prompt you. 19. Work overtime with permission if required. 20. Resist loosing composure under pressure. 21. Initiate a positive work culture by being punctual.
  124. 124. Travel Arrangements - an Introduction Companies can have one of three arrangements: • have their own travel departments, • work with outside travel agencies, or • have their employees make their own travel plans. In any event, secretaries must know how to make travel arrangements – whether they do this independently or with the assistance of a travel agent.
  125. 125. A. Planning the trip • Secretaries often have a larger / more active role to play in domestic trips as compared to foreign trips. • The first step is to set up a folder in which all materials related to the trip can be kept, such as hotel reservations, notes about business to be conducted, and information about people to be seen etc.
  126. 126. • The information needed about the trip before any arrangements are made is – a. destination, b. intermediate stops, either going or returning or both, c. dates of departure and return, d. date and time of the first business appointment and the time needed between the arrival and the appointment. e. preferred time of day for travel, f. method of travel (air, rail, bus, or automobile), g. Kind of service desired / sanctioned (first class, business, economy) h. hotel preference or desired location of the hotel within the city i. need for transportation at the destination or at intermediate stops j. if a car rental is involved, the make of the car preferred.
  127. 127. Determine the company regulations on travel a. Daily expense limitations, b. The number of company employees allowed to fly on the same plane, c. Use of a company car may be mandatory, d. There may be some preference on the use of company credit cards, rather than personal ones, e. Where and how to get travel advances and how to report expenses, f. The class of service allowed. • The above considerations will outline the information you will need from the executive going on the trip. This may be compiled in the form of a list. • Next, set up a tentative itinerary. • Keep in mind the time difference between the home city and the destination city.
  128. 128. • B. Making arrangements Make the reservations as soon as the plans have been made, since 1. Travel facilities are increasingly crowded, 2. One can get the preferred arrangements, 3.One may be able to avail special fares • Sources of travel information: Maintain a file containing schedules of the airlines serving your city, train schedules, bus schedules, road maps, and reference books issued by the relevant ministries and the tourism department and credit card organizations.
  129. 129. Have ready at hand the following information – 1. The office address 2. The telephone number 3. The traveling executive’s home address and telephone number 4. A list of the cities he plans to visit 5. The length of stay in each and the earliest time of the day at which he can leave each city.
  130. 130. C. Airtransportation • Be aware of “frequent-flier” programs of particular airlines. If your superior travels frequently, try and book reservations on these airlines. • The most desirable flights are those on which passengers are less likely to be delayed or inconvenienced. Therefore, when arranging, consider the flights available in the following order: a. A nonstop flight from point of departure to the destination. b. A direct flight – regardless of the number of stops en route, the passenger remains on the plane from departure to destination; or, when a change of aircraft is involved, the same flight number is maintained throughout. c. A flight connecting with another flight of the same airline. d. A flight connecting with a flight of another airline.
  131. 131. Flight reservations: oWhen reading an airline schedule, remember that the times stated are all local times. oIn deciding on a particular flight, the key factor is the time at which the executive must be at the destination. oThe first flight out may not be the best one to take. Because it will have several stops in between, it may reach later than a flight that starts later. o Consider the weather. Find out about alternative flights and other possible means of transportation if the weather conditions at the time of the year are likely to cause trouble. oGive this information to your superior or clip it to the back of the itinerary.
  132. 132. a. Changing reservations: Be careful when you change a confirmed reservation. Clearly specify the part or “leg” of the total trip which requires to be changed. In some cases involving special reduced fares, changes or cancellations may require the payment of a penalty. b. Open returns: These tickets are obtained when the exact time of leaving is not known. This ticket eliminates the need for a trip to the booking office when the time has been ascertained. A call to the airline office should get the executive a seat against the open reservation.
  133. 133. Hotel reservations • Determine preferences as to specific hotels / motels, and type of room desired, arrival and departure times and dates, cost limitations, and any special arrangements such as a conference room etc. • Hotels have time deadlines for holding reservations. There are two ways to make sure that the reservations will be held even if the executive arrives after the hotel’s deadline for holding rooms. • One way is to mention to the reserving authority that the room is to be held for late arrival. You may be asked to pay a night’s charges in advance. • The other way is to ask that the reservation be for a guaranteed arrival, which means that the room will be paid for even if it is not used.
