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From .com to .brand

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Soon brands will have the opportunity to apply for branded domains such as .coke or .ibm, or more generic domains such as .money or .food. The opportunities this will bring are laid out in this paper produced by Ogilvy New York’s Digital Strategy group.

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From .com to .brand

  1. 1. From .com to .brandThe Changing Face of Internet Domains
  2. 2. ContentsTransitioning from .com to .brand 3New gTLDs: The Facts 4Opportunities Presented by the Introduction of New gTLDs 8How Ogilvy can help 13Appendix 15 2
  3. 3. Transitioning from .comto .brandEarly next year, The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)will be accepting applications for the creation of new gTLDs (generic Top-Level Domains),which will allow companies to take ownership of both branded domains such as .coca-colaor .ibm and more generic but relevant domains such as .money or .food. The shift froma .com-centric to a .brand-centric domain architecture has the potential to dramaticallyalter the online landscape, leading to expectations that hundreds of new gTLDs will beregistered over the course of the next year.For brands’ online presence, the new domains represent a transformative opportunity.However, to successfully take advantage of this opportunity, brands must be strategic intheir approach. Before brands even begin navigating the complex application process,they must first understand exactly what owning a gTLD would mean for them as well asconsider a number of questions such as: “Should I register my brand name just in case?’’and “How will this play a role in my overall brand architecture?”In this paper, we will provide an overview of the shift toward the new gTLDs. We’ll addresshow gTLDs can be registered and what it means to operate one. We’ll take a look at theexciting opportunities gTLDs offer to brands, and show how Ogilvy can help brands makethe most out of the gTLD shift. 3
  4. 4. New gTLDs: The FactsBecause organizations have lobbied over the years for specific gTLDs, ICANN has decidedto open a market and adopt policies for issuing these gTLDs. Although it continues torefine the domain application process, ICANN has released a handbook that details whatis expected from applicants. As brands begin to think about that process, this is what theyneed to know.Applying for a gTLDHow the process worksApplications submitted during the first quarter of 2012 will be subject to a multistageevaluation process lasting approximately nine to 20 months. During this time, the applied-for domain names will be published online, allowing the public to review them and submitobjections.CostsBrands looking to purchase a gTLD should anticipate the cost of the application process.ICANN’s initial application fee for a new gTLD totals $185,000, and domain maintenancecosts of $25,000 per year. These costs do not include a brand’s internal expenditures, suchas the cost of staff to administer registrations and ensure policy compliance, or the cost thatmay arise from an auction in the event that multiple parties vie for the rights to a domain.TrademarksA major concern for a brand beginning to think about gTLDs may very well center onquestions like “Will someone register my brand name as a gTLD, leaving me emptyhanded?” There is, however, a program in place similar to those operated for currentdomain name registrations (e.g., for registering a to mitigate this risk. A listof all proposed gTLDs will be published after the application period has expired. Anobjection-based process will then enable brands to declare that a specific application wouldinfringe upon their trademark. If the brand is successful in objecting, the application willnot proceed.Vision for the gTLDICANN does not plan to give out gTLDs to just anyone who is willing to pay the fee. Intheir vision, an applicant for a new gTLD is not just registering that domain, but is alsoapplying for the creation and operation of a full-on registry business that supports thatspecific domain name as well as the internet’s domain name system in general. Running aregistry involves a number of significant responsibilities due to the fact that the operator ofa new gTLD is running a piece of visible internet infrastructure. 4
  5. 5. ICANN expects all new gTLDs to be operational, which means that companies cannot“reserve” a domain. This requirement allows for competition and innovation in the marketplace, which are among the primary goals of the new gTLD strategy and ICANN’s overall mission. Applicants will be required to provide a detailed plan for how they intend to launch and operate their proposed gTLD(s). The requirement stipulates that a brand’s new gTLD must be operational within one year of signing a registry agreement with ICANN.Community domain names versus open domain namesICANN makes a distinction between community-based gTLDs and open gTLDs. Acommunity domain addresses a clearly defined community and is operated for the benefitof a restricted population. In order to qualify for a community-based gTLD, the applicant1) must demonstrate an ongoing relationship with a defined community; 2) must haveapplied for a gTLD string that is strongly and