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Key Address at the Newton Fund Swine and Poultry Research Initiative workshop

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Professor Fiona Tomley presented the work of the Hub in her keynote address at the Newton Fund Swine and Poultry Research Initiative interim project workshop held on 14th of January 2020 in the UK.

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Key Address at the Newton Fund Swine and Poultry Research Initiative workshop

  1. 1. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub THE UKRI GCRF ONE HEALTH POULTRY HUB Fiona Tomley, The Royal Veterinary College, London
  2. 2. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • GCRF: £1.5 billion fund established by ODA; managed by UKRI • £200m to establish 12 interdisciplinary research hubs • Contribute to the UN’s sustainable development goals (SDGs) SCOPE
  3. 3. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub OUTLINE OF TALK • The challenge • Conceptualising the Hub framework • Developing a partner network • Research • Impact • Interdisciplinary pitfalls • Values
  4. 4. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub THE CHALLENGE
  6. 6. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 UK Meat Retail Price 1987 - 2019 - Lamb - RPI - Pork - Beef - Poultry … IS NOT MATCHED BY PRICE
  7. 7. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub OneHealthPoultry.orgMarius Gilbert & Guillaume Fournie, 2018 HOWISTHISSUSTAINABLE? 2017: ~66 billion broiler chickens ~ 80 million metric tons of eggs (~114 trillion)
  8. 8. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub Riskofzoonotic emerging infectious diseaseevent Allenetal2017 Rateofchange in consumption ofchicken products2000-2030 FAOStat CHICKENINTENSIFICATIONMAPSTOZOONOTICRISK… AMR, pandemic avian influenza, food-borne enteric disease
  9. 9. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub …AND IS LINKED TO HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY 46% of the world population is in yellow From Human behaviours are key to this real world challenge: How to achieve sustainable food production without increasing risk
  11. 11. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub WHATDOESINTENSIFICATIONLOOKLIKE? DIVERSE: • Rapid expansion in large, medium and small/backyard sectors • Clusters in megacities and peri-urban areas • Opportunistic, unskilled labour, complex trading networks • Mix of livestock, domestic species, wildlife & humans • Small profits, few incentives to increase health/welfare/quality • High disease burden, insufficient veterinary services, lack of vaccines • Poor governance, regulation & stewardship of AMU • Lack of diagnostics, surveillance, monitoring, biosecurity • Significant pollution (food-borne, air-borne, waste-borne) People, poultry, pathogens and the environment they inhabit
  13. 13. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub INTERDISCIPLINARY WORKING • The Hub was conceived and wholly framed as interdisciplinary between life sciences and social sciences • Understanding, rather than assuming, the role of human agency, and the structures that constrain it in generation of zoonotic health risks, is at our core • Mitigation of zoonotic risks requires interventions designed and implemented across multiple scales of the system • A specific goal is to examine the processes of interdisciplinarity as an explicit research focus /output • Year 1, including inception visits, workshops and the first research and impact studies already provide substantial data about these processes • First paper on interdisciplinarity in the Poultry Hub to be submitted for publication Q2 this year
  14. 14. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub To achieve sustainable intensification of chicken meat and egg production, whilst reducing risks to human and animal health and welfare To establish cohorts of researchers and stakeholders who will collaborate in an interdisciplinary manner and take forward the vision within a One Health environment VISION
  15. 15. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub  Scale allows innovative integrated interdisciplinary working  Equal consideration of quantitative and qualitative research  Research methodologies and analyses replicated across ALL study sites  Stakeholder engagement at national, regional and global levels  Capacity building, equitable partnerships and impact is shared; much south-south interaction  Dedicated PMO maximises support and opportunities to develop new projects and networks (public/private) Why/how does intensification increase risk? Why are certain processes/behaviours risky? What are the best long-term solutions for safe and secure poultry production? WHYISHUBLEVELFUNDINGNEEDED? E Pathogens ChickensHumans Environment
