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Biodiversity - EIS (MEC600)

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Biodiversity - EIS (MEC600)

  1. 1. MOHAMMAD SYAIFUL AZRIE BIN ZULKIFLI AIDA SYAZWANI BINTI SHARUDDIN CHE ANIS BINTI CHE ANIS NORFATIHA BINTI SUHIMI SITI ZAITON BINTI ISMAIL EMD7M4A BIODIVERSITY
  2. 2. JOBDISTRIBUTION CHE ANIS MARINE BIODIVERSITY NORFATIHA FRESHWATER BIODIVERSITY SYAIFUL AZRIE TERESTRIAL SITI ZAITON RAINFOREST PLANT AIDA SYAZWANI RAINFOREST ANIMAL
  3. 3. BIODIVERSITY MARINE FRESHWATER TERRESTIAL RAINFOREST (PLANT) RAINFOREST (ANIMAL)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living species on Earth including marine, terrestrial, aquatic ecosystem and also flora and fauna in the rainforest. It is important in conserving the global biodiversity for sustaining human life in local and even in the global levels. We are depending on healthy functionality of other life form to get foods supply, fresh water and also the healthy environment Therefore, there are important for us in preserving and conserving the biodiversity and together solving the issues that related that may harm the biodiversity such as over fishing, poaching, deforestation and etc.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO MARINE BIODIVERSITY  "biological diversity" means the variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. Ecosystems GenesSpeciesCommunities
  6. 6.  In this case, the most important sources of animal proteins for human use is marine fish.  In most countries, marine fishery is also one of the important industry.  Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so huge and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted.  Half a century later, a lot of people agreed that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to many factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change.  Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action.  So, in this case, we want to focus only on overfishing.
  7. 7. Effects of Overfishing to Others Losses of fish stocks will give impact to the price of fish which are already rising in response to demand and it also will increase the costs of fishing. Fishing for people across the globe is not just as a source of food, it is their way of life and how they support themselves and their family. Loss of food sources Loss of livelihood
  8. 8. If overfishing continues, more species will be driven to extinction and aquatic ecosystems will collapse. By catch from long lining, bottom trawling and other fishing techniques will kill numbers of non-targeted fish. For examples are sea turtles, seabirds and marine mammals such as dolphins, seals, manatees and sea lions are all being caught unintentionally and often are discarded. Loss of species Wildlife discarded
  9. 9. What Taiwan Have Done  Building excellent environment of fishing grounds, for restocking fisheries resources o Deployment of artificial reefs In order to improve the environment of fishing grounds, and restock fisheries resources, artificial reefs were deployed in 88 localities with sinking of cement reefs, electricity wire pole reefs, steel and iron reefs, vessel reefs and naval ship reefs.
  10. 10. o Release of fish fry Healthy fish seeds are produced in hatchery and released to the sea for restocking of fisheries resources. Concurrently, approximately 10 million fries are released annually, with main species including threadfin fish, sand snapper, seabreams, snappers, groupers, etc. https://www.fa.gov.tw/en/WorldOceansDay/content.aspx?id=3&chk=e18b2aa9-f67e-4a67-84d1-4367f00160b9&param=pn%3D1
  11. 11.  Conservation of fisheries resources, and sustainable fisheries operations o Establishment of marine protected areas  For the protection of marine biodiversity, and for the conservation, management and sustainable use of fisheries resources, marine protected areas, which cover an area of 30,579.42 sq. km, have been delineated. They account for 47% of the territorial waters in Taiwan. o Conservation and Management of Shark Resources  To ensure sustainable use of shark resources, and to meet the requirements of shark conservation and management, the government has been actively promoting the measure of “shark’s fins naturally attached”, and publicize regulations on imports of shark’s fins, requiring fishing vessels and importers to observe. http://www.fa.gov.tw/en/FisheriesoROC/content.aspx?id=5&chk=4b287405-ead6-4244- ae05-0b0c67edad48&param=pn%3D1
  12. 12. What Malaysia Have Done Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA) and the Department of Fisheries Malaysia (DOF) had decided to ban trawling. Marine police detained the Vietnamese fishermen for illegally fishing in Malaysian waters at Pulau Tinggi, Mersing.