specifically related to that community;3) must have proposed dedicated registration and use policies for registrants; and 4) musthave its application endorsed by an established institution representing the community. Forexample, while global food conglomerates like Unilever and Procter & Gamble would behighly interested in claiming .food, ICANN could decide to grant the gTLD to the USDA,which has been a regulatory and educational body in the dietary space for over 100 years.While any company can apply for the ownership of category domains such as .money,.food or .book, registering a generic gTLD will most likely result in having to battle with groups claiming that a specific gTLD should be considered a type of community domain. Previously, ICANN has consistently demonstrated a strong community bias, for its charter and mission practically require it to do so.The open gTLD classificationAny application that has not been designated as “community-based” will be consideredan open gTLD. Open gTLDs can be used for any purpose consistent with applicationand evaluation criteria. An open gTLD may or may not have a formal relationship with anexclusive registrant or user population. This would apply to companies registering theirbrand as a gTLD. Brands already thinking about this process have begun to chart their gTLD naming strategy. According to a study by Melbourne IT Digital Brand Services, which surveyed 150 organizations that have expressed an interest in applying for a new gTLD, 92% of respondents have indicated their preferred choice would be their core brand name: a.brand. (For example, Canon has publicly stated it will apply for .canon.)The results of this study reveal that brands are clearly split between two strategic intentions,with 48% indicating that their primary intention is to protect against brand infringementand another 45% indicating that their primary intention is to create a competitiveadvantage for their business. 5
  6. 6. Duplicate applications In the event that there are two or more applications for the same string (the combination of letters and characters that form the gTLD) or confusingly similar strings, the so-called“string contention” procedure will come into effect. The string contention is a three-step procedure that begins with an automated system, based on algorithms, which determines whether applicants have submitted duplicate or very similar gTLDs. After that, a panel will take a closer look at the duplicates and decide if the strings proposed in two applications are so similar that they are in direct string contention.In the final stage of the procedure, contention sets must be resolved. There are two ways inwhich this resolution may take place. For applications where at least one of the applicantsinvolved is community-based (see “Community domain names versus open domain names”above) and has expressed preference for comparative evaluation, the following steps willprecede an auction, which serves as the final option for all types of string conflicts:1) Voluntary agreement — One of the parties agrees to drop their application, or the partiesdecide to form a partnership. This partnership will not replace the formal applicant, as onlyone of the two parties will receive the rights to the gTLD in question. This party will thenbe able, based on the agreement with the other party or parties involved, to operate thegTLD.2) Comparative evaluation — The comparative evaluation is an independent analysis inwhich applicants will be asked to respond to a set of additional questions. A panel willreview and score the applications against criteria such as 1) the nexus between the proposedstring and community; 2) dedicated registration policies; and 3) community establishmentand endorsement.Then, as the final step for community-based applications, and the first and last step for allothers:3) Auction — The gTLD will be put up for bid through an online, ascending clock auctionfeaturing successive rounds for increasing price brackets. This process implies thatapplicants will exit successively as the bidding level in a round exceeds their respective exitbids. 6
  7. 7. After the gTLD Is GrantedOperating a gTLDFollowing the completion of either the straightforward process or the slightly moreintense procedure in which other interested parties were successfully battled, a gTLDwill be granted. As a first step, the applicant will need to enter into an agreement withICANN and pass a battery of technical tests before the new gTLD may be created. Theapplicant is then given a year to operationalize its gTLD. That means that both the internalorganizational structure and technical elements such as a registry must be prepared. Afterthis period — and only if the applicant intended to allow such according to their businessplan — third parties can begin registering their domain names on the new gTLD.Registration phases and trademark protectionThere are two phases through which domain name registrations take place on a newlylaunched gTLD: a Sunrise Phase, consisting of the first 30 days, during which theregistration of domain names on the gTLD in question will be allowed as a prelaunch;followed by a Landrush Phase, consisting of the next 60 days, during which registration isopen to the general public.Every registrar that operates a gTLD is