  134. 134. Foreign travel • You will be required to work through a travel agent. • The information you require is much the same as for domestic travel. • Some of the information and service you can expect from a travel agency are -- a. free literature and services, b. suggestions on means of travel and on desirable accommodations, c. hotel, transportation, car rental reservations, d. information on necessary travel documents and where and how to obtain them, e. baggage and travel insurance, f. ideas on sight seeing, g. tickets for special events, and h. customs regulations • When discussing the arrangements find out – a. if there is any fees in addition to the basic costs such as airport landing and departure taxes, b. what to do if all or part of the trip is cancelled, and c. when and in what amount a deposit is to be made.
  135. 135. Travel documents:The basic documentsneeded are a. Passport. b. Visas – this is a written permission to enter a country. The travel agency can help to obtain one. c. Health certificates – these are inoculation certificates. Their need depends upon the diseases prevalent in the area where the executive is traveling. The forms for the certificates can be obtained from either the travel agency or the local health authorities. Keep track of their renewal schedule. d. International driver’s license.
  136. 136. Other travel-related activities • The itinerary – this is a summary of all the arrangements for a trip so that the executive will know exactly where to go and what to do. Make several copies. The executive keeps one. You will have one as you need to know where to forward the mail and where the executive can be reached. Other people in the office, with whom the executive interacts closely, will need one. The executive’s family may need one too. Include in the itinerary any reminders that you think will be necessary e.g. which files you have included, when to reconfirm flights, telephone numbers etc. Keep a separate card for each day’s activities and attach all such cards to the master itinerary
  137. 137. Itinerary sample ITINERARY Mr. Syed Hadi January 1, 2019 ( Islamabad– Karachi – Islamabad ) Tuesday, January 1 4.40 pm. PST Departure Isl Islamabad Int’l Airport Serene Air 305 Airbus A300 Snack served 8.10 pm. PST Arrive Khi Quaid e Azam Int’lAirport Accommodation: Moven Pick Club Road, Civil Lines (reservation confirmed for late arrival) Wednesday, January 2 10 am – 12 noon Presentation to Mustafa A. Khan. Conference room, 4th floor. FTC Building, Shahrah e Faisal. File no. 1 in briefcase. 12 noon – 2 pm Lunch with Mustafa A. Khan and Saeed Rizvi at the FTC Building dining room. 2pm – 5pm Tour of the XYZ manufacturing facility at (address) with Saeed Rizvi 6 pm Departure Khi Quaid e Azam Int’l Airport PIA PK 306
  138. 138. • Items the executive needs: a. Transportation tickets. b. Hotel confirmations or reservation numbers. c. Information about alternative transportation. d. Itinerary and daily activity cards. e. Travel funds, credit cards, traveler’s checks. f. A list of numbers of credit cards and traveler’s checks. g. Expense account forms. h. Business calling cards. i. Travel documents. j. Files – copies only. k. Office supplies and stamps. l. Background information on people to be seen. m. Reading materials. n. Diskettes or film – to be hand carried.
  139. 139. • Checklist for the trip: Immediately before a trip, carry out the following responsibilities – a. If the trip will involve several days, notify associates and other company people who may need to see the executive before s/he leaves. b. Determine who is to take decisions in the executive’s absence. c. Check the calendar to find out what is to be done about meetings and other activities until his/her return. d. Ask whether special mail is to be forwarded. e. Ask whether there are any personal matters, such as a paycheck, that the executive wants taken care of. f. Make lists of files the executive will take on the trip. g. Prepare a list of credit card numbers, traveler’s check numbers, and numbers of travel documents to have on file in case of loss. The executive should also have a copy of these numbers.
  140. 140. Interimofficeoperations: • The office needs to be run in the executives absence. Some of the activities are – a. Answer routine letters, acknowledge others, and send copies of urgent items to the executive. Keep a log of important mail and how it has been handled. b. Make judgment on when to telephone the executive if s/he does not call in regularly. If you do receive periodic calls, be prepared with a list of items that should be brought to the executive’s attention. c. Keep a record of the important office activities for the executive’s information. d. Schedule appointments after the trip, allowing time first for the executive to catch up on business that has resulted from the trip or that has accumulated during the time away from office.