  13. 13.  WWF is working with partners in Malaysia to develop a marine conservation plan in 3 areas: 1) The east coast of Sabah, Borneo in a part of the Sulu-Sulawesi marine eco region and the Coral Triangle. 2) The Strait of Malacca on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which forms the southern part of the Andaman Sea. 3) The South China Sea on Peninsular Malaysia’s east coast.
  14. 14. Challenges Faced Energy Security Dealing with Changing Climate Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Health Food Security
  15. 15. 1. Energy security: to support carbon sequestration, they needs support for developing energy resources, particularly liquid natural gas and renewable energy and research. 2. Food security: to improve management of wild-catch fisheries, they needs a research to support a booming aquaculture industry, as well as data and tools. 3. Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem health: to predict impacts of development on marine biodiversity, they needs environmental baselines, effective indicators of ecosystem health to guides national marine environmental monitoring, and tools. 4. Dealing with changing climate: needs to understand and have a skill in prediction of the impacts of sea level rise, increasing sea temperature and ocean acidification and the role of the ocean as a carbon sink.
  16. 16. Solutions to Overfishing Problems
  17. 17. Working with Governments • The lack of regulations and specific policy, and the fact that fishing has been an industry tied to the history of humans and civilization, many groups, like the World Wildlife Fund, are helping countries learn to prepare adequate and effective management protocols. Helping Developing Countries • Because fishing is a crucial industry in many poor and developing nations, conservation efforts are focusing on helping these areas set-up procedures to ensure sustainability in the long run. Educating Retailers • Another way that conservationists are trying to change the problem of overfishing is by working with retailers to educate them on ways to purchase their seafood from sustainable fisheries.
  18. 18. Reducing Subsidies • Many governments subsidize the fishing industry with subsidies, in an effort to keep the industry thriving. The problem with this, is that it incentivizes fishermen to continue to expand, which means that subsidies only end up contributing to the problem of overfishing. More Protected Marine Areas • Setting up more protected areas in the ocean is an effort to help reduce the effects of overfishing on some of the world’s most incredible reefs and marine structures.
  19. 19. Potential Un-ethical Problems and How to Overcome it DO’s DON’Ts  Eat Less Fish - Reducing seafood consumption can help to lessen the impact on our oceans.  Avoid top predators like sharks, swordfish and Bluefin tuna.  Know your fish facts - Become familiar with sustainable choices and species of concern.  Carry the Seafood Watch card in your wallet and use it.  Buy Local – When possible purchase seafood from local fishing communities. Fishing sustainably is hard work. Support fishermen taking bold steps to conserve our fish while maintaining their livelihood.  Unsustainable Fishing - This involves using nets, fishing methods and other equipment that catch too much fish to a degree that they are endangered.  Overcapacity - All over the world, many fishing industries have huge vessels, equipment and technology that they can deploy deep into the oceans.  Economic and Food Needs – As the humans have multiplied, so the need for food and fish has also multiplied. This, together with economic ambitions of fisheries have forced them to catch more fish.
  20. 20. FRESHWATER?? WHAT IS IT?? It can be in form of liquid, gaseous or solid state “FRESH” does not mean it is drinkable Water that has a low concentration of salts https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresh_water
  21. 21. TYPE OF FRESHWATER Ponds and lakes Streams and rivers Wetlands http://study.com/academy/lesson/freshwater-biomes-climate-locations-plants-animals.html
  22. 22. Importance of Freshwater Supply water for drinking ECONOMIC GROWTH - Manufacturing ECOSYSTEM SERVICES - Transport FOOD CHAINS - Fishes - Growing crops ENERGY GENERATION Help to prevent erosion Dispose of waste Provide natural protection from flooding https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/area-of-work/protecting-our-rivers-lakes-and-freshwater
  23. 23. WHAT IS THE ISSUE?? Do not have access to clean and sufficient drinking water
  24. 24. OVERDEVELOPMENT POLLUTED RUNOFF INCREASING OF HUMAN POPULATION WHY FRESHWATER IS THREATENED?
