2. What Disadvantages Do Women Face?
1) Literacy Rate - 54% for women.76% for men showing disparity
2) Smaller proportion of girls go for higher studies
3) Preferential treatment meted out to boy`s education rather
than for girls
4) Proportion of women among highly paid and valued job is
5) Equal wages Act provides equal wages but discrimination
continues in sports, cinema, factories and fields
6) Preference to have sons and abortion of girl child
7) Sex selective abortions have led to decline in child sex ratio
8) Various types of harassment, exploitation and violence
9) Urban areas too have become unsafe for women
3. Solution To This Problem…
1) To make it legally binding to have a fair
proportion of women in elected bodies
2) Reservation of 1/3 seats in local bodies
3) 10 lakh elected representatives in rural and
urban local bodies
4) Demand for 1/3 seats in Lok Sabha and
4. Give A Few Instances That Involve
Relationship Between Religion & Politics.
1) Gandhiji believed that politics must be
guided by ethics drawn from religion
2) Human rights groups demanding the
Government to take special steps to protect
3) Women`s movements want Government to
change family laws to make it equitable
• To place ones community above everything
including the nation
When does it begin?
• When religion is seen as the basis of the
When does it become acute?
• When religion is expressed in politics in
exclusive and partisan terms
• When one religion and its followers
are pitted against the other
What factors promote communalism?
1) Beliefs of one religion are presented as
superior to those of other religions.
2) When demands of one religious group are
formed in opposition to another.
3) When state power is used to establish
domination of one religious group over the
What is Communal Politics?
• It is based on the idea that religion is
the principal basis of social community.
What Do Communalists Think?
1) Followers of one religion must belong to one
2) Their fundamental interests are same.
3) People who follow different religions cannot
belong to the same social community.
What forms can Communalism take in Politics?
1) It involves religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious
communities and belief in the superiority of one`s
religion over other religions.
2) Communal mind leads to a quest for Political dominance
of one’s own religious communities.
3) If it is a Majority community – Majoritarian Dominance.
4) If it is a Minority community – It forms a separate
5) Political mobilisation – using symbols, religious leader`s
emotional appeal and plain fear in order to
bring the followers of one religion together in
6) Communal violence.
9. Secular State…
1) There is no official religion for India.
Constitution does not offer special status to
2) Constitution provides to all freedom to profess,
practice and propagate any religion.
3) Constitution prohibits discrimination on
grounds of religion.
4) State will intervene in matters of religion to
ensure equality within religious communities.
It bans un-touchability.
10. Caste & Politics…
• Hereditary occupational division sanctioned
• Members of the same caste group formed
similar occupation, married within the caste
and did not eat with members from other
11. Efforts Taken to Check Casteism…
1) Political leaders and social reformers like JOTHIBHA
PHULE,GANDHIJI,AMBEDKAR and EVR PERIYAR have
done a lot to check casteism.
2) Socio economic changes have brought in a check.
3) Large scale urbanisation.
4) Literacy and education.
5) Occupational mobility.
6) Weakening of the position of landlords.
7) Constitution prohibited caste based discrimination.
12. Caste & Politics…
Why is there a disproportionately large
presence of Upper Caste among Urban Middle
• Groups that did not have access to education
were prohibited from acquiring it have lagged
13. Caste can take various forms in Politics…
1) During the choice of candidates before an
election , care is taken that the composition of
electorate and nomination of candidates from
different castes to muster support to win
2) During formation of Governments, political
parties take care that representatives of
different castes and tribes find a place in it.
3) To make appeals to caste sentiment to muster
4) Universal adult franchise - one person one
14. Elections are all about Caste & nothing
1) No parliamentary constituency has a clear
majority of one single caste. Every candidate
/party must win the confidence of more than
one caste and community to win elections.
2) No party wins the votes of all voters of a caste
3) Many political parties may put up candidates
from same caste.
4) Ruling party /sitting MP losing election could
not have happened if all castes and communities
were frozen in political preferences.
15. What forms does Caste take when it is
1) Caste group becomes big by including
2) Party enters into a coalition with other
3) Rise of backward caste and forward caste
16. Effects of Exclusive Attention to Caste…
• Is negative.
• Politics based on caste identity alone is not
• Diverts attention from poverty ,development
• Leads to tension, conflict and even
• Won democracy in 1990.
