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Wk 2 com130

  1. 1. Week 2 LectureNotes COM 130 Internet, media convergence, and video gaming as mass media
  2. 2. BirthoftheInternet  ARPAnet  Created by the Department of Defense to enable researchers to share computer processing time  E-mail improved communication.  Each computer hub had similar status and power.  No master switch to shut it down
  3. 3. Stepstotoday’sInternet Packet Switching: Letting Computers Talk to Each Other •Paul Baran (1964): Planned a military communication network that could survive a nuclear strike 1 Fall 1969 ARPAnet connected four institutions •initial nodes were: •University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) •Stanford Research Institute •University of California-Santa Barbara •University of Utah •first message from UCLA to Stanford was “hello” •coincided with first moon landing 2 (1980) National Science Foundation connects five supercomputers using Internet Protocol to form The Internet 3
  4. 4. creatingthe Internet’s protocols Birth of email 1972. Ray Tomlinson developed the @ format Birth of TCP/IP 1973. Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf invented TCP/IP which allowed for conversion of messages across incompatible networks Birth of the Web (1990s). Tim Berners-Lee developed HTML
  5. 5. TheInternetisadistributednetwork
  6. 6. TheNet Widens  Entrepreneurial stage: Early 1970s to late 1980s  Microprocessors  Signaled the Net’s marketability  Allowed for the first personal computers  Fiber-optic cable  Became the standard for transmitting communication data rapidly  Web browsers such as Mosaic in 1993 allow users to navigate the Web  Internet Service Providers (ISP)  Connect users to their proprietary Web system  Broadband connections have largely replaced dial-up ISP services.  Major ISPs are Verizon, Time Warner Cable, Charter, and Cox
  7. 7. PeopleUseDigitalCommunicaiton Social media encourage users to create content and interact with other people. Google became a major success largely due to its new algorithm based on a page’s popularity. Search Engines Organize the Web e-mail and instant messaging
  8. 8. SocialMedia andDemocracy Moments for democracy: Arab Spring protests, Occupy Wall Street movement, Increasing mass communication and exposure to the outside world in China Alternative Voices on the Internet through open- source software and digital archives Internet’s potential for widespread use by all could be partially preempted by narrower commercial interests. Inexpensive digital production and social media distribution allow greater participation than any traditional medium.
  9. 9. Media Convergence On Computers Users can access: Movies (Netflix and Hulu), Music (iTunes and Spotify), Books (Amazon and Google), Games, Newspapers and magazines Services such as Skype and iChat can replace telephones Media convergence on TV: Internet-ready TVs, Video game consoles such as Xbox, Wii, and PS4, Set-top boxes such as Apple TV, Google Chromecast, and Roku Mobile devices push convergence: Texting, listening to music, watching movies, playing games, cruising the Internet Formats are morphing and media consumption is mobile!
  10. 10. TheNextEra •Will place the basic information of the Web into meaningful categoriesSemantic Web •Uses conversational voice recognition to answer questions, find locations, and interact with various iPhone functionalities Apple iPhone’s Siri •Provided a market for music on iTunes in exchange for a 30-percent cut of the revenue Apple established the new media economics. •Followed suit, creating the Kindle and selling e-books for a cut of the revenueAmazon
  11. 11. Ownership •Security of personal and private information •Appropriateness of online materials •Accessibility and openness of the Internet Connected to three issues •Yahoo!, Microsoft, AOL, and Google Companies dominating the Internet by the end of the 1990s •Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Amazon, and Apple •Advertising and data mining: E-commerce, Cookies, Spyware, Opt-in, opt-out policies Leading companies in today’s converged world
  12. 12. Security The challenge to keep private info private Whenever you use the Internet, you give away personal information. •Government surveillance of online activity allowed by PATRIOT Act •In 2012, 7% of Americans were victims of identity theft, totaling $24.7 billion in losses. •One form of identity theft is phishing. Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2003 •Requires public schools and libraries to use filtering software to limit minors’ exposure to inappropriate Internet content
  13. 13. Net Neutrality  Net Neutrality Refers to the principle that every Web site and every user has the right to the same Internet network speed and access  Major telephone and cable companies want to offer faster connections and priority for those willing to pay higher rates.  Digital divide  Refers to the growing contrast between “information haves” and “information have- nots.”  Smartphones are helping to narrow the gap.  Still a big gap between the United States and the rest of the world; some governments permit limited or zero access to the Internet.