  25. 25. CONSEQUENCES OF FRESHWATER ISSUES LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER INCREASED OF GLOBAL CONFLICT FOOD SHORTAGES ENERGY SHORTAGES ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN http://www.seametrics.com/blog/water-shortage-consequences/
  26. 26. LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER Due to bad economics or poor infrastructure The result of political instability, ethnic conflicts Increased flooding problems http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/water/ https://thewaterproject.org/why-water/poverty http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/AB776E/ab776e02.htm
  27. 27. INCREASE OF GLOBAL CONFLICT Freshwater resources are often shared by two or more countries. It may lead to more international conflicts as freshwater becomes more scarce. http://www.seametrics.com/blog/water-shortage-consequences/
  28. 28. FOOD SHORTAGES It causes the drying rivers & damaged habitats. Bring the damage to freshwater ecosystems Overdevelopment cause the flooding & drought https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/area-of-work/protecting-our-rivers-lakes-and-freshwater
  29. 29. ENERGY SHORTAGES INCREASING OF HUMAN POPULATION THUS INCREASE THE DEVELOPMENT TO COMFORT OUR LIFE MORE DEVELOPMENT, MORE POLLUTION OCCURED GLOBAL WARMING MAKE OUR FRESHWATER DRY UP NO SUFFICIENT WATER TO CREATE ENERGY https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/mar/08/how-water-shortages-lead-food-crises-conflicts
  30. 30. ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN INSUFFICIENT CLEAN WATER CREATE DISEASES, FOOD SHORTAGES FOOD CHAIN UNINTERRUPTED SPREADING OF DISEASES GOVERNMENT NEED TO SPEND AN AMOUNT TO SOLVE THIS PROBLEM http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/water- shortage-to-hinder-worlds-economic-growth-7834944.html
  31. 31. SAVING WATER USAGE CLEAN TECHNOLOGY, JOBS & INNOVATION NATIONAL PARKS, PROTECTED AREAS & ECOSYSTEM PROTECTING WATERSHEDS SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY
  32. 32. MALAYSIA’S FRESHWATER PROGRAMMECONSERVINGRIVERBASINS Through an approaches such Integrated River Basin Management(IRBM), we can maintain and restore the freshwater habitat and ecological process. SUSTAINABLEWATERUSE Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) help us to focus on sustainable water use policies and practices that contribute to freshwater habitat conservation. CONSERVINGFRESHWATER HABITATS We are focus on improved protection and management of priority freshwater habitats. http://www.wwf.org.my/about_wwf/what_we_do/freshwater_main/
  33. 33. THE CONSERVING FRESHWATER IN NORTH AMERICA WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE – Improve the operations at dam to more closely mimic seasonal river conditions to enhance ecosystem health. WATER FUNDS – The financial help toward conservation of key lands upstream that filter and regulate water supply. RISK REDUCTION & RESILIENCE – Natural solution such as sand dunes, marshes and reefs to reduce flood risk. WATER MARKET –It is mechanism where communities invest conservation management practices. AGRICULTURE – Use science-based approach to help farmers to feed growing population as well as ensuring clean and abundant water supplies. https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/riverslakes/north-americas-freshwater.xml
  34. 34. CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION PERSON • NO AWARENESS ON WATER CONSUMPTION • SELF ATTITUDE COMMUNITY • URBAN LIFESTYLE • POPULATION GROWTH • NO CAMPAIGN GOVERNMENT • NO STRICT LAWS ARE APPLIED • MAY SPEND MANY COST TO DO SUSTAINABLE ACTIVITIES • FOCUS MORE ON DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR NATIONAL IMAGE
  35. 35. DO’S DON’TS - SAVE DAILY WATER USAGE - GREYWATER REUSE SYSTEM - COLLECT RAINWATER AND REUSE IT TO WATER THE GARDEN - USE ENERGY SAVE APPLIANCES - DISPOSE WASTE WISELY - PLANS FOR GREEN TECHNOLOGY -TAKE LONG SHOWERS - DISPOSE CHEMICAL WASTE TO RIVERS - DEVELOPMENT NEAR THE WATER RESOURCES - LET THE WATER RUN WHILE BRUSHING TEETH OR WASHING http://www.dummies.com/education/science/environmental-science/enviro science-how-to-conserve-fresh-water/ http://wwf.panda.org/how_you_can_help/live_green/save_water/
  36. 36. What is TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY ????
  37. 37. Terrestrial biodiversity can be defined as the variety of life forms on the land surface of the Earth.