obligated to have several mechanisms in place thatprevent infringement of trademark rights during these phases. These infringements arebased on ICANN’s Trademark Clearinghouse, which is a repository of all word marks thatare registered, court validated, or protected by statute or treaty.In the Sunrise Phase, notice must be provided to all trademark holders in ICANN’sTrademark Clearinghouse when a party is seeking a sunrise registration. In the subsequentLandrush Phase, trademark claims services must be offered.Implications for BrandsThe new gTLD program will offer brands a chance to register brand names or genericterms “after the dot,” which opens a world of possibilities.With the trademark protection methods in place, registering a gTLD merely for thesake of preventing competition from snatching up that domain won’t be necessary. Forrights holders of brand names that several companies or organizations use across variouscategories (think “Apple”), it is worth investigating either owning the gTLD or forming asingle application in partnership with other interested parties.Some exciting opportunities exist beyond merely corporate or brand names. In the nextsection, we will address a few of these opportunities, as well as share our vision of whatowning a generic or brand gTLD might signify. 7
  8. 8. Opportunities Presentedby the Introduction of NewgTLDsWhile there is still much unknown about how users will react to new gTLDs, we dididentify several opportunities that the introduction of new gTLDs offers to both brandsand business. In this section, we will highlight some of these exciting opportunities.Generic Domain NamesWe foresee two primary ways in which a company may derive value from owning ageneric, or category, name. The first follows from the fact that a company can claimbrand ownership of a category (as Kleenex is to “facial tissue,” Google is to “search” and,arguably, Apple is to “app”). Taking control of an established category in this way requiressignificant marketing investment and won’t be achieved solely through the acquisition andownership of a domain.The second way in which a company may see ROI on the purchase of a category domain isby licensing a gTLD. While licensing could have the potential for revenue generation, it is anew business model that would require the domain owner to operate in a new capacity andacquire new capabilities that could potentially open up the organization to risk.Brand-Focused Domain NamesThe true .brandAcquiring a branded domain name (like .coca-cola) offers many potential benefits and isthe primary reason that so many brands are excited about this move by ICANN. For allbrands, the introduction of the gTLD allows for the creation of fully branded URLs andopens the door for more memorable websites, campaigns and social media applications. Abranded gTLD has the capability to tie various elements of the brand architecture togetherbeautifully.Linking products with a master brandFor brands like Unilever, Coca-Cola, Nestlé and DuPont, which have a number ofsubbrands living under the umbrella of a master brand, the challenge of linking subbrandand master brand in the minds of consumers is often a difficult one. While master brands 8
  9. 9. typically attempt to reinforce the subbrand/master brand association through TV end tags,print ads and product packaging, the association is often overlooked. gTLDs can help solvethis problem. Master brands that venture to purchase a .brand gTLD gain the opportunityto create a direct link between themselves and their subbrands by crafting subbrandURLs that feature a subbrand.masterbrand format. By integrating these subbrand.masterbrand URLs into all elements of a brand’s communications matrix and by makingthe subbrand.masterbrand URL the subbrand’s digital home, the association between thetwo brands becomes stronger. For brands with a suite of complementary products that arenot often associated with one another in the minds of consumers, this branding can be aparticularly attractive option. For example, Nestlé would gain the ability to craft URLs,such as californiapizzakitchen.nestlé, häagen-dazs.nestlé, leancuisine.nestlé, stouffers.nestlé,and wonka.nestlé which unite subbrands with one another via a master brand. For brandslike Nestlé, whose reputation for offering quality products is often an impetus for purchasein both domestic and international markets, this association can translate into significantROI, as a closer subbrand/master brand association may translate into increased sales.gTLDs can strengthen the link between subbrands and master brands not only fortraditional manufacturers, but also across other categories, such as the entertainment sector.For example, film studios can increase master brand awareness and notoriety by registeringtheir individual films in the subbrand.masterbrand format. For a brand like Paramount,creating URLs such as thegodfather.paramount, iloveyouman.paramount andtruegrit.paramount can leverage the brand equity inherent in the Paramount name, as wellas the brand equity in titles of its past work (e.g., The Godfather), to bolster the stature of newreleases (e.g., likecrazy.paramount, missionimpossibleghostprotocol.paramount, etc.).Creating a brand platformFor brands that have invested a great deal in creating a global brand