INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living species on Earth including marine, terrestrial, aquatic ecosystem and also flora and
fauna in the rainforest.
It is important in conserving the global biodiversity for sustaining human life in local and even in the global levels. We are depending on
healthy functionality of other life form to get foods supply, fresh water and also the healthy environment
Therefore, there are important for us in preserving and conserving the biodiversity and together solving the issues that related that may harm the
biodiversity such as over fishing, poaching, deforestation and etc.
INTRODUCTION TO MARINE BIODIVERSITY
"biological diversity" means the variability among living organisms from all sources including
inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
In this case, the most important sources of animal proteins for human use is
In most countries, marine fishery is also one of the important industry.
Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so huge and so
resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor
could marine fishery resources be depleted.
Half a century later, a lot of people agreed that the depletion of fishery
resources is happening mainly due to many factors such as overfishing,
habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate
Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity
drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action.
So, in this case, we want to focus only on overfishing.
Effects of Overfishing to Others
Losses of fish stocks will give impact to the price of
fish which are already rising in response to demand
and it also will increase the costs of fishing.
Fishing for people across the globe is not just as a
source of food, it is their way of life and how they
support themselves and their family.
If overfishing continues, more species will
be driven to extinction and aquatic
ecosystems will collapse.
By catch from long lining, bottom trawling
and other fishing techniques will kill
numbers of non-targeted fish. For
examples are sea turtles, seabirds and
marine mammals such as dolphins, seals,
manatees and sea lions are all being
caught unintentionally and often are
What Taiwan Have Done
Building excellent environment of fishing grounds, for
restocking fisheries resources
o Deployment of artificial reefs
In order to improve the environment of fishing grounds, and
restock fisheries resources, artificial reefs were deployed in 88
localities with sinking of cement reefs, electricity wire pole
reefs, steel and iron reefs, vessel reefs and naval ship reefs.
o Release of fish fry
Healthy fish seeds are produced in hatchery and released to the sea for restocking of fisheries
Concurrently, approximately 10 million fries are released annually, with main species including
threadfin fish, sand snapper, seabreams, snappers, groupers, etc.
Conservation of fisheries resources, and sustainable fisheries operations
o Establishment of marine protected areas
For the protection of marine biodiversity, and for the conservation, management and sustainable
use of fisheries resources, marine protected areas, which cover an area of 30,579.42 sq. km,
have been delineated. They account for 47% of the territorial waters in Taiwan.
o Conservation and Management of Shark Resources
To ensure sustainable use of shark resources, and to meet the requirements of shark
conservation and management, the government has been actively promoting the measure of
“shark’s fins naturally attached”, and publicize regulations on imports of shark’s fins, requiring
fishing vessels and importers to observe.
What Malaysia Have Done
Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry
(MOA) and the Department of Fisheries
Malaysia (DOF) had decided to ban trawling.
Marine police detained the Vietnamese fishermen for illegally
fishing in Malaysian waters at Pulau Tinggi, Mersing.
WWF is working with partners in Malaysia to develop a marine conservation plan
in 3 areas:
1) The east coast of Sabah, Borneo in a part of the Sulu-Sulawesi marine eco region and
the Coral Triangle.
2) The Strait of Malacca on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which forms the
southern part of the Andaman Sea.
3) The South China Sea on Peninsular Malaysia’s east coast.
1. Energy security: to support carbon sequestration, they needs support for developing
energy resources, particularly liquid natural gas and renewable energy and research.
2. Food security: to improve management of wild-catch fisheries, they needs a research to
support a booming aquaculture industry, as well as data and tools.
3. Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem health: to predict impacts of development
on marine biodiversity, they needs environmental baselines, effective indicators of
ecosystem health to guides national marine environmental monitoring, and tools.
4. Dealing with changing climate: needs to understand and have a skill in prediction of the
impacts of sea level rise, increasing sea temperature and ocean acidification and the role
of the ocean as a carbon sink.
• The lack of regulations and specific policy, and the fact that fishing
has been an industry tied to the history of humans and civilization,
many groups, like the World Wildlife Fund, are helping countries
learn to prepare adequate and effective management protocols.
• Because fishing is a crucial industry in many poor and developing
nations, conservation efforts are focusing on helping these areas
set-up procedures to ensure sustainability in the long run.
• Another way that conservationists are trying to change the
problem of overfishing is by working with retailers to educate
them on ways to purchase their seafood from sustainable fisheries.