  38. 38. TYPE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS ■ TAIGA – COLD – HARSH CLIMATE – LOW RATE OF PRECIPITATION (SNOW AND RAIN) – SHORT GROWING SEASON ■ TUNDRA o Earth's Coldest o Treeless Regions o -12 To -6 Degrees Celsius o The Summer Growing Season Is Just 50 To 60 Days, When The Sun Shines 24 Hours A Day.
  39. 39. ■ DECIDUOUS FORESTS o temperate broad-leaf forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year. o The average temperature of the forest is about 10°C o The four seasons are easily recognizable and each lasts about 3 months. ■ GRASSLAND  Also known as prairies, pampas, steppes, and savannas.  Made mostly of grasses  Do not receive enough rainfall to grow trees  Twenty-five percent of the Earth is covered by the grassland
  40. 40. ■ TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS  Made up of four layers: o emergent o upper canopy o understory o forest floor  Trees grow far apart and tall  Branches reaching above the canopy ■ DESSERT  Forms due to the low level of rainfall it receives each year.  Cover about 20% of the earth.  Very hot at daytime, they can get very cold at night.  The driest desert on Earth receives on average 1 centimeter of rainfall every 5 to 20 years.
  41. 41. DEFORESTATI ON WEATHER HAVOC GLOBAL WARMING WHAT IS THE ISSUE???
  42. 42. •To make more land available for housing and urbanization WHAT CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION To create room for cattle ranching To harvest timber to create commercial items
  43. 43. WHAT CAUSES OF WEATER HAVOC Greenhouse gases Type of gases High temperature
  44. 44. WHAT CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING
  45. 45. THE EFFECT WHEN THIS HAPPENING EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM DIRTIER AIR HIGHER WILDLIFE EXTINCTION RATE
  46. 46. CLOSE BUILDING EASILY TRAP SOLAR RADIATION INCREASES OF URBANIZATION FOR COMFORT LEVEL OVER POPULATED CAN MAKE ONE FOCUS POINT OF HEAT TRAP EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE
  47. 47. DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM TOO MANY CARBON GAS AT ATMOSPHER E STILL DOES’T HAVE ADVANCE TECHNOLO GY TO NEUTRAL THE SITUATION INSUFFICIENT TREE TO ABSORB THE GASES
  48. 48. DIRTIER AIR EXCESSIVELY INDUSTRIES FIRE UP THE FOREST FOR AGRICULTURE MASSIVE USE OF VEHICLE THERE ARE TOO MANY DOMESTIC WASTE TO HANDLE
  49. 49. ANIMAL NEED TO FIGHT FOR THEIR LIFE SUCH AS FOR FOOD HUMAN SEE THEM AS LUXURY ITEM LOST THEIR HABITAT TO STAY SAFE
  50. 50. START AWARENESS TO LOVE OUR EARTH GREEN INDUSTRIES, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION GAZETTED NATIONAL PARKS, BUILD ECOTOURIST REPLANT THE TREE SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
  51. 51. MALAYSIA’S TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME Public awareness for biodiversity conservation • Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes in Article 13 the need to create awareness and educate the public. Public awareness is one of the four components formed under BBEC with the objective of establishing models to change behavior of the target groups towards biodiversity conservation. Seminar to heighten Biodiversity conservation awareness in the State • It set out to share experiences and knowledge of WWF-Malaysia on environmental conservation issues • The gazettement of the proposed will significantly contribute towards habitat protection. The Role of Youth in the Conservation of Biodiversity • They are energetic, technology-savvy, constantly evolving, oriented to problem-solving and often propagate active consumerism. • advocates for reduction in footprints and improved quality of life across sectors and industries is essential for the future.
