1. Parts of The Speech &
Referents and Expletives
By N. Valdelomar
2. Parts of Speech
Traditional grammar usually
classifies words based on eight
parts of speech: nouns,
adjectives, adverbs, verbs,
conjunctions, and interjections.
blocks of a
• Luisa read.
• Luisa read a book.
• Luisa read a book
• Luisa read a book to him
• Wow! Luisa wrote and
read a book to him
4. Why should we know the parts of speech?
To understand grammar explanations.
To use the right word form in the right place.
To find the correct word in the dictionary.
5. Knowing the
of speech can
g of a text.
It can help you to…
- infer a word’s meaning
based on the context
- determine the word’s
importance within the
- have clues to see how words
relate to each other and make
sense of what you are reading.
• A noun is a naming
word. It names a
person, place, thing,
idea, living creature,
quality, or action.
theatre, box, thought,
tree, kindness, arrival
• A verb is a word
which describes an
something) or a state
Examples: walk, talk,
think, believe, live,
like, want, am, was
• An adjective is a word that
describes a noun. It tells you
something about the noun.
Examples: big, yellow, thin,
amazing, beautiful, quick,
An adverb is a word which usually
describes a verb, an adjective, or another
adverb. It tells you how something is
done. It may also tell you when, how, or
where something happened.
Examples: slowly, intelligently, well,
yesterday, tomorrow, here, everywhere
A pronoun is used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the noun.
Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
A conjunction joins two words, phrases or sentences together.
Examples: but, so, and, because, or
A preposition usually comes before a noun, pronoun or noun
phrase. It joins the noun to some other part of the sentence.
Examples: on, in, by, with, under, through, at
An interjection is an unusual kind of word, because it often
stands alone. Interjections are words which express emotion or
surprise, and they are usually followed by exclamation marks.
Examples: Ouch!, Hello!, Hurray!, Oh no!, Ha!
What is a Pronoun?
A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or noun
Pronouns usually refer to something that was already
mentioned in a previous sentence or understood by
the listener or reader. They are very useful words
because when you use them, you do not need to
repeat nouns all the time.
Alex is my neighbor. Alex says that Alex likes to
sleep. The wife of Alex gave Alex a new bed.
Alex is my neighbor. He says that he likes to sleep.
His wife gave him a new bed.
1st person I me my mine myself
2nd person you you your yours yourself
3rd person (m) he him his his himself
3rd person (f) she her her hers herself
3rd person (n) it it its (not used) itself
1st person (pl.) we us our ours ourselves
2nd person (pl.) you you your yours yourselves
3rd person (pl) they them their theirs themselves
Pronoun test : ___ will go. Max saw ___. That's ___ name. The car is ___.
(subj) saw (reflx)
in the mirror.
• When a pronoun replaces a word (or a
group of words), the word being replaced is
called an antecedent or referent.
Example: I wrote a letter to the president, who
In that sentence, president is antecedent
of the pronoun who.
• A pronoun must agree with its
antecedent in person, number, and gender.
The word expletive comes from the
Latin verb explere which means “to fill.”
Expletives are words that perform a
syntactic role but contribute nothing to
meaning. That means that an expletive
has a grammatical function but does not
have semantic content.
15. IT as a referent
• “IT” is a referent when it refers to a noun
that was already mentioned
Example: I saw a shooting star. I saw it
crossing the night sky.
IT as an expletive
• “IT” is used in impersonal sentences that
require, for grammatical reasons, a subject
at the beginning. It does not refer to
Example: It is raining.
16. THERE as a referent
“THERE” is a referent when it designates a place.
Example: I saw my cat sleeping by the window. She was there.
THERE as an expletive
When “THERE” is part of the formula THERE + aux. + S, which designates the existence of a subject, it
is an expletive.
Example: There is a cat sleeping by the window.