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Gender equality - Magnea MARINOSDOTTIR (Iceland)

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Presentation given at the OECD Gender Budgeting Experts Meeting, Vienna, Austria. 18-19 June 2018

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Gender equality - Magnea MARINOSDOTTIR (Iceland)

  1. 1. Strengthen the implementation of gender- sensitive policies, increase accountability and close persistent gender and broader diversity gaps Magnea Marinósdóttir Equality Unit Ministry of Welfare
  2. 2. The Assignment 1: Share the lessons learnt from Iceland on the importance of enabling a system-wide approach to gender equality. If possible, share some examples of Iceland’s experience in strengthening gender mainstreaming across all policy areas and state institutions. 2: Discuss what you think the remaining challenges are, and what is still needed for the successful implementation of gender mainstreaming and budgeting efforts. Your suggestions on how to overcome them and your thoughts on what role central gender institutions can play. 3: What the OECD could do to support progress. 2
  3. 3. Why Gender and Equality Analysis and Mainstreaming? 3
  4. 4. 1: System-wide approach to gender + equality - Strengthening gender+ mainstreaming across all policy areas and state institutions. The steps taken in Iceland: Talking the talk – Walking the Walk 1.1 Step: Expression of Political Will and Commitment  The Constitution  Law on the Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men 1976  Anti-Discrimination legislation 2018  Action Plans on Gender Equality 1985  Bi-annual reporting of the minister to Parliament 1985 4
  5. 5. Legal Foundion Key legal development/amendment in 2008: Legislating gender mainstreaming as a method to reach the goal of Gender Equality Article 17 of the Law on the equal status and equal right of women and men Gender mainstreaming. » Gender mainstreaming shall be observed in all policy- making and planning on the part of the ministries and the public institutions operating under their realm. The same shall apply, as appropriate, to all decision-making within ministries and institutions. 5
  6. 6. 1. Continued 1.2. Step: Gender+ Equality Structure: Gender Equality Office (1976) => Gender Equality Center (2000) – Gender Equality Experts in all ministries (2008) and Equality Experts (2013) => Equality Unit (spring 2017) at the Ministry of Welfare 1.3. Step: Awareness Raising and Education  Advantage: Preparation of the ground: knowledge building and advancement of understanding  Shortcomings: Unclear mandate - gender mainstreaming not on the agenda within the ministries and state institutions. Takes two to tango 6
  7. 7. 1.4. Step: Tools and their Application A: Gender budgeting: introduction of the methodology of gender analysis 2005-2006 => 2009- B: Gender impact assessment of governmental bills of law 2015. Target: 40% in 2017 => 100% in 2019 C: Gender mainstreaming of polices and decision making ministries and state institutions – systemic approach 2018- 7
  8. 8. The Process in Iceland 2005-2006 • First pilot project • Part of Nordic cooperation • Not continued 2009 • Implementa- tion starts • Steering Committee appointed • Information gathering and planning 2010-2011 • Pilot Projects • At least one pr ministry • Results in the 2012 Budget Statement 2011-2014 • Three Year Plan • Main Policy Areas, etc 2015-2019 • Emphasis on Decision Making • Gender Equality Assesments of Law Proposals • Legally binding • Budget Proposals • Statistics • Etc.