  52. 52. South West Australia Ecoregion Conservation Plan - plan utilizes a data-rich, explicit planning process that is informed by robust expert advice. Building ecosystem resilience in a changing climate - maintaining the extent of habitat; creating nature reserves or conservation management agreements on public and private land; organizing complementary sustainable land and sea management practices; and implementing targeted species-specific conservation. Establish a national long-term biodiversity monitoring and reporting system -Monitoring changes to biodiversity and the environment over time will also help us to understand how to intervene to build broader landscape resilience. AUSTRALIA'S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION STRATEGY
  53. 53. CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION HUMAN • LACK OF AWERENESS ABOUT LOVING OUR TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY • SELF BEHAVIOUR COMMUNITY • RAPID POPULATION GROWTH • WANT LUXURY AND URBAN LIFESTYLE GOVERNMENT • NEED TO SPEND A LOT OF MONEY WHEN TO START THIS IMPLEMENTATION • NO STRICT LAW AND ACT
  54. 54. - PLANT SIMPLE FLOWER OR PLANT IN OUR YARD - DON’T SIMPLY CUT DOWN TREE AT OUR BACKYARD - REPLANT ANY TREE’S SEED THAT EASY TO GROW - CHANGE OUR LIFESTYLE TO SIMPLICITY NOT LUXURY - DON’T SUPPORT ANY ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES FOR OUR LAND - START LOVE OUR EARTH - FIRE UP OUR BACKYARD FOR SMALL GARDEN - DISPOSE OUR DAILY DOMESTIC WASTE INTO WOOD - SWEEP OUT OUR FOREST FOR URBANIZATION - DON’T FEEL SORRY FOR OUR EARTH DO’S DON’TS
  55. 55. Introduction to Rainforest Plant  Rainforests are the heart of biodiversity among the world's ecosystems. Plants is the habitat of a site, providing structure, shelter and food that contributing to overall biodiversity.  There are many types of plants including: Flowering plant Gymnosperms Bryophytes Scadoxus Cinnobarinus Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92
  56. 56. The statistic of deforestation in the world • Nowadays, our rainforest are threatened due to human activities. The irresponsible person had done a lot destruction to the rainforest aiming for high profit without thinking the consequences. • In Malaysia, especially in Borneo and also peninsular land, suffers from a high rate of deforestation. The major reasons for deforestation in Malaysia are for oil palm plantation, logging and mining, forest fire and also tourism. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/major-reasons-deforestation-malaysia-78510.html
  57. 57. Effect of Deforestation  Affecting the habitat of animals and plants As we know 80% of animal and plants live in the forest and it will not survive and no where to-live if we are continuing destroys their homes.  Extreme temperature The forest act like the canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. If we continue to disrupt the forest this will contribute in increasing temperature and global warming.  Less oxygen produced Less oxygen produced that will harm the animals and human being because we need the oxygen to live.
  58. 58.  Loss food sources The animals that eat plants will loss their sources of the food and will interrupt the food chain.  Impacting pharmaceutical industry We will lose some potential drugs that can be extracted from rainforest that will be used for fighting and curing multiple diseases.
  59. 59. Other harmful effect:  Release of greenhouse gas emissions According to Tony Johnson, 30 percent of global greenhouse-gas emissions each year is due to the loss of forests and causes the increase of global warming.  Disrupted water cycle Forests transport large quantities of water into the atmosphere via plant transpiration. This replenishes the clouds and instigates rain that maintains the forests. When deforestation occurs, precious rain is lost from the area, flowing away as river water and causing permanent drying.  Increased soil erosion Due to deforestation it will increase the probability of landslide to be happened like we can see in the development area there is a case of landslide. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_loss
  60. 60. Solution in Conserving The Plant Biodiversity Done in Malaysia  In Malaysia, the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) had taking the initiative starting in 2015 for overcoming the deforestation that focus in Sabah and Sarawak. They are cooperating with Sabah and Sarawak state governments because there are 80% of the rainforest in Malaysian Borneo had destroyed due to logging activities. Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah. Retrieved from http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485
  61. 61. The initiatives that been implemented including:  Enhancing protected areas, conservation spatial planning, responsible forestry and forest certification which could reduce deforestation rate and create a balance between development and conservation.  Introduce Systematic Conservation Planning that produce maps showing areas for priority conservation.  Sarawak must ensure that the Totally Protected Areas and Permanent Forest Estates are managed properly and sustainably  Gazetting new areas as protection forest reserves in November 2014  Provides technical support to forest reserves undergoing certification for responsible forest management following the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards.  Assisting Sabah Government towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) so that the avoidance of deforestation, sustainable forest management and forest restoration achieved by the government and other forest license holders can be financially rewarded.