• Many governments subsidize the fishing industry with subsidies, in an
effort to keep the industry thriving. The problem with this, is that it
incentivizes fishermen to continue to expand, which means that
subsidies only end up contributing to the problem of overfishing.
• Setting up more protected areas in the ocean is an effort to help
reduce the effects of overfishing on some of the world’s most
incredible reefs and marine structures.
Potential Un-ethical Problems and How to Overcome it
Eat Less Fish - Reducing seafood consumption can
help to lessen the impact on our oceans.
Avoid top predators like sharks, swordfish and
Know your fish facts - Become familiar with
sustainable choices and species of concern.
Carry the Seafood Watch card in your wallet and
Buy Local – When possible purchase seafood from
local fishing communities. Fishing sustainably is
hard work. Support fishermen taking bold steps to
conserve our fish while maintaining their livelihood.
Unsustainable Fishing - This involves using nets,
fishing methods and other equipment that catch too
much fish to a degree that they are endangered.
Overcapacity - All over the world, many fishing
industries have huge vessels, equipment and
technology that they can deploy deep into the
Economic and Food Needs – As the humans have
multiplied, so the need for food and fish has also
multiplied. This, together with economic ambitions
of fisheries have forced them to catch more fish.
FRESHWATER?? WHAT IS IT??
It can be in
form of liquid,
“FRESH” does not
mean it is drinkable
Water that has
TYPE OF FRESHWATER
Supply water for
- Growing crops
Help to prevent
WHAT IS THE ISSUE??
Do not have access
to clean and sufficient drinking
INCREASING OF HUMAN
WHY FRESHWATER IS THREATENED?
CONSEQUENCES OF FRESHWATER ISSUES
LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER
Due to bad
economics or poor
The result of
INCREASE OF GLOBAL CONFLICT
are often shared by two
or more countries. It
may lead to more
as freshwater becomes
It causes the drying
rivers & damaged
Bring the damage to
cause the flooding &
INSUFFICIENT CLEAN WATER
CREATE DISEASES, FOOD
SPREADING OF DISEASES
NEED TO SPEND
AN AMOUNT TO
MALAYSIA’S FRESHWATER PROGRAMMECONSERVINGRIVERBASINS
we can maintain and
help us to focus on
sustainable water use
policies and practices
that contribute to
We are focus on
and management of
THE CONSERVING FRESHWATER IN NORTH AMERICA
WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE – Improve the operations at dam to
more closely mimic seasonal river conditions to enhance ecosystem health.
WATER FUNDS – The financial help toward
conservation of key lands upstream that
filter and regulate water supply.
RISK REDUCTION & RESILIENCE – Natural
solution such as sand dunes, marshes and reefs to
reduce flood risk.
WATER MARKET –It is mechanism where
communities invest conservation
AGRICULTURE – Use science-based approach to
help farmers to feed growing population as well as
ensuring clean and abundant water supplies.
CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION
• NO AWARENESS ON WATER CONSUMPTION
• SELF ATTITUDE
• URBAN LIFESTYLE
• POPULATION GROWTH
• NO CAMPAIGN
• NO STRICT LAWS ARE APPLIED
• MAY SPEND MANY COST TO DO SUSTAINABLE ACTIVITIES
• FOCUS MORE ON DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR NATIONAL IMAGE
- SAVE DAILY WATER USAGE
- GREYWATER REUSE SYSTEM
- COLLECT RAINWATER AND
REUSE IT TO WATER THE
- USE ENERGY SAVE APPLIANCES
- DISPOSE WASTE WISELY
- PLANS FOR GREEN
-TAKE LONG SHOWERS
- DISPOSE CHEMICAL WASTE
- DEVELOPMENT NEAR THE
- LET THE WATER RUN
WHILE BRUSHING TEETH OR
Terrestrial biodiversity can be defined as
the variety of life forms on the land
surface of the Earth.
TYPE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
– HARSH CLIMATE
– LOW RATE OF
(SNOW AND RAIN)
– SHORT GROWING
o Earth's Coldest
o Treeless Regions
o -12 To -6 Degrees Celsius
o The Summer Growing
Season Is Just 50 To 60
Days, When The Sun Shines
24 Hours A Day.
o temperate broad-leaf forests are
dominated by trees that lose their
leaves each year.
o The average temperature of the
forest is about 10°C
o The four seasons are easily
recognizable and each lasts about
Also known as prairies,
pampas, steppes, and
Made mostly of grasses
Do not receive enough
rainfall to grow trees
Twenty-five percent of the
Earth is covered by the
Made up of four layers:
o upper canopy
o forest floor
Trees grow far apart and
Branches reaching above
Forms due to the low level
of rainfall it receives each
Cover about 20% of the
Very hot at daytime, they
can get very cold at night.
