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Cheese production <ul><li>Cheese making is an art </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese making is the combined application of microbiology, biochemistry, chemistry, and engineering that exploits natural properties of milk proteins </li></ul>
The miracle of cheese <ul><li>References to cheese making go back more than 6000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese and wine were common methods for preserving food. </li></ul><ul><li>How did they do it? </li></ul>
The miracle of cheese <ul><li>Native Lactic acid bacteria in raw milk </li></ul><ul><li>Water tight containers = only natural source of rennet </li></ul>
http://www.bibleorigins.net/Sumer_Map.jpg Ancient cheese: sour & salty
4000 BC <ul><li>Mongolian and other nomads transported milk within stomachs (only moisture proof container) and the milk soured and curdled. </li></ul>
History of cheese - Egypt www.touregypt.net 2000 BC, cheese making depicted on tomb murals. Priests guarded production secret. Cheese reserved for elite
Written documentation Old Testament: David consumes Cheese of Kine (cow) (1500BC) http:// www.ilovecheese.co.uk/HistoryOfCheese.html Homer: Cyclops Polyphemus,: whose baskets were “always full of cheese, even in the coldest winter. (800 BC)
<ul><li>We soon reached his cave, but he was out shepherding, so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses, and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold... When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats, all in due course, and then let each of them have her own young. He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers </li></ul><ul><li>Odyssey by Homer </li></ul>
Roman Empire <ul><li>Romans transformed cheese into a food for the general people </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman army brought cheese and cheese making skills to Europe including England. </li></ul><ul><li>>13 cheese recipes – developed cheese press </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metro.ca/conseil-expert/fromager/histoire-fromage.en.html </li></ul>www.dkimages.com Roman cheese grader
Romans – master engineers <ul><li>Columella’s De Re Rustica (~65 BC). Description of Roman agriculture and food. </li></ul><ul><li>cheesemaking process involving rennet coagulation, pressing of the curd, salting, and aging. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hort/history/018.html </li></ul>3 rd century Roman cheese press found in England
Cooked pressed cheeses Emmental, Comté, Beaufort, Gruyere: Traditional mountain cheeses. Farmers combined their herds at summer pastures in the mountains of the Alps and Jura. Had enough milk to produce large cheeses. Needed to make cheeses with long shelf life because it took a long time to get the cheeses down from the mountains and to market Fruit of the mountains: produced at fruitieres: Comté produced at close to 200 fruitieres in Franche Comté. Must be made with milk from Montbeliard cow
Non-cooked pressed cheeses Frequently named from the Abbeys which originally produced them: Chambarand, Port-du-salut, Abondance The Morbier: From the Jura mountain region. Traditionally during winter the cows came down from mountain pastures. Each farmer looked after his own cows. The farmer obtained less milk and this created the need for a smaller cheese. After making cheese curd in the morning, the curd was covered in ash to keep it from spoiling until the evening. The milk obtained from the evening milking was transformed into curd and combined with the morning curd. The ash created a dark line within the cheese.
Bloomy rind cheeses The Camembert was developed during the French revolution by a Normandy farmer, Marie Harel. She was hiding a priest who taught her how to make brie style cheeses. By the end of the 18 th century Napoleon the III discovered the cheese while traveling in Normandy which he named Camembert . Cheeses from the warmer French low-land were easily brought to market. Individual farmers produced their own cheeses. Thus these cheeses were much smaller and could be sold quickly. These cheeses were therefore made with a mold that accelerates ripening.
Approximately 350 commercial bovine dairy farms
Oregon Dairy Companies Plants closed since 1999 Plants opened since 1999 Alpenrose, Darigold, Deluxe Ice Cream, Eberhard’s, Farmers COOP, Kroger, Lochmead, Larsen’s, Oregon Ice Cream, Valley Crest Foods, Safeway, Sunshine, Springfield, Tillamook, Umpqua, YoCream Raven Creamery, Curly’s Dairy, Bandon Cheese, Valley of the Rogue Dairy, Echo Spring Dairy Columbia River Proc.
Artisan Farmstead Cow Ochoa Cheese, Rogue Creamery, Mariposa, Jacobs, Oak Leaf Noris Dairy, Willamette Valley Cheese Goat Alsea Acre, Fern’s Edge, Fraga Farm, Juniper Grove, New Moon, Pholia Farm, River’s Edge, Silver Falls Creamery, Siskiyou Crest, Tumalo Farms, Fairview, Goldin, Mama Terra, Briar Rose Sheep Ancient Heritage,
Oregon’s Cheeses 2010: world championship: Tillamook best medium cheddar 2009: American Cheese Society: Rogue River Blue: Best in Show 2009: World Cheese Awards (UK): River’s Edge 2 nd best mold ripened goat cheese. 2008: World Cheese Competition: Tumalo Classico, 2 nd Best Cheese: Best placement of a goat milk cheese ever . Numerous other honors and first places.
Oregon Milk Quality <ul><li>3 rd best in nation </li></ul><ul><li>( USDA 2006 SCC statistics - after Rhode Island and Montana ) </li></ul>