  62. 62. Solution in Conserving The Plant Biodiversity Done in Brazil In Brazil, they are success in reducing the deforestation. Data from 2009–2010 showed that Brazil’s area of deforestation, which averaged 19,508 square kilometers (km2) per year in 1996 until 2005 had succeed to drop by 67 percent, to just 6,451 km2. By using a formula for converting deforested area to CO2 emissions based on the work of the research institute IMAZON, estimated a reduction in Brazil’s global warming pollution of nearly 1 billion tons. Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
  63. 63. How Brazil do it?  Both state and federal levels expanded its network of indigenous reserves and protected areas.  The government have introduce the strong enforcement of logging laws, including seizures of illegal timber, closing of illegal sawmills, and jailing of the perpetrators (including government officials who had been taking bribes to look the other way)  Launching The Zero Deforestation campaign  Brazil’s citizens played a critical role in pushing their government to go further and in exerting pressure for change on the businesses that are the main agents of deforestation  Brazilian NGO’s campaign for soybean and beef industries should not sell products raised on deforested land  Research institutes such as IPAM and IMAZON have been important in monitoring progress and showing how ranchers, farmers, and loggers can increase their productivity in ways that make deforestation unnecessary. Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
  64. 64. The Challenges  Need large amount of money for setting up the agency and an independent institution for monitoring emissions from forests  It is difficult in reducing the deforestation while growing up the economy  Special interests and corruption among the responsible person  Lack of coordination from government  Loose of law enforcement  Mindset of people
  65. 65. Other suggestion in conserving plant biodiversity Plant a tree Go paperless Applying 3R : reduce, reuse and recycle Buy sustainably certified wood products
  66. 66. Do and Don’t DO DON’T Practice 3R’s concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) starting at home Assuming 3R’s is not important Minimizing waste Buying a lot of unnecessary thing and harm to environment Minimize the used of paper because nowadays a lot of development of technology can be used in replacing paper e.g. WhatsApp Application Using paper as source of communication Buy sustainably certified wood products Use furniture without checking the certified wood products Avoiding open burning because it can cause big fire to nearest forest if not controlled properly Doing the open burning Enforce the law against the illegal logging and mining buy giving the appropriate penalties Tolerable with illegal logging and mining i.e. corruption
  67. 67.  Biodiversity makes lives more credible and desirable. There are too many species arise on our earth.  Based on specialist, there are about 10 million to 80 million species arise on earth but only manage to attain about 1.4 million species so far. Source: Pranab Pal D,2016
  68. 68. Loss of biodiversity of animals is continuing and became more serious nowadays. Population of human, strong competition of consumerism and urbanization are common aspect to be considered in enhancing environmental problems and to verify the potential of life on earth.
  69. 69.  The crime (illegal wildlife trade) became worst from times to times. People rushed hunting or seizing of wild animals.  It can be considered as a threat to animals population as it can affect biodiversity not even to wildlife but also plants. Then, ecosystem will be bothered when species in danger.
  70. 70. Causes of poaching:  Bush meat: usually animal that rarely be found (mammals or birds). This kind of animals is protected under law. The poachers hunt for consumption and even for profit.  Poverty: usually done by rural poachers that seeks for a better life by violating law and nature.  Wealth: wildlife is part of high demand product. Their skins, trunks, ivory and etc. can make a quality product and even some people used them as symbols of status and wealth.
  71. 71. NO SPECIES POACHING CASES NO. OF ANIMALS POACHED SEIZURE CASES REPORTED QUANTITY OF SEIZED ITEMS 1 Deer 34 48 32 16 skins,169 kg meat,8 antlers, 5 heads and 3 legs 2 Elephant 18 18 20 39 tusks, 5tushes,31 kg Ivory and 2 Ivory pieces 3 Peacock 30 116 2 Paws and feathers 4 Rhinoceros 22 22 1 One horn 5 Wild boar 11 10 12 6 kg meat, 1 skull and1 bone Source: Down to Earth Table 1: Poaching and seizure of wild animals in India, 2014.
  72. 72.  Increasing in human population effect biodiversity in many ways. For instance, the need of residence development will cause the need of new dam for electricity propose thus cause destruction of flora and fauna.  Loss of forest by means due to deforestation for any development purposes has been widespread up until now, yet give impact to distribution of biodiversity of fauna and flora. When the forest damage, the wildlife species is in danger because their habitat is disturbed.