  141. 141. Follow-up As soon as the executive returns, ensure the following – a. Brief the executive rapidly on important events that occurred during his absence. b. Give the executive the folders of materials you have been accumulating for his/her information and attention. c. If expense accounts must be submitted for each trip rather than monthly, complete the expense account as soon as possible and return any money left over from travel advances. d. Help with the preparation of any reports resulting from the trip. e. Check and return to the files any original materials the executive took on the trip. f. Determine whether any materials have been sent in from points on the trip, making a note to watch for them. g. Update the files with information the executive may have collected. h. Follow up any baggage claims.
  142. 142. 12 WORKING STYLESOF BOSSES & HOW TO KEEP THEM HAPPY As bosses come in different shapes and sizes, their working styles are also different. Identify your boss’s working style so that you can do your best to fit in and learn how to keep your boss happy
  143. 143. Managing your Boss  Sticks to the rules and likes paper work  Not a great risk taker
  144. 144.  Results are more important to this boss than dotting I’s & crossing t’s  So long as things are going well, he won’t be too concerned with details Don’t bother this boss with petty details Just focus on getting the results he wants
  145. 145. How to keep your boss happy?  Don’t be secretive around this boss  He won’t be bothered with every detail of what you do but he want your general approach to be as open as his
  146. 146.  Never tells you what’s going on until he decides that you need to know  It is frustrating because sometimes you need to know more than he realizes How to keep your boss happy?  Don’t ask for the information that you don’t require  If you need to know something explain why, so that he realizes that you need to know
  147. 147.  Not the same as being bureaucratic, although it often goes alongside it  This boss will breathe down your neck most of the time, always want to know the nitty- gritty of what you are doing & why How to keep your boss happy?  Give this boss plenty of progress reports & supply all the details he want  This can enhance his trust on you
  148. 148.  This boss doesn’t want to be hassled with minor details  He is concerned with objectives & results & how they are achieved is your concern, not his How to keep your boss happy?  Don’t trouble him with small things, take initiative  Express suggestions & ideas in terms of objectives & results that interest this boss
  149. 149.  Originality & inventiveness are what grab this boss & he wants ideas & creative suggestions from you about everything from how to double sales to a novel approach to the office party How to keep your boss happy?  Learn from him & other sources like books on how to exercise your creative mind so that you can approach problems & challenges in the same way the boss does
  150. 150.  He likes all ideas & suggestions to be based on logical reasoning, not on creative leaps of the imagination  Facts & figures should back up every argument How to keep your boss happy?  Make sure you have data to justify every proposal or solution you bring to this boss
  151. 151.  A tidy desk & a well-kept planner or diary are the hallmarks of this boss  He likes plenty of lists & always know what the priorities are, both short & long term How to keep your boss happy?  Look organized yourself  This boss won’t believe you can work effectively if your desk is a mess & you are always late for meetings
  152. 152.  This boss may work very effectively but he doesn’t look it  Papers all over the place, always wondering where he is supposed to be next & never quite appearing to be on top of the job How to keep your boss happy?  Learn to anticipate what he wants  Give him plenty of reminders before deadlines but don’t give the impression that you’re nannying him
  153. 153.  New projects get this boss excited & he is always looking to initiate schemes & ideas How to keep your boss happy?  Show enthusiasm for his ideas and be ready with plenty of your own, geared towards key objectives
  154. 154.  This boss spends more time responding to issues & ideas than initiating new ones  He tends to be more thoughtful & less inclined to take risks How to keep your boss happy?  Don’t try him to get to launch endless new projects  Concentrate on getting the job done thoroughly & seeing things through to completion
  155. 155. In conclusion . . . Whether your boss’s working style is included in this list or not, you would know by now that it is not hard to keep your boss happy once you have identified his working style It is really about how you work in relation to your boss, not how you work when you are left alone
  156. 156. Serenity Prayer God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.