The driest desert on Earth
receives on average 1
centimeter of rainfall every 5
to 20 years.
WHAT IS THE ISSUE???
•To make more
for housing and
WHAT CAUSES OF
To harvest timber
WHAT CAUSES OF WEATER
Type of gases
THE EFFECT WHEN THIS
DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM
HIGHER WILDLIFE EXTINCTION
EASILY TRAP SOLAR
CAN MAKE ONE
FOCUS POINT OF
EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE
DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM
FIRE UP THE
MASSIVE USE OF
THERE ARE TOO
WASTE TO HANDLE
TO LOVE OUR
MALAYSIA’S TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY
Public awareness for biodiversity conservation
• Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes in Article 13 the need to create awareness and
educate the public. Public awareness is one of the four components formed under
BBEC with the objective of establishing models to change behavior of the target groups
towards biodiversity conservation.
Seminar to heighten Biodiversity conservation awareness in the State
• It set out to share experiences and knowledge of WWF-Malaysia on environmental
• The gazettement of the proposed will significantly contribute towards habitat protection.
The Role of Youth in the Conservation of Biodiversity
• They are energetic, technology-savvy, constantly evolving, oriented to problem-solving
and often propagate active consumerism.
• advocates for reduction in footprints and improved quality of life across sectors and
industries is essential for the future.
South West Australia Ecoregion
- plan utilizes a data-rich, explicit planning
process that is informed by robust expert
Building ecosystem resilience in a
- maintaining the extent of habitat; creating nature
reserves or conservation management agreements on
public and private land; organizing complementary
sustainable land and sea management practices; and
implementing targeted species-specific conservation.
Establish a national long-term
biodiversity monitoring and reporting
-Monitoring changes to biodiversity and the
environment over time will also help us to
understand how to intervene to build broader
CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION
• LACK OF AWERENESS ABOUT LOVING OUR
• SELF BEHAVIOUR
• RAPID POPULATION GROWTH
• WANT LUXURY AND URBAN LIFESTYLE
• NEED TO SPEND A LOT OF MONEY WHEN TO
START THIS IMPLEMENTATION
• NO STRICT LAW AND ACT
- PLANT SIMPLE FLOWER OR PLANT IN OUR YARD
- DON’T SIMPLY CUT DOWN TREE AT OUR BACKYARD
- REPLANT ANY TREE’S SEED THAT EASY TO GROW
- CHANGE OUR LIFESTYLE TO SIMPLICITY NOT LUXURY
- DON’T SUPPORT ANY ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES FOR OUR LAND
- START LOVE OUR EARTH
- FIRE UP OUR BACKYARD FOR SMALL GARDEN
- DISPOSE OUR DAILY DOMESTIC WASTE INTO WOOD
- SWEEP OUT OUR FOREST FOR URBANIZATION
- DON’T FEEL SORRY FOR OUR EARTH
Introduction to Rainforest Plant
Rainforests are the heart of biodiversity among the world's ecosystems. Plants is the habitat of a
site, providing structure, shelter and food that contributing to overall biodiversity.
There are many types of plants including:
Flowering plant Gymnosperms Bryophytes
Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92
The statistic of deforestation in the world
• Nowadays, our rainforest are threatened
due to human activities. The irresponsible
person had done a lot destruction to the
rainforest aiming for high profit without
thinking the consequences.
• In Malaysia, especially in Borneo and also
peninsular land, suffers from a high rate of
deforestation. The major reasons for
deforestation in Malaysia are for oil palm
plantation, logging and mining, forest fire
and also tourism.
Effect of Deforestation
Affecting the habitat of animals and plants
As we know 80% of animal and plants live in the forest and it will not survive
and no where to-live if we are continuing destroys their homes.
The forest act like the canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and
holds in heat at night. If we continue to disrupt the forest this will contribute in
increasing temperature and global warming.
Less oxygen produced
Less oxygen produced that will harm the animals and human being because we
need the oxygen to live.
Loss food sources
The animals that eat plants will loss their sources of the food and will interrupt the food chain.
Impacting pharmaceutical industry
We will lose some potential drugs that can be extracted from rainforest that will be used for
fighting and curing multiple diseases.