platform forthemselves, a platform-centric gTLD could prove to be a significant amplifier to brandingand marketing efforts. A brand like Coca-Cola, whose global brand platform “OpenHappiness” is ubiquitously associated with its flagship Coke brand, could benefit fromregistering a .happiness gTLD. For Coca-Cola, a company that is as much invested inbrand stewardship as it is in the manufacturing of its products, this gTLD would presentan opportunity to truly own the concept of happiness in the digital space. Owning thisunique gTLD would allow Coca-Cola to leverage its platform across its suite of subbrands.According to the brand’s architecture, these subbrands (including Diet Coke, Coke Zero,Fanta, Dasani, etc.) are designed to live beneath the umbrella of the Open Happinessplatform, and URLs such as dietcoke.happiness, cokezero.happiness, fanta.happiness anddasani.happiness could serve to reinforce that concept.Additionally, registering unique platform-centric gTLDs allows a company like Coca-Colato carve out a niche for Open Happiness digitally. This enables Coca-Cola to create uniqueand immersive happiness-centric digital experiences within its virtual world of happiness.Reinforcing a retailer/reseller relationshipIn much the same way that gTLDs offer the potential for brands to reinforce the subbrand/master brand connection, gTLDs can also reinforce the connection between resellers orretailers and a brand. Brands such as DuPont, which often integrate resellers into theirvalue chains, can utilize unique URLs as a tool to manage those relationships. Providing 9
  10. 10. a reseller with space within a brand’s URL (e.g., can serve as an asset tothe reseller as the brand extends the brand halo to the reseller, creating a closer associationbetween the reseller and the brand in the minds of consumers.Similarly, gTLDs can provide retailers with the opportunity to customize their local andregional store sites. To deliver content relevant to a unique geographic audience, brandssuch as Gap can create URLs such as, and togive each store a virtual location that corresponds to its physical location.Shorter URLsAs content sharing, microblogging and mobile proliferate in the digital space, the value ofshorter URLs is becoming increasingly clear. The widespread adoption of URL shorteningservices like bitly has served to demonstrate this fact. As digital users continue to look forways to make their browsing and linking experience more streamlined, the realm of URLshortening becomes one in which gTLDs can offer an advantage to brands.A gTLD can enable brands to economize their URLs while also having them carry abranded appearance. As a result, rather than using a URL such as, DuPont could create a Tyvek productURL that looks like, gTLDs allow for brands to bypass the need to rely on a third-party URLshortener like bitly. This can be an advantage, as it avoids the risk of potentially having topay for services from a third-party vendor. In addition, a third-party shortener can decideto change to an ad-supported business model at any time, leaving a brand with countlesslinks distributed through various online and offline channels that suddenly featureadvertising. In a worst-case scenario, a vendor like bitly could decide to delete all previouslypublished links that haven’t been visited over a given period of time.Customer - Focused Domain NamesPersonalized user pagesA potentially breakthrough use of gTLDs could be for brands to leverage gTLDs forindividual customer accounts. Brands that offer user services via online portals have theopportunity to customize the customer experience to an unprecedented degree by offeringpersonalized URLs. Taking the form of something like, mike.twc orryan.wellsfargo, the custom URL could be adjusted to become each user’s individualportal to a brand’s digital presence.So, instead of visiting to log in to a customized portal, each time RyanSmith, a customer, wants to check his balance or engage in online banking, he couldvisit ryansmith.wellsfargo and immediately be immersed in a personalized experience.While Ryan will likely have to enter a username and password to access the confidentialinformation on his page, the customized Wells Fargo page could be tailored to his uniqueneeds and could cater to them from the moment he arrives on the site. For example, Ryanmay be a recent college grad, meaning that his banking needs differ significantly from 10
  11. 11. those of someone his father’s age. When he logs on to ryansmith.wellsfargo, he mayimmediately be greeted with content centered around consolidating student loans withWells Fargo or be prompted to open a new savings account with the bank, presumably asa place for him to retain a portion of his newly earned income. By contrast, his father, John,may log on to a similarly personalized page (johnsmith.wellsfargo) and receive contentcentered around mortgage refinancing.By customizing the user experience and turning each user’s page into a unique experiencefor visiting a brand’s site, gTLDs can drive customers into deeper levels of engagementwith brands. This engagement can increase affinity, ease of use, customer service efficacyand even sales for brands leveraging customized gTLDs.Security benefitsgTLDs offer an opportunity for brands to limit security risks posed by scams