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Diffusion and adoption

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Diffusion and adoption

  1. 1. Diffusion and Adoption category Dr. Nischay K. Patel
  2. 2. Diffusion  Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of social system.  It is a special type of communication in which the messages are compared with a new idea.  It is the newness of the idea in the message content of communication that gives diffusion its special character  Diffusion is a kind of social change, defined as the process by which alteration occurs in the structure and functions of a social system. When new ideas are formed, diffused and adopted or rejected, leading to certain consequences, social change occurs.
  3. 3. Relative advantage  It is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes.  The degree of relative advantage may be measured in economic terms, but social prestige factors, convenience and satisfaction are also often important components.  The greater the perceived relative advantage of an innovation, the more rapid its rate of adoption is going to be.
  4. 4. Compatibility It is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experience and needs of potential adopters. An idea that is not compatible with the prevalent values and norms of a social system will not be adopted as rapidly as an innovation that is compatible. An example of incompatible innovation is the use of contraceptives in countries where religious beliefs discourage use of birth control measures, as in Muslim and Catholic nations.
  5. 5. Complexity It is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use. Some innovations are readily understood by most members of a social system; others are more complicated and adopted more slowly. In general, new ideas that are simpler to understand will be adopted more rapidly than innovations that require the adopter to develop new skills and understandings.
  6. 6. Trialablity/divisibility It is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. New ideas that can be tried on the instalment plan will generally be adopted more quickly than innovations that are not divisible. An innovation that is trialable represents less uncertainty to the individual who is considering it for adoption, as it is possible to learn by doing..
  7. 7. Observability/communicabil ity It is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. The easier it is for individuals to see the results of an innovation, the more likely they are to adopt. In general, innovation that are perceived by receivers as having greater relative advantage, compatibility, trialabiIity, observability and less complexity will be adopted more rapidly than other innovations.
  8. 8. Elements in the diffusion of innovations 1. Innovation Rogers defined an innovation as "an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption“
  9. 9. 2. Communication channels  Communication channels are the means by which messages get from one individual to another.  For example, mass media channels are often the most rapid and efficient means to inform an audience or a potential adopter about the existence of an innovation, that is, to create awareness about it.  Mass media channels are all those means of transmitting messages that involve a mass medium, such as radio, TV, newspaper etc, which enable a source of one/ a few individuals to reach an audience of many.  On the other hand, interpersonal channels are more effective in persuading an individual to adopt an idea, especially if the interpersonal channel links two or more individuals who are near peers. Interpersonal communications involve face-to-face exchange between two or more individuals.
  10. 10. 3. Time The time dimension is involved in diffusion: in the innovation-decision process by which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation to its adoption or rejection, in the innovativeness of an individual i.e., the relative earliness/lateness with which an innovation is adopted compared with other members of a system, and an innovation's rate of adoption in a system, is usually measured as the number of members of the system that adopt the innovation in a given time period.
  11. 11. 4. Social system  A social system is defined as a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal. The members or units of social system may be individuals, informal groups, and/ or subs-systems.  The social system constitutes boundary within which an innovation diffuses. The social structure, norms, roles of opinion leaders and change agents affects the degree of diffusion process.
  12. 12. Adoption Process Adoption process is the mental process through which an individual passes from hearing about an innovation to final adoption. " The adoption behaviour of an individual farmer has been conceptualized by researchers as a process composed of a number of successive stages.
  13. 13. Awareness At this stage an individual becomes aware of some new ideas. He knows about the existence of the idea, but he lacks details about it. For instance, he may know only the name and may not know what the idea or product is, what it will do or how it will work. This is stage has been observed by some authors as the stage is to initiate the sequence of later stages, which will lead to adoption or discontinuance or rejection. This is stage otherwise known as stage of random or non- purposive occurrence.
  14. 14. Interest At this stage an individual wants more information about the idea or product. He wants to know what it is, how it works and what it potentialities are. The individual favours the information but he has not yet judged its utility in his work situation the main function of this stage is to increase the individual's information about the innovation. This stage is otherwise known as knowledge stage and interest information stage.
  15. 15. Evaluation At this stage the individual mentally applies the innovation to his present or future anticipated situation and then decides whether to try the innovation or not. He asks himself: "Can I do it? And if I do it, will it be better than what I am doing now, will it increase my income; or otherwise bring me satisfaction?" This stage has been described by some researchers as application, acceptance and conviction stage.
  16. 16. Trial  At this stage the individual uses the innovation in a small scale in order to determine the utility of the innovation in his own situation.  The purpose or main function of this stage is to demonstrate the new idea in the individual's own situation and determine its usefulness for possible complete adoption.  This stage has been described by some authors as dry- run stage. Rejection of innovation may also occur at this stage.
  17. 17. Adoption  At this stage the individual decides to continue the full use of the innovation. The main function of this stage is consideration of the trial results and decide to continue the innovation. Discontinuance: It is a decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it. Rejection: It is a decision not to adopt an innovation.
  18. 18. Adopter Categories  It is obvious that people do not adopt new ideas at the same time.  Some people adopt ideas when they are first introduced, others wait a long time; while some never adopt an idea.  The criterion for adopter categorization is innovativeness, which is the degree to which an individual is relatively earlier to adopt new ideas than other members of his social system.  The research shows significant differences in selected personal and social characteristics when people are classified into five categories according to time of adoption, as follows:
  19. 19. Innovators They are venturesome and the first people to adopt new idea. They are very few in number. Have larger farms - High net worth and risk capital- Willing to take risk - Usually not aged Generally well educated - Mentally alert and actively seeking new ideas. They often by pass the local extension worker in getting information from the originating sources and may learn about new things even before he does. They subscribe too many farm magazines and specialised publications
  20. 20. Early adopters  They are respectable.  While innovators are cosmopolite, early adopters are localite.  Younger than others but not necessarily younger than the innovators.  They are quickest to use tried ideas in their own situation.  Have large farms,higher education - high income.  The early adopter category is generally sought by change agents as a local missionary for speeding the diffusion process.  They read newspapers and farm journals and receive more bulletins than people who adopt later. They may be regarded as "Community adoption leaders".
  21. 21. Early majority They are deliberate (local adoption leaders), and slightly above average in age, education and farming experience. They have medium high social and economic status. They adopt new ideas just before the average members of social system. They are most likely to be informal leaders, but not holders of elected positions. They associate mainly with people of their own community.
  22. 22. Late majority They are skeptical. The late majority adopt new ideas just after the average member of a social system. Those in this group have less education and are older than the early majority. Pressure of peers is necessary to motivate them to adopt new ideas. They take fewer leadership roles than the earlier adopters i.e., little opinion leadership. They read few newspapers and journals. They have little mass media exposure. They are below average in social status,have small farms, little specialisation and less income.
  23. 23. Laggards They are traditional. Laggards are the last in the social system to adopt an innovation. Decisions are often made in terms of what has been done in previous generations and these individuals' interests primarily with others who also have relatively traditional values. They have least education - Old people - Smallest farm- Lowest income - Little specialisation. They possess very little opinion leadership.

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