  16. 16. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub HUB PROGRAMMES • Mobility schemes; fellowships; pump- priming; partnership grants • Co-learning for best practice; bespoke training, dissemination; policy engagement • Diversity of genetic material, microbiomes; input and decay of antimicrobials; phylo-geography, modelling • Map networks; assess flow and dynamics; spatial distribution; roles, relations and epidemiologically significant behaviours P1: People, Poultry, Production P2: Host- Pathogen Dynamics P3: Flexible Fund P4: Translation to impact
  18. 18. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub IND LKA BGD VNM Ratio 2010 vs predicted 2050 production Countries–cumulativedistribution Marius Gilbert, 2018 CHOICEOFSTUDYSITES Countries • Differing stages of intensification • Predicted growth rates • Strong research partnerships Sites • Range of typologies (backyard, layer, broiler, local and commercial breeds) • Different cultural frameworks • Existing data, key local partner advice, capacity building opportunities
  19. 19. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub BUILDING ON PREVIOUS LINKS • ~ 10 yrs collaboration between RVC and researchers in India on poultry gut health (Blake/Tomley funded by BBSRC, DfID and DBT) • >10 years collaboration between RVC and researchers in Viet Nam on avian influenza (Pfeiffer/Fournie funded by FAO, NIH, DfID, OIE, USAID) • >5 years collaboration between RVC, LSHTM and researchers in Bangladesh on One Health and avian influenza (Pfeiffer/Fournie/Barnett funded by BBSRC/DfID) • >20 year linkage between RVC and researchers in Sri Lanka on wildlife health, veterinary education and AMR (Silva-Fletcher)
  20. 20. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub EXPANDING THE PARTNERSHIP • Use of GCRF IAA funds to hold regional workshops and identify networks • Jan 2017: Barriers to sustainable poultry expansion • Jan 2018: Online and face to face training in poultry biosecurity • Engaged new partners with in impact evaluation, stakeholder engagement, governance and regulatory frameworks, public health policy, clinical microbiology, AMR, phylogeography, modelling, mass spectrometry • Use of GCRF Hubs Partnership Development fund for regional workshop • Mar 2018: Full proposal discussion and draft
  21. 21. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub KEY FACTS 9 partner countries 28 partner organisations 179 named researchers (November 2019) Lead organisation: Royal Veterinary College THE ONE HEALTH POULTRY HUB Europe 47 Bangladesh 14India 32 Sri Lanka 16 Vietnam 25 East Asia & Oceania 4
  22. 22. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub RESEARCH
  23. 23. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub PI: People, Poultry, Production: Describe production & distribution networks (PDN) across a spectrum of intensification. Determine impact of variations in husbandry, marketing structures and socio-economic / cultural relations on business decisions at all points of the networks. P2: Host-pathogen dynamics: Characterise the evolution and transmission dynamics of health hazards spreading through the different production & distribution networks. • Establish causal connection between socio-economics and pathogen evolution and spread • Identify high risk ‘nodes’ in the networks RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  24. 24. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • WP1: Map poultry production and distribution networks (PDN) • WP2: Assess poultry flow and dynamics through the networks • WP3: Analyse factors that influence present spatial distribution of farms and PDN; project future patterns for different scenarios of evolution of demand and national development strategies • WP4: Identify key roles, relations and behaviours of potential epidemiological significance • WP5: Assess impact of eco-socio-cultural factors on epidemiologically significant behaviours using experimental economic-derived models • WP6: Identify the impact of retailers, consumer demand and preferences P1: PEOPLE, POULTRY AND PRODUCTION
  25. 25. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • WP7: Analyse diversity of pathogen genetic material along the networks (birds, premises, transportation, people, environments) • WP8: Analyse gut microbiome structure and health through the networks using quantitative 'omics methods • WP9: Quantify nature and input/decay of common antimicrobials • WP10: Analyse outputs of WP7-9 to provide baseline data for a) intervention studies b) quantification of pathogen loads, gut health and AMR • WP11: Link outputs of WP10 to host genetic markers associated with differential disease burdens and phenotypes • WP12: Conduct phylo-geographic analysis to determine rate(s) and direction(s) of pathogen dispersal and routes through networks • WP13: Mathematical modelling P2: HOST/PATHOGEN INTERACTION DYNAMICS
  26. 26. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub WP2: Poultry flow And dynamics (QUANTI) WP3: Spatial distribution of farms and PDNs; Future patterns YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4-5 Preparation (review) Preparation (review) WP4: roles, relations, Behaviours (Round 1) Preparation (review) WP5: Experiment-games WP6: consumers’ demand and preferences WP4: roles, relations, Behaviours (Round 2) P2 WP10 WP1: PDN Mapping (QUALI) P1
