Annual Moldovan English Teachers
Association (META) Conference Brochure
Chisinau
2014
2014 META Conference Brochure
2014 META Conference Brochure
CONTENTS
Psychological Conditions Underlying the Formation of Motivation for Learning a Fore...
2014 META Conference Brochure
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS UNDERLYING THE FORMATION OF MOTIVATION
FOR LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGU...
2014 META Conference Brochure
psychologists often say, “little children are motivationally `innocent' and `uncorrupted' be...
2014 META Conference Brochure
was significant, yet it was frightening to realize that it is actually vital. This idea is p...
2014 META Conference Brochure
5. Self-motivation for learning English at the preadolescent age is built on the development...
2014 META Conference Brochure
improvement attitudes (Dweck, 1996; McLean, 2003) and consequently, very often, high self-
e...
2014 META Conference Brochure
students’ self-motivation. The classification that we have adopted results in a Motivational...
2014 META Conference Brochure
11. McLean, A. The three As of motivation. Available URL:
http://www.journeytoexcellence.org...
2014 META Conference Brochure
Appendix 1 Motivational Toolkit for Language teachers (Sample)
A. Through ENGAGEMENT or Valu...
2014 META Conference Brochure
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE WRITING IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Burea Svetlana, UST
svetlanaburea@gm...
2014 META Conference Brochure
• to express ideas without the pressure of face-to-face communication;
• to explore a subjec...
2014 META Conference Brochure
motivational factor. The teaching of creative writing basically focuses on students’ self-
e...
2014 META Conference Brochure
While working with their piece of writing students should be oriented to pay attention to
se...
2014 META Conference Brochure
meaning. The teacher will often ask questions to help the students focus on communicating th...
2014 META Conference Brochure
LANGUAGE THROUGH LITERATURE: APPROACHES TO TEACHING LITERATURE
IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM
Ina ...
2014 META Conference Brochure
and the reader is placed in an active interactional role in working with and making sense of...
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Thomson, the world of the literary text work is self-contained, and readers must exercise to...
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aesthetic value of literature and provide access to the meaning by exploring the language an...
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students’ responses and experience with literature, and it is more accessible for language l...
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4. Collie, S., Slater, S. Literature in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge Univers...
2014 META Conference Brochure
EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION– INTERLANGUAGE SYNONYMS, HOMONYMS AND
PARONYMS.
Oxana GOLUBOVSCHI...
2014 META Conference Brochure
or writer and then ask himself or herself how the same decoded meaning, message, intention i...
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theory, “translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes” [2, p. 233]. H...
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without any mistakes. Nevertheless, mistakes may occur due to the linguistic phenomena
conne...
2014 META Conference Brochure
different structures; multi-component phrase vs. one-word structure: calitatea de lector, ci...
2014 META Conference Brochure
meanings, they have some special meanings. For example, concert – concert. Both words have t...
2014 META Conference Brochure
the preference can be given to this or that word in this combination basing on language trad...
2014 META Conference Brochure
2. Jacobson, R. On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. Chapter 8 essay, 1959. - (pp. 113 –
11...
2014 META Conference Brochure
PROMOTING STUDENTS’ ENGAGEMENT IN ENGLISH CLASSROOM THROUGH
ACTIVE LEARNING
GRAMA Stella,
Gr...
2014 META Conference Brochure
transforms passive learners into active participants during the transmission of information ...
2014 META Conference Brochure
style. The most frequent question I hear when holding a discussion about this subject is whe...
2014 META Conference Brochure
think critically: discuss, state opinions and bring arguments, find solutions, choose the ri...
2014 META Conference Brochure
- celebration of diversity;
- acknowledgment of individual differences;
- interpersonal deve...
2014 META Conference Brochure
Beneficial active learning situations are not easy to set up. In many situations, particular...
2014 META Conference Brochure
causes group devotion. When learning activities are frequently used, students that study alo...
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2014 META Conference Brochure

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Collection of articles presented during the annual META Conference.
The conference offers teachers of English as a foreign language a unique opportunity for professional development in the field. Participants exchange ideas and practices, keep abreast of current trends, foster their professional networks, share research projects, review the latest books and professional resources.
