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An accident is an unexpected, unplanned
occurance which may involves injury .
And those accidents which takes place in
the home or in its immediate surroundings,
which are not connected with traffic
vehicles and sports.
Experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid.
o Victim loses consciousness after approximately 2 minutes of immersion.
o Irreversible brain damage can take place after 4-6 minutes.
AGE- In general, children under 5 years of age have the highest drowning
mortality rates worldwide. Canada and New Zealand are the only exceptions,
adult males drown at higher rates.
GENDER- Males are especially at risk of drowning with twice the overall mortality
rate of females due to increased exposure to water and riskier behaviour such as
swimming alone, drinking alcohol before swimming and boating.
ACCESS TO WATER – Commercial fisherman, children playing near ponds or any
OTHER FACTORS –
a. infants left unsupervised, or with another child in a bathtub.
b. medical conditions, such as epilepsy
c. tourists unfamiliar with local water risks and features
f. floods and other cataclysmic events like tsunamis
Prevention of DROWNING
ENGINEERING methods which help to remove the hazard(Most effective strategy)
a) development and implementation of safe water systems, such as drainage systems,
piped water systems, flood control embankments in flood prone areas.
b) building four-sided pool fences or barriers preventing access to standing water.
c) creating and maintaining safe water zones for recreation.
d) covering of wells or open cisterns.
e)emptying buckets and bathtubs, and storing them upside down.
LEGISLATION to enforce prevention and assure decreased exposure and laws including
regular safety checks of transportation vessels, and laws on alcohol use while boating or
EDUCATION for individuals and communities on drowning awareness, learning water
survival skills and ensuring the presence of lifeguards at swimming areas are promising
strategy to prevent drowning.
A burn is an injury to the skin or tissue primarily by Heat due to radiation,
radioactivity; electricity, friction or contact with chemicals.
Gender : Females suffer burns more frequently than males due to open fire cooking, or inherently
unsafe stoves, which can ignite loose clothing.
Age : Along with adult women, children particularly 1-9yrs. are vulnerable to burns, because of
improper adult supervision or Maltreatment.
Other Factors :
a) occupations that increase exposure to fire.
b) poverty, overcrowding and lack of proper safety measures.
c) placement of young girls in household roles such as cooking and care of small children.
d) underlying medical conditions, including epilepsy , peripheral neuropathy.
e) alcohol abuse and smoking.
f) easy access to chemicals used for assault (such as in acid violence attacks).
g) use of kerosene (paraffin) as a fuel source for non-electric domestic appliances.
h) inadequate safety measures for liquefied petroleum gas and electricity.
Prevention of BURNS
• Installation of fire and smoke alarms.
• Replace pressure stoves with gas stoves.
Stop burning by removing clothes. Start first-aid before ensuring your own
safety(wear gloves for chemicals).
Use cool running water to reduce the
Apply paste, oil, haldi (turmeric) or raw cotton to
Extinguish flames by allowing person to roll on
floor , and by applying other fire extinguishing
methods , like water, blanket.
Apply ice because it deepens the injury.
In CHEMICAL burns, dilute or remove the
chemical by irrigating with water.
Prolong cooling with water because it may lead
Warm the patient in clean cloths. Open blisters until topical antimicrobials can be
applied, by a health-care provider.
Provide Medical Care ASAP. Apply any material(as it might be infected).
Falls are responsible for the largest number of hospital visits
for non-fatal injuries, especially for children and young adults.
Falls from rooftops, balconies, windows and stair cases are
Factors specific to SEAR countries are falls from trees of workers picking fruits
or coconuts, children falling from rooftops while flying kites, high incidence
of falls among construction and forestry workers.
occupations at elevated heights or other hazardous working conditions.
alcohol or substance use.
socio-economic factors including poverty, overcrowded housing, young
underlying medical conditions, such as neurological, cardiac or other
side-effects of medication, physical inactivity and loss of balance,
particularly among older people.
unsafe environments, particularly for those with poor balance and
Prevention of FALLS
a) Effective interventions include multifaceted community programmes.
b) Engineering modifications of nursery furniture, playground equipment, and other
c) Legislation for the use of window guard.
For OLDER INDIVIDUALS-
a) Screening within living environments for risks for falls.
b) Clinical interventions to identify risk factors, such as medication review and
modification, treatment of low blood pressure, Vitamin D and calcium supplementation, treatment of
correctable visual impairment.
c) Home assessment and environmental modification for those with known risk factors or a
history of falling.
d)Prescription of appropriate assistive devices to address physical and sensory impairments.
e)Muscle strengthening and balance retraining prescribed by a trained health professional.
Most Common agents responsible for poisoning are:-
Many countries also report accidental ingestion of kerosene as a leading cause of
poisoning, especially among children.
A study from Thailand revealed that 54 percent of cases of poisoning among pre-
school children involved therapeutic drugs.
Snake bite is a neglected public health issue in many tropical and subtropical
Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in low and middle-
income countries are more often injured
Outcome of snake bite depends on numerous factors:
Species of snake
Area of the body bitten
Amount of venom injected
Health condition of the victim
Feelings of terror and panic are common after a snake bite and can produce a
characteristic set of symptoms mediated by the autonomic nervous system,
such as a tachycardia and nausea.
A bite may also trigger an anaphylactic reaction, which is potentially fatal.
Causes Respiratory Paralysis
Example:- Cobra, Kraits.
Causes tissue destruction by digestion and
haemorrhage (Haemolysis & Endothelial
Example:- Russell’s viper, Pit viper.
MYOTOXIC Venom is seen in SEA SNAKES(Hydrophidae)
Early clues that a patient has Severe Envenoming
Snake identified as a very dangerous one.
Rapid early extension of local swelling from the site of the bite.
Early tender enlargement of local lymph nodes, indicating spread of
venom in the lymphatic system.
Early systemic symptoms: collapse (hypotension, shock), nausea,
vomiting, diarrhoea, severe headache, "heaviness" of the eyelids,
inappropriate (pathological) drowsiness or early
Early spontaneous systemic bleeding.
Passage of dark brown/black urine.
Reassure the patient. 70% of all snake bites are from non-venomous
species. Only 50% of bites by venomous species actually envenomate the
Immobilize in the same way as a fractured limb. Use bandages or cloth to
hold the splints, not to block the blood supply or apply pressure. Do not
apply any compression in the form of tight ligatures, they don't work and
can be dangerous.
Do not give alcoholic beverages or stimulants. They are known vasodilators
and they speed up the absorption of venom.
Remove any items or clothings which may constrict the bitten limb if it
swells (rings, bracelets, watches, footwear, etc.).
Do not incise or manipulate the bitten site. Do not apply ice.
Transport the patient to a medical faculty for definitive treatment.
First Antivenom was developed in 1895 by French physician Albert Calmette for
the treatment of Indian cobra bites.
How is Antivenom prepared?
Antivenom is made by injecting a small amount of venom "into an
(usually a horse or sheep) to initiate an immune system response. The
resulting antibodies are then harvested from the animal's blood.
MECHANISMOF ACTION:-Antivenom is injected into the person intravenously,
and works by binding to, and neutralizing venom enzymes. It cannot
undo damage already caused by venom, so antivenom treatment should
be sought as soon as possible.
Newer advances & facts
Modern antivenoms are usually polyvalent(except in AUSTRALIA),
making them effective against the venom of numerous snake
Pharmaceutical companies which produce antivenom target their
products against the species native to a particular area.
Although some people may develop serious adverse reactions to
antivenom, such as anaphylaxis, in emergency situations this is
usually treatable and hence the benefit outweighs the potential
consequences of not using antivenom