  27. 27. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub Pilot, Lab capacity YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4-5 WP7: Sampling, Lab work (Round 1) WP8: Microbiome sampling, 16S + metagenomics + AMR amplicon analyses Pilot, Lab capacity WP9: Antimicrobial input/decay Pilot, Lab capacity WP10: Prevalence, genetic data analyses, association with production characteristics WP11: Host genetics WP7: Sampling, Lab work (Round 2) P1 WP2-5 Pilot, Lab capacity W12-13: Phylodynamics and mathematical modelling WP1: PDN Mapping (QUALI) P2
  28. 28. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub Socio-cultural and economic factors Stakeholder behaviours Disease risk (chickens and humans) WP1: PDN MAPPING Purpose: • To select the PDN and nodes to be investigated in detail in subsequent workpackages • To generate hypotheses about • PDN and nodes with the highest impact on hazard emergence and transmission • The relationships between: 4 phases: • Review of knowledge and gaps • Key informant interviews • Data analysis • Iterative review of findings with informants and stakeholder groups Standardised approach across all sites
  29. 29. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • Technical social science working group • ≥1 participant/site • Defined the overall approach • Detailed protocols drafted by 2 members • In-depth review by all • Monthly WP1 teleconference • 20-40 participants – open to the whole Hub • Update on work progress • Further contribution/review by other members – coordinated by National coordinators WP1: DEVELOPMENT OF APPROACH AND PROTOCOLS
  30. 30. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • Tailored on-site support • Each site: workshop, interview practice, analysis • Adaptation of the protocol • Ethical approvals in UK and at study sites • Sequential implementation of protocols across sites • Lessons learnt • Adaptation of the protocol WP1: DEVELOPMENT OF APPROACH AND PROTOCOLS
  31. 31. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub BANGLADESH Trajectory of chickens and chicken products, from genetic source to food items and waste AND Social and economic contexts of production and distribution network
  32. 32. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub
  33. 33. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • PDN: separation until they intermingle in markets • Changing trade patterns and high mixing between flocks • Numerous actors and multiplication of roles • Variety of financing and transaction strategies • Local market makers vs national/international integrators High heterogeneity within vs between sites
  34. 34. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub IMPACT
  35. 35. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub P3: Flexible fund: Build capacity in the Hub through mobility schemes and career development fellowships. Support innovation and test interventions through pump-priming and partnership grants P4: Translation to impact Learning for best practice in interdisciplinary collaboration; bespoke training; dissemination, stakeholder/policy/community engagement • Develop skills and capacity for One Health in poultry infectious disease research • Test and evaluate interventions • Work with stakeholders to implement change IMPACT OBJECTIVES
  36. 36. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • WP14: Short term staff exchanges for training and development (up to 2 months and £5K) • WP15: Research fellowships to support training and development of early career researchers in DAC countries (6-18 months, up to £50K) • WP16: Pump Prime grants for developing partnerships and data for external proposals (up to £10K) • WP17: Grants for testing and evaluating risks and interventions (up to £200K) P3: FLEXIBLE FUND
  37. 37. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub • WP18: Reflection and learning for best practice in achieving impact • WP19: Bespoke training to build capacity in field experimentation, ethnography, diagnostics, epidemiology, mathematical modelling and biosecurity • WP20: Dissemination of research outputs, internal and external communication and networking strategies • WP21: Policy engagement, through national and international stakeholder advisory groups and partnerships P4: TRANSLATION TO IMPACT
  38. 38. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub WHY WORRY ABOUT IMPACT? • Personal motivation • Institutional and professional responsibilities • Commitment to national development • Concerns of the funder and accountability for use of UK tax revenue
  39. 39. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub WHAT KIND OF IMPACT? Broadly speaking: • Contribution to knowledge and professional understanding leading to increased awareness of public health challenges • Changes to regulations and their implementation • Changes in understanding leading to new attitudes and new behaviours amongst relevant stakeholders