Other harmful effect:
Release of greenhouse gas emissions
According to Tony Johnson, 30 percent of global greenhouse-gas
emissions each year is due to the loss of forests and causes the
increase of global warming.
Disrupted water cycle
Forests transport large quantities of water into the atmosphere via
plant transpiration. This replenishes the clouds and instigates rain
that maintains the forests. When deforestation occurs, precious
rain is lost from the area, flowing away as river water and causing
Increased soil erosion
Due to deforestation it will increase the probability of landslide to
be happened like we can see in the development area there is a
case of landslide.
Solution in Conserving The Plant
Biodiversity Done in Malaysia
In Malaysia, the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) had
taking the initiative starting in 2015 for overcoming the
deforestation that focus in Sabah and Sarawak. They are
cooperating with Sabah and Sarawak state governments
because there are 80% of the rainforest in Malaysian Borneo
had destroyed due to logging activities.
Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah.
Retrieved from http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485
The initiatives that been implemented
Enhancing protected areas, conservation spatial planning, responsible forestry and
forest certification which could reduce deforestation rate and create a balance
between development and conservation.
Introduce Systematic Conservation Planning that produce maps showing areas for
Sarawak must ensure that the Totally Protected Areas and Permanent Forest Estates
are managed properly and sustainably
Gazetting new areas as protection forest reserves in November 2014
Provides technical support to forest reserves undergoing certification for responsible
forest management following the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards.
Assisting Sabah Government towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation (REDD+) so that the avoidance of deforestation, sustainable forest
management and forest restoration achieved by the government and other forest
license holders can be financially rewarded.
Solution in Conserving The Plant
Biodiversity Done in Brazil
In Brazil, they are success in reducing the deforestation.
Data from 2009–2010 showed that Brazil’s area of deforestation,
which averaged 19,508 square kilometers (km2) per year in 1996
until 2005 had succeed to drop by 67 percent, to just 6,451 km2.
By using a formula for converting deforested area to CO2 emissions
based on the work of the research institute IMAZON, estimated a
reduction in Brazil’s global warming pollution of nearly 1 billion
Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
How Brazil do it?
Both state and federal levels expanded its network of indigenous reserves and
The government have introduce the strong enforcement of logging laws, including
seizures of illegal timber, closing of illegal sawmills, and jailing of the perpetrators
(including government officials who had been taking bribes to look the other way)
Launching The Zero Deforestation campaign
Brazil’s citizens played a critical role in pushing their government to go further
and in exerting pressure for change on the businesses that are the main agents of
Brazilian NGO’s campaign for soybean and beef industries should not sell products
raised on deforested land
Research institutes such as IPAM and IMAZON have been important in monitoring
progress and showing how ranchers, farmers, and loggers can increase their
productivity in ways that make deforestation unnecessary.
Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
Need large amount of money for setting up the agency and an independent
institution for monitoring emissions from forests
It is difficult in reducing the deforestation while growing up the economy
Special interests and corruption among the responsible person
Lack of coordination from government
Loose of law enforcement
Mindset of people
Other suggestion in conserving plant biodiversity
Plant a tree Go paperless
Applying 3R : reduce, reuse and recycle Buy sustainably certified wood products
Do and Don’t
Practice 3R’s concept (reduce, reuse and recycle)
starting at home
Assuming 3R’s is not important
Minimizing waste Buying a lot of unnecessary thing and harm to
Minimize the used of paper because nowadays a lot
of development of technology can be used in
replacing paper e.g. WhatsApp Application
Using paper as source of communication
Buy sustainably certified wood products Use furniture without checking the certified wood
Avoiding open burning because it can cause big fire
to nearest forest if not controlled properly
Doing the open burning
Enforce the law against the illegal logging and
mining buy giving the appropriate penalties
Tolerable with illegal logging and mining i.e.
Biodiversity makes lives more credible and desirable.
There are too many species arise on our earth.
Based on specialist, there are about 10 million to 80
million species arise on earth but only manage to attain
about 1.4 million species so far.
Source: Pranab Pal D,2016
Loss of biodiversity of
animals is continuing
and became more
Population of human,
strong competition of
common aspect to be
problems and to verify
the potential of life on
The crime (illegal wildlife trade) became worst from times
to times. People rushed hunting or seizing of wild
It can be considered as a threat to animals population as
it can affect biodiversity not even to wildlife but also
plants. Then, ecosystem will be bothered when species
Causes of poaching:
Bush meat: usually animal that rarely be found (mammals
or birds). This kind of animals is protected under law. The
poachers hunt for consumption and even for profit.