The organizers invite professionals from around the world to strive toward harmony in language acquisition and learning.
You are invited to join discussion of practices, research, and knowledge from your work toward harmonizing language, heritage and cultures.

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2014 META Conference Brochure

  1. 1. Annual Moldovan English Teachers Association (META) Conference Brochure Chisinau 2014
  2. 2. 2014 META Conference Brochure
  3. 3. 2014 META Conference Brochure CONTENTS Psychological Conditions Underlying the Formation of Motivation for Learning a Foreign Language in School by A. Gutu, I. Negură ……………………………………………………… 1 The Development of Creative Writing in Higher Education by S. Burea....................................... 9 Language Through Literature: Approaches to Teaching Literature in the English Classroom by I. Colenciuc ………………………................................................................................................ 14 Equivalence in Translation– Interlanguage Synonyms, Homonyms and Paronyms by O. Golubovschi, L. Herța …………………………………................................................................ 20 Promoting Students’ Engagement in English Classroom Through Active Learning by S. Grama 28 Testing Speaking Skills: Fluency by I. Konoplina ……………………………….……………… 36 Theories on Interactive Learning, Based on Student-Centered Learning Process by S. Munteanu 42 Enhancing the Communicative Competence at the Gymnasium Level by R. Nedelciuc………… 47 Seven Student-Centered Activities for Teaching About Amish as a Unique Community in US Culture by I. Pomazanovschi …………………………………………………………………….. 53 Describing Graphs and Charts Based on the IELTS Requirements by L. Raciula ………………. 60 Training Techniques for Specialized Text Translation by V. Singhirei …………………………. 65 On Enhancing University Students’ Cultural Awareness by M. Taulean, O. Ceh ………………. 73 Using Educational Drama to Teach Speech Acts by E. Varzari ………………………………… 81 Practical Aspects of Using Video in the Foreign Language Classroom: the Usefulness of Video Aids by R. Aculov ………………………………………………………………………………. 90 An Approach to the English Relative Pronoun by E. Rotaru ………………………………….. 96 E-Twinning and its Opportunities for Teachers by T. Popa…………………………………… 101 Verba Cogitandi and Modality by M. Kaim……………………………………………………… 105 About 2014 META Conference …………………………………………………………………. 110
  4. 4. 2014 META Conference Brochure PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS UNDERLYING THE FORMATION OF MOTIVATION FOR LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN SCHOOL Ala GUTU, English Teacher, Doctoral Studies in Educational Psychology, International Study Centre for Educational Opportunities office@isceo.md or alamihaigutu@gmail.com Ion NEGURĂ, PhD, Professor emeritus of Ion Creangă State Pedagogical University, Chișinău `Motivation is, without question, the most complex and challenging issue facing teachers today.' (Scheidecker and Freeman 1999:116)[4,p.116] Motivation is an overworked term, an umbrella term for answering all questions concerning the whys of our behaviour and thinking. It “is related to one of the most basic aspects of the human mind, and most teachers and researchers would agree that it has a very important role in determining success or failure in any learning situation.” [1, p.2] Z.Dörnyei’s experience is that 99 per cent of language learners who really want to learn a foreign language will be able to master a reasonable working knowledge of it as a minimum, regardless of their language aptitude. “Without sufficient motivation, however, even the brightest learners are unlikely to persist long enough to attain any really useful language”. [1, p.5] We would say MOTIVATION is the energy that fuels the language learning process. And “due to the complex nature of language itself (which is at the same time a communication code, an integral part of the individual’s identity and the most important channel of social organization)”, [5, p.425] skills to motivate learners are crucial for language teachers. The question is: WHAT KIND OF MOTIVATION ARE WE EXPECTED TO cultivate? An increasing number of scholars combine psycholinguistic and linguistic approaches, various motivational models and theories in order to make sure the complex nature of motivation is better understood. The concept that we shall focus on in this article is Self-MOTIVATION that, according to Alan McLean, “comes from SELF via four internal motivation drivers” [12] and plays a vital role in academic learning. We have adopted this concept in psychology of learning a foreign language due to the intricate character of the foreign language acquisition process. While addressing this issue we would like to mention R.Gardner (1998), Z.Dörnyei (1998), M Williams (1994), I.Zimneea (1991) who perceive the foreign language as being more than a communication code that can be assimilated similarly to other academic subjects, instead foreign language acquisition is treated as being a social event that implies changes in the Self. This paper will suggest some tips for practitioners on how to maintain, protect and encourage self-motivation for learning a foreign language. Key Words: Motivation, self-motivation, agency, affiliation, autonomy, stimulation, structure, feedback, engagement. Normally, students start learning a foreign language possessing sufficient motivation to succeed in this activity, as mastering a foreign language seems to be appealing and, as