  73. 73. Country: SOUTH AFRICA Source: brandsouthafrica.com Establish the uniform national system that will employ the same standard around the country. Provide for the formal registration of all captive breeding facilities, nurseries, scientific institutions, sanctuaries and rehabilitation facilities. Only hunters that registered with recognized body got permit. No tolerance towards poaching. Firm penalties (fine and imprisonment up to 5 years). For a private land (borders national or provincial protected area), hunting also not allowed except got permission from landowner and board authority, other than environmental MEC or minister approve it. Promote tourism.
  74. 74. Country: MALAYSIA Enhance laws on biodiversity management. • People need to have permit or licence to do activities related to wildlife FRIM conduct research for forest development Established National Park to save wildlife in preserve area.
  75. 75. What can Malaysia do? Informing All Society Protected Area Strong Institution • Help maximize the benefits of conserve rainforest for animals sake. • It is much expensive to restore the ecosystem rather than protecting the existing. • Chose the best place where all ecosystem can be placed in one place. It need to be well designed and effectively managed. • Include enforcement measures and considered impact on biodiversity. • Take the issues related to rainforest’s animal into national level. • Provide incentives to sustain rainforest’s animal.
  76. 76. COST  Lack of budget laid for sustainability of animal biodiversity. HUMAN TOLERANCE  Some might be support that the wildlife has right to exist but some might oppose it. Most of wildlife provide economic and ecological services that human valued.  Carnivores shows a huge reduction over times. It is due to no tolerance towards them. Human hunt for their skins, trunks and many more that will cause harm to them and at the same time, these carnivores looses their preys (herbivores) also due to human greed. CLIMATE CHANGE  Climate change can gives impact to certain species, causing them in danger.  Continuing global warming will affect in change of rainfall pattern. It can cause lost in habitat if forest cannot be maintained. LAWS AND REGULATION  Lack serious action towards poachers.
  77. 77. DO’S  Redesign habitat and corridors for wildlife suitable with their flexibility.  On going improvise management.  Enhance law and regulation related to wildlife. Gives a serious penalties towards poachers; no warning needed.  Promote tourism so that sustainability of wildlife guaranteed.  Raising public awareness DON’TS ꓫ Deforestation will lead to lost of animal’s habitat. ꓫ Has exotic species as pets ꓫ Support product from animal’s part. ꓫ Tolerate poaching.
  78. 78. For a healthy economic growth and together with ecosystem’s stability, biodiversity is necessary because everything we did on this earth is related to biodiversity which means biodiversity and live humans on this earth are depends on each other. Sustainable development consists of maintain the whole balance, valued the environment and prevent any fatigue of natural resources. We must take action in sustaining the biodiversity of our earth for future generation. CONCLUSION
  79. 79. Internet 1. Protecting South Africa’s wildlife retrieved on October 18,2017 from https://www.brandsouthafrica.com/governance/sustainable/conservation-030506 2. Biodiversity & Human Well-being retrieved on October 20,2017 from https://www.greenfacts.org/en/biodiversity/ 3. Jianying (2015) ‘Achievements of Taiwan’s Marine Protected Areas’’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from https://www.fa.gov.tw/en/WorldOceansDay/content.aspx?id=3&chk=e18b2aa9-f67e-4a67-84d1-4367f00160b9&param=pn%3D1 4. Jianying (2015) ‘Fisheries of the Republic of China(Taiwan)’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from http://www.fa.gov.tw/en/FisheriesoROC/content.aspx?id=5&chk=4b287405-ead6-4244-ae05-0b0c67edad48&param=pn%3D1 5. Hellwig, Christian (2015, June 29). Deforestation impacting pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved from http://globalriskinsights.com/2015/06/deforestation-impacting-pharmaceutical-industry/ 6. (2015, May 12). Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah,. Retrieved from http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485 7. (2011, Feb). Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop- deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU 8. Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92 9. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/major-reasons-deforestation-malaysia-78510.html 10. Deforestation. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation/ 11. 10 ways to conserve biodiversity. Retrieve from https://greentumble.com/10-ways-to-conserve-biodiversity/ Journal 1. Pranab Pal D (2016) Managing Biodiversity with Emphasis on Sustainable Development, J Ecosys Ecograph S5:008. 2. Sustainable Wildlife Management CPW and Biodiversity, Wildlife FAO.

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