based onfraudulent .com identities. .com-based URLs are subject to risk because they are availablefor general purchase, essentially meaning that anyone with a credit card can own them.This creates risk, as .com URLs with spellings very similar to brand-name URLs can bepurchased and put to fraudulent use, tarnishing a brand’s reputation. By contrast, a brand-owned gTLD can avoid this risk because any page carrying a .brand URL allows a brandto fully control the gTLD, building it into a trusted network/platform. This approach couldbe particularly useful for financial institutions like American Express or TD Ameritradebecause it offers a high degree of assurance to consumers, especially for those visitingthe personalized section of a brand’s site (such as ryansmith.wellsfargo), as the high costof entry and large degree of control featured on these pages make them far less likely tobecome victims of fraud.Tracking codes/customer serviceBrands within the logistics and travel industries face a unique opportunity to change theway they do business by turning their tracking codes into personalized URLs. Ratherthan prompting customers to enter a tracking code through a portal within its site, acompany like UPS, for example, could provide its customers with a unique URL thatallows them to check on the status of their package with little effort (e.g., accessible from any internet-enabled device, this unique tracking URL would allowcustomers to have access to their package’s location at any time. Travel brands face a similaropportunity. Brands like British Airways could deploy unique, branded URLs such asflight398.britishairways to allow customers to track flights in real time.Collaborations Sponsoring charitable gTLDs gTLDs offer a significant opportunity for nonprofit organizations and initiatives to collaborate with one another within a central online platform. A gTLD such as.curecancer, .americanheart or .redcross has the potential to benefit relevant nonprofit organizations both in terms of their brands and in terms of their functionality. However, the cost of applying for, winning and operating a gTLD can be prohibitively high for these organizations. As a result, an opportunity arises for brands with a commitment to 11
  12. 12. corporate social responsibility to step in and lend a hand. Brands that take an active rolein sponsoring and facilitating the maintenance of these charitable gTLDs could enjoy thehalo effect of their association with a cause.Rewarding customers (ultimate badge)One of the more innovative ways that brands can leverage gTLDs is in the realm ofrewarding customers. Many brands operate loyalty programs via their current .comTLDs and, naturally, any brand migrating to a gTLD would be wise to migrate its loyaltyprogram as well (like American Express Membership Rewards). Additionally, along withthe opportunity to personalize portions of a brand’s website, personalized loyalty programpages should play a role in any brand’s gTLD.Another exciting opportunity for brands to take advantage of a gTLD-based loyaltyprogram is by collaborating on a unique gTLD that offers membership (and rewards)to only the most loyal customers. In much the same way that the American ExpressCenturion Card (informally known as the “black card”) has become a symbol of elitestatus, a unique rewards gTLD could become the status symbol for customers who reacha certain threshold of loyalty. A suggested gTLD could take the form of a .vip site thatoffers members a unique portal only if they reach the upper tier of a given brand’s loyaltyprogram. A .vip gTLD could be operated by a consortium of complementary brands(e.g., American Express, British Airways, Shangri-La Hotels, etc.) that offer their most loyalcustomers a suite of rewards and services via a personalized .vip page (e.g., to a virtual VIP lounge, each invitee’s personalized .vip site could be tailored to herunique tastes and needs. Once a loyal customer has been offered a personalized .vip site, itwould remain available to him for the rest of his life.Implications for BrandsBy altering the format of TLDs and enabling brands to own a unique gTLD, a myriad ofopportunities arise. Owning a .brand can make a world of difference in the way brandscommunicate and organize their online properties, and can also create new virtual worldsin which they tie products closer to a master brand or reinforce their relationships withresellers and retailers.Customers can be offered more intuitive service platforms with the security benefits thatcome with the requirements ICANN places on applicants in terms of their financialobligations and vision of operating a gTLD. Finally, collaborations with other parties tooperate one gTLD can open the door to new, broadly supported online programs.Whatever the most appropriate opportunity for a brand, the new gTLD programrepresents a significant investment of both finances and resources. Therefore,understanding exactly what role a gTLD can play in a brand’s overall marketing strategybecomes imperative. 12