  5. 5. 2014 META Conference Brochure psychologists often say, “little children are motivationally `innocent' and `uncorrupted' because they seem to possess a natural curiosity about the world and an inherent desire to learn. This is, in fact, often cited as a proof that motivation to learn, just like the ability to acquire language, is an innate characteristic of the human species. Therefore, in an ideal world where the learners' curiosity and inherent motivation has not as yet been curbed or diminished by a student-unfriendly school system, all learners are eager to learn and the learning experience is a constant source of intrinsic pleasure for them. However, “we need to adopt a more down-to-earth perspective. For most teachers the real motivational issue is to find ways to encourage their students to accept the goals of the given classroom activities, regardless of whether or not the students enjoy these activities or would choose to engage in them if other alternatives were available”.[1, p.50-51] Furthermore, even though fluent English is considered to be the modern student’s passport nowadays, as lots of Moldovan undergraduates continue their studies abroad where mastering English is essential, a great number of them (and we refer to preadolescents) lose their motivation gradually, especially when it comes to realize that more and more efforts are to be invested in the learning process. This is the fact that challenged a PhD experiment on psychological conditions underlying the formation of motivation for learning a foreign language in secondary school in 2007-2008. As researchers we were amazed to discover that “there isn’t a child who isn’t motivated in any school environment, they are all motivated: some of them are just motivated to wind you up, or impress the peer group, or avoid work. The brain is always motivated, the brain is always looking to adapt to its environment so that it could respond appropriately, that is with a certain type of behaviour to a certain situation. So, what teachers normally call discipline problems are just the iceberg in this context and it is a real challenge for teachers to discover the underlying motives or the personality that is organising these motives.”[7] So, what are these motives and what is the best type of motivation, the most productive one in a learning context, the one that a teacher should be able to generate and guide in their students’ development? The answers we were seeking for were found in A McLean’s and Z. Dörnyei’s works, two prominent psychologists of our age. Alan McLean is a Scottish educational psychologist, the author of the “Motivated School”, who was until April 2011 a Principal Psychologist in Glasgow. He was commissioned to produce a training programme on Motivation by the Scottish government in 2005. The Motivated School programme has recently been introduced into LEAs in England, including Buckinghamshire, Hampshire and Bristol as well as the Isle of Man. Zoltán Dörnyei is a Professor of Psycholinguistics at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, renowned for his work on motivation in second language learning. They reckon the best motivation is SELF- MOTIVATION which is the kind of motivation that is fuelled from the inside, that is self- determined and is able to produce persistence and the capability of overcoming various distractors or intellectual obstacles. As a teacher, I learnt that children’s motivation could be divided into two categories: pre- ten and post-ten motivation. As researchers, we have understood that these two categories depend on the factors that impact students’ motivation and the latter would be mostly influenced by the peer group (this idea is based on A.McLean’s theory). Intuitively, I always felt my role as a teacher
  6. 6. 2014 META Conference Brochure was significant, yet it was frightening to realize that it is actually vital. This idea is perfectly illustrated by Dr. Haim G. Ginott in Teacher and Child: “I have come to a frightening conclusion. I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher I possess tremendous power to make a child's life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, and a child humanized or de-humanized”.