• Formal power was with the King.
• Real power with elected representatives.
• 2001 – Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra took charge.
• 2005 – Dissolution of Parliament.
• 2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the King.
• 7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists & other
• 21st April, King conceded to all demands leading to :
1) Restoration of Parliament.
2) Seizure of power from the Ruler.
3) To make Koirala Prime Minister.
• Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a new constituent
assembly to be elected.
Fight against Privatisation of Water
1) World Bank pressurised Government to give up
control of Municipal Water supply.
2) Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of Cochabamba.
3) Company raised the price of water 4 times.
4) 4 day general strike by Labour and Human Rights and
5) Government agreed to negotiate.
6) Power of the people forced MNC to flee & made
Government to concede to all demands.
• Water supply was restored to municipality
at old rates.
To establish democracy
SPA had some big
parties with MP’s
MAOISTS did not believe in
parliamentary democracy, involved
themselves in armed struggle thereby
establishing control over large parts.
They were joined by labour unions.
Organisation of indigenous people,
teachers, lawyers and human rights
Claims on an elected Govt.
One specific policy
FEDECOR composed of
Federation of farmers, confederation of
factory worker`s unions, middle class
students from University of Cochabamba
and the city`s growing population of
homeless street children. Socialist Party
22. Two way roles of these organisations
• Direct participation in competitive politics
• Creation of parties contesting elections and
23. Formation of Organisations…
• Those organisations that undertake activities to
promote their interest are called INTEREST
GROUPS or PRESSUREGROUPS.
PRESSURE GROUPS :
• Influence Government policies
• Do not aim at directly controlling or sharing
• Formed when people with common
occupation, interests, aspirations or opinions
come together to achieve a common objective.
24. Pressure Groups…
Movements : Narmada BachaoAndolan
• Influence politics rather than directly take part
in electoral competition
• They are loose organisations
• Make informal decisions and are flexible
• They depend on spontaneous mass
25. Interest Groups…
• Are united organisations
• Do not care much for mass participation
• Promote the interest of a particular section or group
• Example : Trade Unions, Business Associations &
• Represent a section of society
• Example : Workers, Employees, Business
Groups, Industrialists, Followers of Religion & Caste
• Aims : Betterment of their members & not society in
FEDECOR (FeracionDepartamentalCochabambina de
• Represents some common or general interest that needs
to be defended.
• Members may not benefit from the cause that the
• Promote collective good
• Aim to help groups rather than their own members
• Group fighting against bonded labour is an example
• They are also called public interest groups
BAMCEF(Backward & Minorities Community Employees
• Made of Govt. employees that campaigns against
• It addresses problems of its members who suffer
• Its concern is with social justice and social equality for
the entire society
• Issue specific movements and seek to achieve a single
objective within a limited time frame
28. Single Issue Movements…
• Specific objective of reviving the king’s orders that led to
suspension of democracy
• Specific issue of people displaced by creation of
• To stop the dam
• Questioned all such big dams and requirement of such
• Has a clear leadership and organisation
• Active life is short
29. Long Term & More Than One Issue
• No single organisation controls /guides such
• All these have a separate
organisation, independent leadership and
different views on policy.
• Environmental movement
• Women’s movement
30. National Alliance for People’s
• Movement groups struggling on specific
issues are constituents of this loose
organisation which co ordinates the activities
of a large number of people`s movements
31. How do Pressure Groups & Movements
exert influence on Politics ?
• They gain public support and sympathy for their goals by
carrying out information campaigns, meetings and
• They influence media by giving attention to these issues
• Protest activities like strikes are done to force the
Government to take note of their demand
• Business groups employ professional lobbyists or sponsor
• They participate in official bodies and committees that
offer advice to the Government
• Sometimes political parties grow out of movements
Example DMK and AIADMK
• Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in politics
but seek to influence on political parties
• Movement groups take a political stance without being a party
• They have political ideologies and position on major issues
Is their influence healthy?
• Pressure groups have deepened democracy.
• Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small
group of rich and powerful people
• Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of
countering this influence and reminding the Government of the
needs and concerns of ordinary citizens
• Sectional groups prevents the domination of one group over the
• They bring about a rough balance of power and accommodation
of conflicting interests