  14. 14. Types of Social Media  Blogs  Collaborative projects  Wiki Web sites  Content communities  Social networking sites Virtual game worlds and virtual social worlds
  15. 15. DigitalGaming andtheMedia Playground  Advances in Virtual Reality Technology. In 2014, Facebook bought the virtual reality company, Oculus VR, which promises “total immersion” into a 3D virtual world.  Oculus, along with competitor products, may become a leading interface for transactions in the media business.  Games: evolved from their simplest forms in the arcade into four major formats: television, handheld devices, computers, and the Internet  Coin operated counter machines first appeared in train depots, hotel lobbies, bars, and restaurants  Penny arcade Helped shape future media technology
  16. 16. Firstvideo Games  Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device  Key component of the first video games: the cathode ray tube (CRT)  Odyssey  First home television game  Modern arcades  Gathered multiple coin-operated games together  Atari Created Pong Kept score on the screen Made blip noises when the ball hit the paddles or bounced off the sides of the court First video game popular in arcades Home version was marketed through Sears.
  17. 17. ConsolesandGraphics Consoles: Devices specifically used to play video games. The higher the bit rating, the more sophisticated the graphics. Early consoles: •Atari 2600 (1977) •Nintendo Entertainment System (1983) •Sega Genesis (1989) 1 Major home console makers: Nintendo (Wii), Microsoft (Xbox and Kinect), and Sony (Playstation series) 2 Signaled electronic gaming’s potential as a social medium 3
  18. 18. Internet Transforms Gaming •Made live online multiplayer play possible •Enabled the spread of video games to converged devices •Paved the way for social gaming, virtual worlds, and massively multiplayer online games Online connections are now a normal part of console games. •Set in virtual worlds •Large groups of players Massively multiplayer online role- playing games (MMORPGs) •Actual sports results determine scores in their online games. Online fantasy sports games
  19. 19. Video Game Genres  Electronic Software Association organizes games by gameplay.  Action games and shooter games  Adventure games  Role-playing games  Strategy and simulation games  Casual games  Sports, music, and dance games
  20. 20. Communitiesof Play Inside the Game: Two basic types of groups • PUGs (Pick-Up Groups) • Elite players • Noobs • Ninjas • Trolls • Guilds or clans • Players communicate through voice and text. Outside the Game: Collective intelligence • Gamers sharing their knowledge and ideas • Modding • Game sites: GameSpot.com, Penny-arcade.com • Conventions • E3, Penny Arcade Expo (PAX), Blizzcon, and the Tokyo Game Show
  21. 21. Electronic Gaming and Media Culture  Fantasy league sports have spawned a number of draft specials on ESPN and a regular podcast on ESPN radio.  Electronic games have inspired movies, and video game spin-offs are common for blockbusters.  Comic books and animation have also inspired video games.  Advergames  Video games created for purely promotional purposes  In-game advertisements  Ads integrated as billboards, logos, storefronts, etc., within games  Some can be altered remotely so they can be tailored to players based on numerous factors.
  22. 22. TheDarkSide •Associated with an increased incidence of depression, social phobias, and increased anxiety •More likely to affect males •Games are often addictive by design, with elaborative achievement systems. Addiction •Most games involving combat are intentionally violent. •Concern over personality traits of certain types of players Violence •Games such as Grand Theft Auto 5 •May be due to the male insularity of the game development industry Misogyny
  23. 23. Regulating Gaming  Death Race (1976)  First public outcry over violence in electronic gaming  Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB)  Labels games based on sexual and violent content  Categories: EC, E, E 10+, T, M 17+, and AO  ESRB ratings do not have the force of law.  California tried to legally prohibit the sale of M-rated games to minors.  Supreme Court granted electronic games First Amendment free speech protections.  Will not make the rating system go away

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