  13. 13. How Ogilvy Can HelpFor brands considering applying for a customized domain, understanding thecommunications implications, the potential effects on your brand, and the ways in whicha gTLD can grow your business will help you make a go/no-go decision. And Ogilvy ishere to be a partner to brands as they navigate this new domain frontier. We can lend theinsights that will allow brands to fully maximize their domain potential.The Ogilvy gTLD StrategyOgilvy can leverage our broad range of expertise across various disciplines to deliver acomprehensive strategy that encompasses client- and brand-specific recommendations onhow best to leverage the opportunities from the new gTLD offering. The gTLD strategydocument addresses three areas: opportunity analysis; gTLD naming architecture andecosystem; and brand impact evaluation.Opportunity analysisTo determine whether a gTLD provides an opportunity for a brand, we will look at thebusiness opportunity within the context of the competitive and regulatory landscape. Wewill also look at how any changes regarding gTLDs will help to further the establishedbusiness goals of the brand. A scan of the competitive set will create an understandingof the landscape, which is important in determining whether an offensive or defensivestrategy is the best approach.We will then focus on identifying a “white space” for the brand. The outcome of thisexercise will help determine whether a branded gTLD, a generic gTLD or both would bethe best way to move forward, and whether a community-based gTLD makes sense. Byunderstanding the opportunities presented by each path, the brand will be in a betterposition to take advantage of their gTLD.gTLD naming architecture and ecosystemIn order to ensure that the newly defined opportunity works with existing online propertiesand communications, we will determine how gTLD naming can be used to support brandmessaging, content, current or future campaigns, and existing or potentially new onlineproperties.Outlining the gTLD ecosystem will shed light on how customers will interact with the newnaming structure across online properties and how any new assets would work within thebrand’s overall online strategy. 13
  14. 14. Brand impact evaluationAlthough initial costs to implement can be a barrier, we believe that a gTLD may very wellprove a worthy investment. To determine this, we will leverage a set of tools that assess thepotential impact of the domain on the brand.Through this process, we will help brands gain insight into the exciting opportunitiesthat surround the launch of this new gTLD program and the ways in which they canbe leveraged. We are firm believers in the promise of innovation and are excited to helpbrands embrace that promise through sound strategy. 14
  15. 15. AppendixWhat is ICANN?The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is the not-for-profit publiccorporation that manages the technical coordination of the Domain Name System (DNS)to ensure that the internet operates as a stable, interoperable and global network.What are domain names?Because computers connected to the internet are recognized by their IP addresses(similar to phone numbers), a system was needed to make it easier for people to connectto those computers without the need to remember the IP number, which might look like216.27.61.137. Thus, a system was set up that links easy-to-remember domain names, such, to those IP numbers.What are TLDs? Top-Level Domains (TLDs) are the names at the top of the DNS naming hierarchy. They appear in domain names as the string of letters following the last (right-most) “.”, such as“net” in “”What are the various types of TLDs?Generic TLDs: Known as gTLDs, these domain names are three or more characters inlength. Some gTLDs have been created for a specific community, such as .edu (for theeducation community), .org (for the nonprofit/association community) and .com (for theprivate sector). Other gTLDs such as .info, .pro and .biz can be used by any person ororganization. A complete list of existing gTLDs is available at TLDs: Known as ccTLDs, these are the two-character codes established forover 240 countries and territories (for example, .us, .au, .fr). Each country has the autonomyto administer their ccTLD as they see fit. For example, in the United States, businesses,consumers and the government can all buy .us domain names. In the country of Tuvalu,their ccTLD, .tv, is sold mainly for commercial purposes and is not used to identify thecountry’s domain names. A list of existing ccTLDs is available at are TLDs managed and distributed?The responsibility for operating each gTLD (including maintaining a registry of thedomain names within the gTLD) is delegated to a particular organization. Theseorganizations are referred to as “registry operators” or “sponsors.” For example, VeriSignis the registry for the gTLD .com. DNS businesses such as and godaddy.comare registrar companies, which buy domain names from a registry like VeriSign and resellthem to consumers. 15
  16. 16. AcknowledgmentsCo-authors:Daan van Rossum, Senior Digital Strategist, OgilvyOne WorldwideJustin Engel, Digital Strategist, OgilvyOne WorldwideMichael Galaburda, Assistant Account Executive, OgilvyOne WorldwideEditor:Sean MacDonald, Executive Director, Digital Strategy, OgilvyOne Worldwide© OgilvyOne Worldwide, 2011. All rights reserved. Neither this publication nor any part of it may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, whether electronic,mechanical, photocopied, recorded or otherwise, without the prior permission of OgilvyOne Worldwide. 16