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Lecture 1. Lighting Design.pptx

  1. 1. Kantipur International College Department of Architecture Architectural lighting Ar. SamikshaAdhikari
  2. 2. Importance of Architectural lighting
  3. 3. Importance of Architectural Lighting •Lighting can bring an emotional value to architecture— it helps create an experience for those who occupy the space. Without lighting, where would architecture be? Would it still have the same impact?  No, it wouldn’t. Whether it’s day lighting or artificial lighting, light draws attention to textures, colors, and forms of a space, helping architecture achieve its true purpose.
  4. 4. Importance of Architectural Lighting
  5. 5. Importance of Architectural Lighting To create a successful balance between lighting and architecture, it’s important to remember three key aspects of architectural lighting: 1. Aesthetic 2. Function 3. Efficiency
  6. 6. Importance of Architectural Lighting Aesthetic •It is where designers and architects focus on the emotional impact the balance of lighting and architecture will have on occupants •It’s where designers determine how they want people to feel when they walk around a space •This aspect is especially important for locate locations; exterior lighting should draw the consumer in, and the interior lighting should awe them as they walk through the doors in addition to showing off product
  7. 7. Importance of Architectural Lighting Function •This aspect cannot be overlooked. We want the lighting to look a certain way, but we have to also make sure it serves its most important purpose—to help us see •Areas should be illuminated so occupants feel safe when navigating a room or entire building •They should be able to see the floor and walls around them, which should create a feeling
  8. 8. Importance of Architectural Lighting Efficiency •This aspect is very important in today’s age of green building and sustainability movements •It’s one thing to create a breathtaking lighting layout, but it’s another to create a breathtaking layout that is also incredibly energy efficient. •This can be done by assuring the majority of the light is reaching its target and there is less wasted light •Reducing the amount of wasted light will make the building more efficient
  9. 9. Sources of lighting
  10. 10. Sources of lighting Natural Artificial Sunlight and moon light at night time Electrical lamps May be in the form of direct sunlight or diffused light Fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, sodium lamps, CFL, LED
  11. 11. Lighting Day lighting Artificial lighting In day lighting, the sources (sun and sky) condition is given, thus if control is necessary, it must be in transmission and distribution The light source is under the users control Strongly depends upon location, climate and building fabric and its control is possible only by the building itself It is practically independent of the external given conditions. Architectural lighting philosophy – light, colour, mood, quality of space, aesthetics Usually used in interiors as per the demand of the created space Lighting designs for residence, restaurants, hotels, hospitals, discotheques
  12. 12. Day Lighting
  13. 13. Artificial Lighting
  14. 14. Day Lighting
  15. 15. Properties of Daylight What is Light? •Electromagnetic radiation with a narrow visible band about 380 to 780 nm • Wavelength determines its color • Light containing all visible waves is perceived as white.
  16. 16. Properties of Daylight •Human eyes sensitivity varies with wavelength, it is greatest around 550 nm (yellow)
  17. 17. Interaction of light with Physical Surface •Some materials when exposed to light, transmit a large part of it – these are referred to as ‘transparent’. • ‘Opaque’ objects block the passage of light. •Behind opaque objects there will be no light i.e. it will cast a shadow. •‘Translucent’ materials transmit a part of the incident light, but break its straight passage, scatter it in all directions, creating diffused light. •Light incident on an object can be distributed in three ways: reflected, absorbed and transmitted.
  18. 18. Interaction of light with Physical Surface a. Reflection b. Transmission c. Absorption
  19. 19. Interaction of light with Physical Surface •If reflectance = r, absorbance = a and transmittance = t, then, r + a + t = 1 (in all cases) However, in case of opaque objects, t = 0 Thus, r +a = 1
  20. 20. Reflection
  21. 21. Reflection • Light reflected from matt surface will be diffused. •Most often a mixture of semi diffuse or spread reflection will occur depending upon the relative magnitude of the two components. •White surfaces, r = 0.75, grey surfaces, r is between 0.05 to 0.75 and black surfaces, r = 0.05 •Other materials are selective reflectance that absorbs a certain wavelength of the incident light and the remainder will show a colour effect. Yellow paint Absorbs blue Reflects red, yellow, green Blue paint Absorbs red and yellow Reflects blue and green A mix of two Absorbs blue, red and yellow Reflects only the green
  22. 22. Photometric Quantities • It is the measurement of the quantities of light a. Luminous Intensity (I) b. Luminous Flux ( ) c. Illuminance (E) d. Luminance (L)
  23. 23. Luminous Flux •Quantity of light that flows per unit time through given boundary condition. • Symbol= F • Unit= Lumen
  24. 24. Photometric Quantities
  25. 25. Luminous Intensity •It is the flow of light in lumen that passes through 1 steradian solid angle taken from the light source in a given direction. s θ r • θ= S/r • 1 Radian= 1 unit arc length/ 1 unit radius
  26. 26. Luminous Intensity • Intensity for given direction= Flux per unit solid angle in given direction = /θ in given direction • Unit (Lumen/Sr)= Candela (cd) •1 Candela is defined as the luminous intensity of perfect black body having surface area of 1/60 cm2 when heated up to the melting point of platinum.
  27. 27. Luminous Intensity • Intensity = Flux/ solid angle • 1 cd • 1 cd = Total flux/ total solid angle = Total flux / 4π • Total Flux = 4π Lumen • Hence, 1 candela of source emits 4π lumen of flux.
  28. 28. Illumination (E) • It is the flow of light (flux) per unit area. 1 Lumen 1 m2 • E= /A • Unit = lm/m2 or lux
  29. 29. Luminance (L) • It is the measure of brightness of a surface. 1 Lumen 1 m2 Let P be the reflectance of the task • Luminance of task (L)= P x E • Unit Apostilb (asb) • L= I/Projected area of source = cd/m2
  30. 30. Relation between Illumination (E) and Luminous Intensity (I) a. Inverse square law for point source of light b. Inverse law for line source of light
  31. 31. Inverse square law for point source of light • Luminous intensity= flow per unit solid angle = Total flux/ Total solid angle I = Total flux/4π Total Flux = 4πI Point source
  32. 32. Inverse square law for point source of light • Illuminance (E)= Total flux/ Total surface area = 4πI/4πr2 E= I/r2 This is called the inverse square relationship. •This is only applicable when the illuminated place is normal (perpendicular) to the direction of light i.e. When the angle of incidence, β= 0°.
  33. 33. Inverse square law for point source of light •When the plane is tilted, the same flux of light is distributed over a larger area, thus the illumination is reduced. •The reduction is proportionate to the cosine of the angle of incidence: Eβ = En x cosβ Where, En = illumination on a normal plane Eβ = illumination on a plane tilted by β = angle of incidence
  34. 34. Summary Photometric Quantities Significance Luminous Intensity How much light flows form the light source at a given direction Luminous Flux How much light flows in total from light source Illuminance How much light flows towards task of a unit area Luminance How bright is the source as the task
  35. 35. Illumination Quality •In lighting design the designer must ensure light which is both adequate and suitable for the visual task. •Suitability in this context would mean the following qualities: a. Colour of light b. Colour rendering c. Light distribution (direct or diffuse) d. Freedom from glare e. Luminance distribution (consideration of surface qualities together with the lighting of these surfaces)
  36. 36. Illumination Quality •A and B depends upon the light source, subject to choice in electric lighting but given in day lighting •Distribution in electric lighting depends on the fittings and their position •In day lighting it depends on windows and reflective surfaces.