Poverty: usually done by rural poachers that seeks for a
better life by violating law and nature.
Wealth: wildlife is part of high demand product. Their skins,
trunks, ivory and etc. can make a quality product and even
some people used them as symbols of status and wealth.
NO SPECIES POACHING
1 Deer 34 48 32 16 skins,169 kg
5 heads and 3
2 Elephant 18 18 20 39 tusks,
Ivory and 2 Ivory
3 Peacock 30 116 2 Paws and
4 Rhinoceros 22 22 1 One horn
5 Wild boar 11 10 12 6 kg meat, 1
skull and1 bone
Source: Down to Earth
Table 1: Poaching and seizure of wild animals in India, 2014.
Increasing in human population
effect biodiversity in many ways.
For instance, the need of residence
development will cause the need of
new dam for electricity propose
thus cause destruction of flora and
Loss of forest by means due to
deforestation for any development
purposes has been widespread up
until now, yet give impact to
distribution of biodiversity of fauna
and flora. When the forest damage,
the wildlife species is in danger
because their habitat is disturbed.
Establish the uniform national system that will employ the same
standard around the country.
Provide for the formal registration of all captive breeding
facilities, nurseries, scientific institutions, sanctuaries and
Only hunters that registered with recognized body got
No tolerance towards poaching. Firm penalties (fine
and imprisonment up to 5 years).
For a private land (borders national or provincial protected
area), hunting also not allowed except got permission
from landowner and board authority, other than
environmental MEC or minister approve it.
Enhance laws on biodiversity
• People need to have permit or licence
to do activities related to wildlife
FRIM conduct research for
Established National Park to
save wildlife in preserve area.
• Help maximize the benefits of conserve
rainforest for animals sake.
• It is much expensive to restore the
ecosystem rather than protecting the
• Chose the best place where all
ecosystem can be placed in one place.
It need to be well designed and
• Include enforcement measures and
considered impact on biodiversity.
• Take the issues related to rainforest’s
animal into national level.
• Provide incentives to sustain rainforest’s
Lack of budget laid for sustainability
of animal biodiversity.
Some might be support that the wildlife has
right to exist but some might oppose it.
Most of wildlife provide economic and
ecological services that human valued.
Carnivores shows a huge reduction over
times. It is due to no tolerance towards
them. Human hunt for their skins, trunks
and many more that will cause harm to
them and at the same time, these
carnivores looses their preys (herbivores)
also due to human greed.
Climate change can gives impact to
certain species, causing them in
Continuing global warming will affect
in change of rainfall pattern. It can
cause lost in habitat if forest cannot
LAWS AND REGULATION
Lack serious action towards
Redesign habitat and corridors
for wildlife suitable with their
On going improvise
Enhance law and regulation
related to wildlife. Gives a
serious penalties towards
poachers; no warning needed.
Promote tourism so that
sustainability of wildlife
Raising public awareness
ꓫ Deforestation will lead to lost
of animal’s habitat.
ꓫ Has exotic species as pets
ꓫ Support product from animal’s
ꓫ Tolerate poaching.
For a healthy economic growth and
together with ecosystem’s stability,
biodiversity is necessary because
everything we did on this earth is
related to biodiversity which means
biodiversity and live humans on this
earth are depends on each other.
consists of maintain the whole
balance, valued the environment
and prevent any fatigue of
natural resources. We must take
action in sustaining the
biodiversity of our earth for
1. Protecting South Africa’s wildlife retrieved on October 18,2017 from
2. Biodiversity & Human Well-being retrieved on October 20,2017 from https://www.greenfacts.org/en/biodiversity/
3. Jianying (2015) ‘Achievements of Taiwan’s Marine Protected Areas’’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from
4. Jianying (2015) ‘Fisheries of the Republic of China(Taiwan)’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from
5. Hellwig, Christian (2015, June 29). Deforestation impacting pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved from
6. (2015, May 12). Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah,. Retrieved from
7. (2011, Feb). Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-
8. Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92
10. Deforestation. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation/
11. 10 ways to conserve biodiversity. Retrieve from https://greentumble.com/10-ways-to-conserve-biodiversity/
1. Pranab Pal D (2016) Managing Biodiversity with Emphasis on Sustainable Development, J Ecosys Ecograph S5:008.
2. Sustainable Wildlife Management CPW and Biodiversity, Wildlife FAO.
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