  9. 9. Gender budgeting » 2009-2010: 17 analyses » 2011-2013: 9 analyses  Advantage: Opening eyes to the gendered reality and inequalities  Shortcomings: project based and findings not informing policies, legislation or service delivery (input and output) 9
  10. 10. Eye Opener: Gender Inequalities and Gendered Reality Electric razors – exempt from tax Other razors and hair removal devices – 7,5% Abolished in 2017
  11. 11. 1. Continued Second key legal development/amendment in 2015 – Part of budgetary reform The New Organic Budget Law - Act no. 123/2015 Article 18 Gender budgeting and equality » The Minister, in consultation with the minister responsible for gender equality, leads the formulation of a gender budgeting programme, which shall be taken into account in the drafting of the Budget Bill. The Budget Bill shall outline its effects on gender equality targets. Article 20 Pertains to policy making => reform of the policy process 11
  12. 12. Action Plan on Gender Equality 2016-2019 1.4. B: Gender+ Mainstreaming Action 5. Mainstreaming of gender-responsive and gender equality considerations. In collaboration with the Centre for Gender Equality and under the leadership of the Ministry of Welfare, the ministries’ gender equality officers are to draw up a comprehensive four-year schedule on the mainstreaming of gender-responsive and gender equality considerations in the policy-making and decision-taking of the ministries and government bodies. An action group shall be formally appointed to handle this task, and it will be enabled to engage an employee. 12
  13. 13. Action Plan on Gender Equality 2016-2019 Action 5. Mainstreaming of gender-responsive and gender equality considerations – continued 1. The schedule is to take account of the projects that have already been carried out involving the mainstreaming (inclusion) of these considerations in the ministries, including those that took place in earlier government gender equality action programmes and plans for gender-responsive economic management and budgeting. The schedule should include the following: » a. Proposals on the mainstreaming of gender-responsive considerations in the operations of the ministries and government bodies. 13
  14. 14. Action Plan on Gender Equality 2016-2019 Action 5. Mainstreaming of gender-responsive and gender equality considerations – continued 2. » b. Proposals for projects within the range of issues addressed by each ministry as experimental projects in the first year, followed by new projects each year. » c. Proposals on a check-list on equality issues to be included with governmental bills and the introduction of a procedure for assessing gender equality. » d. Proposals on the use of already-available data that has been analysed for its gender-equality implications as a tool in policy-making and decision-making. Identification of those areas where the provision of regular information is less than satisfactory, with steps taken to remedy the situation. » Time-frame: 2016-2019. » Responsibility: Ministry of Welfare. 14
  15. 15. Action Plan on Gender Equality 2016-2019 Action 6. Gender-responsive economic management and budgeting. Work is to be done on gender-responsive economic management and budgeting in accordance with a five-year integration plan. The Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs is to be responsible for the project, which shall be under the direction of a five-person steering committee consisting of appointees from all the government ministries and a representative of the Centre for Gender Equality. An account of the status of the projects shall be given in the draft budget legislation every year. The project manager shall make proposals on monitoring of the integration plan by means of evaluation criteria for all the government ministries and collaborate closely with the steering committee on the inclusion of gender- responsive and gender equality considerations. » Time-frame: This is an on-going project. » Responsibility: Equality officers of the ministries; Ministry of Finance and Economic Affair 15
  16. 16. Entry Point for Gender+ Mainstreaming 1. Principles: SDG 5 and policy making 2. The implementation of the organic budget law 3. On-going policy cycle reforms 1: Policymaking should be based on five principles: A. Sustainability – Gender+ B. Prudence C. Stability D. Predictability E. Transparency – the on-line portal for public consultations 20.6.2018
  17. 17. Long-term outlook and development (30 years) Statement of fiscal policy (5 years) Fiscal strategy plan (5 years) Budget bill (1 year)
  18. 18. Fiscal Strategy Plan * Submitted to Parliament no later than 1st of April each year * Covers five years and applies to the State (ministries and its institutions) and municipalities * Policy formulation by each ministry for relevant expenditure areas (34) and corresponding functions (101) = link to state institutions and municipalities
  19. 19. Jan- feb mars- apríl maí - júní júlí- ágúst sept- okt des 5 year fiscal strategic plan submitted to Parliament 1 April Budget allocation to expenditure functions, state institutions and projects Budget bill of law Approval of the budget bill Annual report of ministers Strategic policy planning of state institution (3 year) Annual plans State institutions Financial Statement Budget Cycle
  20. 20. Expenditure area Expenditure function Appropriations Provisions Budge t bill Annex Institutions Projects 34 101
  21. 21. Planning 1. Problem analysis and organisation 2. Project planning 3. Stakeholder analysis Assessment 4. Research and analysis 5. Key issues identified 6. Framing of possible paths to address the key issues 7. GREEN PAPER 8. Consultation Policy formulation 9. Choice of path / vision and mission statement 10. Setting of goals and parameters 11. Draft action plan and cost evaluation 12. WHITE PAPER 13. Consultation 14. POLICY DOCUMENT Implementation and evaluation 15. Fiscal strategy plan / other strategy plans 16. Financing 17. Implementation and evaluation 18. Annual report 19. Review 3-6 weeks 16-28 weeks
