2. Organizational Change
Any alterations in the people, structure, or
technology of an organization
Characteristics of Change
Is constant yet varies in degree and direction
Produces uncertainty yet is not completely
Creates both threats and opportunities
4. Change Agents
Persons who act as catalysts and assume
the responsibility for managing the change
Types of Change Agents
Managers: internal entrepreneurs
Non-managers: change specialists
Outside consultants: change
5. Calm waters metaphor
According to Lewin ,
Success ful change can be
be Planned and
Unfreezing the status quo
Changing to a new state
Refreezing to make permanent change
6. White-water rapids metaphor
The lack of environmental
stability and predictability
requires that managers and
adapt to survive.
The white water metaphor is consistent
with our discussion of un certain and
dynamic environments. It is also consistent
with a world that is increasingly dominated
by information ideas and knowledge.
13. CHANGING STRUCTURE
Structural decisions are not final but
change with changing conditions and
Structural components where changes can be brought are:
• Terms of work specialisation.
• Span of control.
• Chain of command.
14. CHANGING TECHNOLOGY
Early management studies dealth
with efforts aimed at
Today technological changes involve :
Introduction of new equipment.
15. Examples –changing technology
• Introduction of new equipment:-
due to competitive factors/new innovations
16. Examples –changing technology
tasks done by people are replaced by machines
Installed efficient coal handling equipment
17. Examples –changing technology
It’s very uncommon for an office not to be computerised.
18. CHANGING PEOPLE
Dat is changing their attitudes,expectations,perceptions, and
behaviors----isn’t easy !!!!
It refers to all the types of changes , but essentially
focuses on techniques or programs to change people
and the nature and quality of interpersonal work
21. MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Why people resist change?
The ambiguity and uncertainty that change
The comfort of old habits
A concern over personal loss of status, money,
authority, friendships, and personal convenience
The perception that change is incompatible with
the goals and interest of the organization
22. Techniques for Reducing Resistance
Facilitation & Support
Negotiation Manipulation & Co-optation
23. TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING RESITANCE
Education and Communication
Communicate with employees to help them see the logic of change.
Educate employees through one on one discussions, memos, group meetings,
Appropriate if source of resistance is either poor communication
Must be mutual trust and credibility between managers and employees.
Allows those who oppose a change to participate in the decision.
Assumes that they have expertise to make meaningful contributions.
Involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment to seeing change
succeed, and increase quality of change decision.
Exchange something of value to reduce resistance.
Potentially high costs and likelihood of having to negotiate with other resisters.
Facilitation and Support
Provide supportive efforts such as employee counseling or therapy, new skills
training, or short, paid leave of absence.
Can be time consuming and expensive.
Manipulation and Co-operation
Manipulating is covert attempts to influence such as twisting or distorting facts,
withholding damaging information, or creating false rumors.
Co-operation is a form of manipulation and participation. Inexpensive and easy ways to
gain support of resisters. Can fail miserably if targets feel they’ve been tricked.
Can be time consuming and expensive.
Using direct threats or force.
Inexpensive and easy way to get support.
May be illegal. Even legal coercion can be perceived as bullying.
26. Stress is a feeling that's created when we react to particular
It's the body's way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a
tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened
27. • – Keeps us alert and motivates
GOOD us to face challenges, drives us
STRESS to solve problems.
• – Occurs when our minds and
BAD bodies overreact emotionally,
STRESS intellectually or physically to
changes or demands.
32. It’s all about BALANCE!
BALANCE is hard to achieve, especially when you are a freshman and are
handling these responsibilities on your own for the first time
33. The key to BALANCE is to look at those things you have to do, and
those things in your day that are optional.
You must carve out extra time from the optional tasks.
Learn to say NO – friends and family may not always
understand, but they are not the ones living your life. One day, it
will make sense to them!
34. Strategies for managing stress (yes, we’ve all heard of them, but
many of us don’t practice them!)
Learn to manage your time (keep your TO DO list and follow it!)
Exercise (yes, I hate it too – but it works!)
Each day, find at least 20 minutes of alone time to relax
(meditate, breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation,
soft music, etc…)
37. What’s one thing you’ll start doing?
What’s one thing you’ll stop doing?
What’s one thing you’ll keep doing?
39. Innovation is the introduction of new ideas,
goods, services, and practices which are
intended to be useful (though a number of
unsuccessful innovations can be found
The main driver for innovation is often the
courage and energy to better the world.
An essential element for innovation is its
application in a commercially successful way.
Innovation has changed human history
(consider the development of electricity,
steam engines, motor vehicles, laptops).
41. Why do we need Innovation?
Conclusion? - - If a company does not continue to introduce new
products periodically, or at least significant improvements on
existing products it will eventually be on a “going out of business”
Continuing to come up with the “right” product for the market
takes a lot of innovation (plus a lot of “perspiration!”).
42. Ideas, Creativity and Innovation
The ability to make or otherwise bring into
existence something new, whether a new
solution to a problem, a new method or device,
or a new artistic object or form.
1 : The introduction of something new
2 : A new idea, method, or device
Creativity = (Idea + Action) (Novelty)
Innovation = (Creativity+productivity)(Novelty+value)
Innovation = Idea + Action + Productivity+value