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tractor and related equipments

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tractor and related equipments
like bulldozer

Publicado en: Ingeniería
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tractor and related equipments

  1. 1. The earth moving equipment can be broadly divided into two groups  Excavating equipment  Excavating and earth moving equipment
  2. 2. Tractor:  Tractor is an engineering vehicle specially designed to deliver a high tractive effort or torque at slow speeds for the purpose of hauling a trailer or machinery used in construction.  These are multi purpose machines used mainly for pulling and pushing the other equipments or heavy loads.  They are also used for agricultural purposes.
  3. 3. Tractor Uses:  Primary purpose is to pull or push loads,  Also used as mounts for many types of accessories  There are types and sizes to fit almost any job for which they are usable.
  4. 4. FACTORS FOR SELECTION  1. The size required for a given job  2. The kind of job for which it will be used  3. The type of footing over which it will operate  4. The firmness of the haul road  5. The smoothness of the haul road  6. The slope of the haul road  7. The length of the haul road  8. Finally, the type of work it will do after this job is completed.
  5. 5. TYPES OF TRACTORS Crawler Tractors:  Usually rated by size or weight and power.  The weight is important on many projects because the maximum tractive effort that a unit can provide is limited to the product of weight times the coefficient of traction for the unit and the particular road surface, regardless of the power supplied by the engine.  Most manufacturers make crawler tractors with some or all models. Wheel Tractors:  Either two-wheel or four-wheel.  One of the primary advantages of a wheel tractor compared with a crawler tractor is the higher speed that may exceed (50 km/hr).  In order to attain a higher speed a wheel tractor must sacrifice pulling effort.  Because of lower coefficient of traction between rubber tires and soil surfaces, the wheel tractor may slip its wheels before developing its rated pulling effort.
  6. 6. COMPARISON BETWEEN CRAWLER TRACTOR AND WHEELED TRACTOR Crawler type  Slow speed  More compact and powerful and can handle heavier jobs  Costly  Cost of operation and maintenance is high  Stick control for steering  Moves on rough roads only  Used for short distances  Requires skillful operation, maintenance and repairs Wheeled type  Greater speed  Can handle only lighter jobs  Cheaper  Operation and maintenance cost is less  Wheel steering controlled  Moves on rough as well as good roads  Used for longer distance  Lesser skills required for operation, maintenance and repairs
  7. 7. RELATED EQUIPMENTS The other related equipments are  Scrapers  Bull Dozers
  8. 8. Scrapers  scrapers have an important position in the earth moving field.  It is a unique machine for digging and long distance hauling.  It is a self-operating machine.  The wheels of the machine cause some compaction. The ability of these machines to deposit the loads in uniformly thick layers facilitates the succeeding spreading operations.  They are classified as Crawler -tractor- pulled and wheel- tractor- pulled, depending on the type of tractor used to pull them.  The basic parts of scrapers are bowl, apron and tail gate and ejector.
  9. 9. Bull Dozer  Commonly used in construction projects.  It is a heavy steel blade mounded on the front of the tractor.  The tractor can be of Crawler or Wheeled type.  The heavy blade attached to the tractor pushes the materials from one place to another.
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATIONS BASED ON POSITION OF BLADES  Bull dozers with blades perpendicular to the direction of movement  Angle dozers in which the blade is set an angle with the direction of movement. BASED ON MOUNTINGS  Wheel mounted  Crawler mounted BASED ON THE CONTROL  Cable controlled  Hydraulically controlled
  11. 11. Applications  For spreading the earth fill  For opening up pilot road through mountainous and rocky terrains  Clearing construction sites  Maintaining hawl roads  Clearing land from trees and stems  Backfilling trenches at constructions sites by earth from one place to another.

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