  40. 40. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub DESIRED OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS Research institutions • Enhanced research capacity • Effective network for collaboration, sharing and uptake of research outputs • Training and career development opportunities Public-sector veterinary services • Improved diagnostic capabilities and capacity • Better trained staff • Access to research outcomes • Strengthening of regulatory and policy development • More effective prevention and control programmes Commercial industry • Access to research outcomes to develop targeted products • Improved quality e.g. by certification and quality assurance schemes • Increased profitability • Data sharing Consumers • Increased awareness of public health risks due to zoonoses and AMR • Access to improved quality, safety and affordable poultry products • Changing preferences, behaviours and habits
  41. 41. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub
  42. 42. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub IMPACT, COMMUNICATIONS AND ENGAGEMENT (ICE) STRATEGIES • Detailed Hub and country-level ICE strategies developed, which includes • Local policy dynamics and information needs analysis • National Theory of Change (ToC) • Stakeholder mapping • Engagement plans • Workshop in UK, July 2019, followed by country level stakeholder meetings • Hub Advisory Board & National Advisory Groups
  43. 43. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub
  44. 44. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub INCREASED POULTRY PROUCTION INCREASED FOOD SAFETY REDUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIALS REDUCED PANDEMIC RISK INCREASED INNOVATION Profitable small & medium scale poultry production Reduction of AMU and AMR Reduction of zoonoses Increased food safety Reduced pandemic risk Increased poultry production Increased poultry production Reduction of zoonoses and AMR Increase export potential Reduced pandemic risk Increased knowledge Increase consumer acceptance
  45. 45. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub MULTI-PRONGED STRATEGIES FOR IMPACT Levels • Global/Regional • UK FCO, FF, UKRI • FAO, WHO, OIE • National • NAG • Subnational and local networks Knowledge • Scientific debates • Technical regulations • Policy discourse • Lay audience Practices • Regulations • Capacity building • Systems strengthening • Community engagement Platforms • Publications (in journals, policy briefs, social media, popular media) • Participation in meetings (academic, policy, community) • Small scale experimentations
  46. 46. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub “interdisciplinary Hub Education Network” – iHEN
  48. 48. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub BIOSECURITY EXAMPLE
  49. 49. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub PRIORITY LIST OF COURSES COMPLETED AND ‘LIVE’ DURING 2020. • Poultry Biosecurity • How to interpret lab reports in poultry disease diagnosis • Survey questionnaire development, piloting and refining • Poultry distribution network mapping and analysis • Risk identification, assessment and analysis • Research skills in the diagnosis of antimicrobial resistance
  51. 51. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub INTERDISCIPLINARITY AND CAPACITY BUILDING • Co-design of research questions and approaches • Learning from other disciplines • Trans-disciplinarity, inter-disciplinarity, multi-disciplinarity and connections to policy processes • Difficulty of discussing methodological differences between disciplines- what is the object of study and the methods for studying it? • Confusion of social sciences with simple social science methods – e.g. surveys, KII, versus theoretical assumptions of social sciences • Languages – qualitative research requires high levels of linguistic competence • Assumption that natural scientists can learn social sciences in a short time, and therefore it is easy to “train” and “sensitise” natural scientists to become social scientists
  52. 52. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub VALUES
  53. 53. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub A SAFE SPACE FOR ALL TO: • Reflect on role, attitude and skills • Identify how to be part of a dynamic learning network where skills are used optimally to contribute to an effective working culture • Generate a functioning process of co-creation and co-design Question asked to hub members (March 2019): Based on your experience, what are core characteristics of a good interdisciplinary team? Vulnerability Inequality Inequity Vested interests Power structures Constraints Ideology Culture Interpersonal skills Governance Value systems
  54. 54. The UKRI GCRF One Health Poultry Hub 55 Investigators 9 Countries 30 LMIC 21 Female, 34 Male 25 Early career (<45 years old) THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION @PoultryHub Sign up for updates and newsletter