  22. 22. Steps for policy making Evaluation of the need for a new/renewed policy 1-2 weeks Stórfundu r um Communication plan/ meeting agenda Planning 1. Problem analysis and project organization 2. Project planning 3. Analysis of partakers 1-2 weeks Defining the project goal Timeline and milestones defined Meeting plan for the steering group as well as means of communication Project manager is chosen Project is designed and agreed upon Executive body analysis 1-2 weeks Step 1: Planning Project delimitation Project organizatio n Formal project initiation Risk evaluation Actor´s involvement and participatory process Collaborator analysis Stakeholder analysis User analysis Cost evaluation Minister‘ s decision
  23. 23. Steps for policy making for málefnasvið Informatio n request 6-12 weeks Evaluation method Workshop with collaborators Stórfundur um Problem exploration Green paper published Assessment 5. Key issues identified 4. Research and analysis 6. Framing of possible paths to address the key issues 7. Green paper Workshop with relevant executive bodies Foreign develop- ment Previous policy Research and analysis 2-4 weeks Key issues agreed upon Identification of 5-10 key issues Workshops Smaller workshops if needed Scenarios and key issues addressed Different ways to solve issues mapped and evaluated Draft vision statement Draft mission statement Workshop with key stakeholders Publication in consultation portal Green paper proposal 4-6 weeks 4-6 weeks Step 2: Assessment Announceme nt sent to stakeholders Open consultatio n 8. Consultation
  24. 24. Step 2: Assessment – Gender+ and equality based assessment and analysis Table for Green Book (=> SOP template): Gender and equality (anti- discrimination) perspectives in the subject (policy) area 24
  25. 25. © Elisabeth Klatzer and Zita Küng „I don‘t make a difference, I treat everybody equally!“
  26. 26. Transparency and Public Engagement The consultation portal = on-line space to enhance transparency and increase public engagement on priority settings in the form of polices, legislation and plans, and accountability Platform to:  submit comments and critical perspectives to polices, legislation, plans and other governmental interventions in the pipelines (preparatory stage)  access services and communicate with the authorities  submit petitions and take part in referendums 26
  27. 27. 2: Challenges and how to ensure successful implementation of gender mainstreaming and budgeting efforts 1. Awareness / understanding the need for ensuring that all polices and legislation are compatible and supportive of the objectives of the law on the equal status and equal rights of women and men and other anti-discrimination legislation to ensure compliance with the latter => Enhance the understanding of GBA+ in upholding principles of equality and advance the diversity and inclusion agenda 2. Availability and access to gender-sensitive data 3. Sustained, regular and user-friendly training as a part of orientation of each staff member with policy and decision making role 4. Experience of policy making – analysis and formulation – plus how to mainstream gender and equality perspectives into polices 5. Gender and equality mainstreaming is primary concern as opposed to secondary component of standard operational thinking and procedures around policy making and legislative work 6. Project and working group based => fragments the process and is bound in time = comprehensive approach to ensure sustainability 27
  28. 28. 2: continued 7. GBA+ considered to be additional workload as opposed to part of regular work and the positive duty of the State and its staff 8. Contradictions between laws and action plans and resource allocation both human and financial resources. Case in point: Equality officers of the ministries. 9. Expertise and coordinated structure (GEC, GE officers, GE unit): Clear division of roles and responsibilities including coordination 10. Structures for guidance to line ministries and state institutions, and quality control of GBA+ 11. Clear leadership 12. Monitoring and reporting on GE results => (lack of) accountability. Annual report of ministers, role of parliament and state auditor 28
  29. 29. 3: What to do in Iceland Implementation plan on GBA+ aligned with policy cycle reform to introduce a systemwide gender+ mainstreaming as a standard operational procedure for policy and decision making.  Tools  guidance with examples  user friendly training material with practices on-line and applications  SOPs – work process – role and responsibilities – collaboration  Expert guidance and quality control  Monitoring and evaluation (Parliament and State Auditor?) » Create ownership with wide consultations 29
  30. 30. 3. What to do in Icleand continued » Turn the gender unit into department serving the complete government » Strengthen the role of the Parliament and State Auditor » Data collection: Role of ministries, state institutions, municipalizes and the Statistics Iceland – similar to Canada: gender, diversity and inclusion statistics at Statistics Iceland » Infographics pertaining to gender+ issues 30
  31. 31. 3: What can OECD do? 3.1. Produce knowledge products to share with OECD member states: learning from best practices and mistakes. Sample: the toolbox 3.2. Assist countries in creating baselines the basis of assessment and gaps analysis – level of mainstreamed polices, gender+ equality support system 3.3. Assist countries in how to be accountable to gender+ human rights: assist in assessing results and keeping them on track with mid-term and completion reviews of implementation plans and other assessment. Case in point: the gender governance review of Canada. 3.4. Training of trainers in a targeted way such as state auditors to conduct gender governance review etc. 31