SlideShare emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestras Condiciones de uso y nuestra Política de privacidad para más información.
SlideShare emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestra Política de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para más información.
Diffusion and Adoption category
Dr. Nischay K. Patel
Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated
through certain channels over time among the members of social
It is a special type of communication in which the messages are
compared with a new idea.
It is the newness of the idea in the message content of communication
that gives diffusion its special character
Diffusion is a kind of social change, defined as the process by which
alteration occurs in the structure and functions of a social system.
When new ideas are formed, diffused and adopted or rejected, leading
to certain consequences, social change occurs.
It is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better
than the idea it supersedes.
The degree of relative advantage may be measured in
economic terms, but social prestige factors, convenience and
satisfaction are also often important components.
The greater the perceived relative advantage of an
innovation, the more rapid its rate of adoption is going to be.
It is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as
being consistent with the existing values, past
experience and needs of potential adopters.
An idea that is not compatible with the prevalent values
and norms of a social system will not be adopted as
rapidly as an innovation that is compatible.
An example of incompatible innovation is the use of
contraceptives in countries where religious beliefs
discourage use of birth control measures, as in Muslim
and Catholic nations.
It is the degree to which an innovation is perceived
as difficult to understand and use.
Some innovations are readily understood by most
members of a social system; others are more
complicated and adopted more slowly.
In general, new ideas that are simpler to
understand will be adopted more rapidly than
innovations that require the adopter to develop new
skills and understandings.
It is the degree to which an innovation may be
experimented with on a limited basis. New ideas
that can be tried on the instalment plan will
generally be adopted more quickly than
innovations that are not divisible.
An innovation that is trialable represents less
uncertainty to the individual who is considering it
for adoption, as it is possible to learn by doing..
It is the degree to which the results of an
innovation are visible to others.
The easier it is for individuals to see the results of
an innovation, the more likely they are to adopt.
In general, innovation that are perceived by
receivers as having greater relative advantage,
compatibility, trialabiIity, observability and less
complexity will be adopted more rapidly than other
Elements in the diffusion of
Rogers defined an innovation as "an idea,
practice, or object that is perceived as new by
an individual or other unit of adoption“
2. Communication channels
Communication channels are the means by which
messages get from one individual to another.
For example, mass media channels are often the most rapid
and efficient means to inform an audience or a potential
adopter about the existence of an innovation, that is, to
create awareness about it.
Mass media channels are all those means of transmitting
messages that involve a mass medium, such as radio, TV,
newspaper etc, which enable a source of one/ a few
individuals to reach an audience of many.
On the other hand, interpersonal channels are more
effective in persuading an individual to adopt an idea,
especially if the interpersonal channel links two or more
individuals who are near peers. Interpersonal
communications involve face-to-face exchange between two
or more individuals.
The time dimension is involved in diffusion: in the
innovation-decision process by which an individual
passes from first knowledge of an innovation to its
adoption or rejection, in the innovativeness of an
individual i.e., the relative earliness/lateness with which
an innovation is adopted compared with other members
of a system, and an innovation's rate of adoption in a
system, is usually measured as the number of members
of the system that adopt the innovation in a given time
4. Social system
A social system is defined as a set of interrelated units that are
engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal.
The members or units of social system may be individuals,
informal groups, and/ or subs-systems.
The social system constitutes boundary within which an
innovation diffuses. The social structure, norms, roles of opinion
leaders and change agents affects the degree of diffusion
Adoption process is the mental process through
which an individual passes from hearing about an
innovation to final adoption.
" The adoption behaviour of an individual farmer
has been conceptualized by researchers as a
process composed of a number of successive
At this stage an individual becomes aware of some new
ideas. He knows about the existence of the idea, but he
lacks details about it.
For instance, he may know only the name and may not
know what the idea or product is, what it will do or how it
This is stage has been observed by some authors as the
stage is to initiate the sequence of later stages, which will
lead to adoption or discontinuance or rejection.
This is stage otherwise known as stage of random or non-
At this stage an individual wants more information
about the idea or product.
He wants to know what it is, how it works and what it
The individual favours the information but he has not
yet judged its utility in his work situation the main
function of this stage is to increase the individual's
information about the innovation.
This stage is otherwise known as knowledge stage
and interest information stage.
At this stage the individual mentally applies the
innovation to his present or future anticipated
situation and then decides whether to try the
innovation or not.
He asks himself: "Can I do it? And if I do it, will it be
better than what I am doing now, will it increase my
income; or otherwise bring me satisfaction?"
This stage has been described by some researchers
as application, acceptance and conviction stage.
At this stage the individual uses the innovation in a
small scale in order to determine the utility of the
innovation in his own situation.
The purpose or main function of this stage is to
demonstrate the new idea in the individual's own
situation and determine its usefulness for possible
This stage has been described by some authors as dry-
run stage. Rejection of innovation may also occur at
At this stage the individual decides to continue the full use of
the innovation. The main function of this stage is
consideration of the trial results and decide to continue the
It is a decision to cease use of an innovation after
previously adopting it.
It is a decision not to adopt an innovation.
It is obvious that people do not adopt new ideas at the
Some people adopt ideas when they are first introduced,
others wait a long time; while some never adopt an idea.
The criterion for adopter categorization is innovativeness,
which is the degree to which an individual is relatively
earlier to adopt new ideas than other members of his
The research shows significant differences in selected
personal and social characteristics when people are
classified into five categories according to time of
adoption, as follows:
They are venturesome and the first people to
adopt new idea.
They are very few in number. Have larger farms -
High net worth and risk capital- Willing to take risk
- Usually not aged Generally well educated -
Mentally alert and actively seeking new ideas.
They often by pass the local extension worker in
getting information from the originating sources
and may learn about new things even before he
They subscribe too many farm magazines and
They are respectable.
While innovators are cosmopolite, early adopters are
Younger than others but not necessarily younger than
They are quickest to use tried ideas in their own
Have large farms,higher education - high income.
The early adopter category is generally sought by
change agents as a local missionary for speeding the
They read newspapers and farm journals and receive
more bulletins than people who adopt later. They may
be regarded as "Community adoption leaders".
They are deliberate (local adoption leaders), and
slightly above average in age, education and farming
experience. They have medium high social and
They adopt new ideas just before the average
members of social system.
They are most likely to be informal leaders, but not
holders of elected positions. They associate mainly
with people of their own community.
They are skeptical.
The late majority adopt new ideas just after the average
member of a social system.
Those in this group have less education and are older
than the early majority.
Pressure of peers is necessary to motivate them to adopt
They take fewer leadership roles than the earlier adopters
i.e., little opinion leadership.
They read few newspapers and journals.
They have little mass media exposure.
They are below average in social status,have small
farms, little specialisation and less income.
They are traditional.
Laggards are the last in the social system to adopt
Decisions are often made in terms of what has
been done in previous generations and these
individuals' interests primarily with others who also
have relatively traditional values.
They have least education - Old people - Smallest
farm- Lowest income - Little specialisation.
They possess very little opinion leadership.