[2] In other words, as Alan McLean says, we are never neutral, we are either draining our students or energizing them. It is all about either bringing happiness whenever we enter or whenever we leave the classroom. Research Study: Theoretical and Practical findings “The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without a teacher.” ― Elbert Hubbard Our study addresses the psychological conditions underlying the formation of motivation for learning a foreign language. The main goal of our research resides in determining, elaborating and implementing a set of psychological conditions underlying the formation of motivation for learning a foreign language in a learning environment at the preadolescent age. The following hypotheses have been strengthened during the research: 1. Formation of self-motivation for learning a foreign language is based on the development of self-beliefs (self-efficacy), accompanied by a sense of autonomy and belonging 2. Self-motivation for learning a foreign language is developed by influencing the self-efficacy beliefs. 3. Development of Self-motivation enhances the efficiency of learning a foreign language. Our work is based on the recent advances in research on motivation as a phenomenon studied by General Psychology, Educational Psychology and Psychology of learning a foreign language and it is going to be extended in so far as to become a practical tool for any language teacher seeking a way to motivate their students. The study that we have carried out up to now is based on A. McLean’s Motivated Learning Theory, C. Dweck’s Mindsets, Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model of Second-Language Acquisition and Z. Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self-System. These theories were successfully employed in a language learning environment offered by Orizont Lyceum in 2007-2008. The experiment comprised 60 experimental subjects from three 7th grades and included 25 training sessions and 40 English lessons led in accordance with the above models. The research has revealed the following preliminary conclusions: 1. Moldovan children’s motivation for learning English declines steadily from the 5th to the 7th grades; 2. Preadolescents motivation is mostly influenced by the peer group attitudes; 3. Teachers trigger the required motivation at this age by creating the appropriate type of classroom atmosphere. 4. Optimal motivation for learning English is Self-Motivation;
  7. 7. 2014 META Conference Brochure 5. Self-motivation for learning English at the preadolescent age is built on the development of students’ self-beliefs (self-efficacy), accompanied by a sense of autonomy and belonging; 6. Self-efficacy beliefs are based on the interactions of three mindsets: ideas about ability, interpretations of progress and achievement attitudes; 7. Students’ self-efficacy beliefs can be influenced by four drivers mastered by teachers: stimulation, structure, feedback, engagement; 8. The four drivers can be activated by means of a set of strategies that mostly suit preadolescents. So, the key to motivation is needs – people’s or in our situation, children’s needs, their self- emotions, or “how they feel about themselves as learners, what is on their mind”[10]. According to A. McLean, children have got three main needs; A. McLean calls them the three ‘A’ needs: 1. Affiliation, which is a sense of belonging, a sense of being valued, connected, and the opposite of that is alienation. Affiliation is a fundamental need that in A. McLean’s view, underpins everything. 2. Agency, which is a sense of confidence and self-belief, a sense of competence, a sense of self- efficacy, a sense of control: “I know how to do this job, I know how to read, I know how to do geography well.” The opposite of Agency is apathy. 3. Autonomy, which is a sense of being self-determining and trusted which, according to A. McLean, is the centrepiece of them all - the most complex one, the gold dust: “How much scope or trust do I have? How much scope do I have for self-determination in my classroom?” The more self-determination, the more autonomy we have, the more motivated we will be. The opposite of Autonomy is anxiety, where we are overwhelmed, pressurised or discouraged.[11] And so what a teacher needs to do is create a classroom climate that helps children meet their needs or, in other words, provide the conditions required for driving students’ self-motivation. In 2003 A.McLean identified four internal motivation drivers or mindsets that by being influenced positively could generate self-motivation. They are: ideas about ability; attributions or interpretations of progress; achievement attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs. [3, p.31-55] In his recent work "Motivating every learner”, 2009, the author refers to them as self-beliefs or Agency. In other words, they are those internal triggers that by, being accompanied by Affiliation and Autonomy generate self-motivation. The researcher has based his finding on the two types of mindsets discovered by Carol Dweck, a professor of psychology at Stanford University that has been conducting research on motivation and personality for over twenty years. She has introduced the concept of growth and fixed mindsets, which could be perceived as a cornerstone in A. McLean’s theory. According to her theory people can be divided into two categories that represent two basic mindsets: in a fixed mindset people think their intelligence is fixed, while in a growth mindset they believe their basic abilities can be developed through effort. Thus a fixed mindset is followed by ability interpretations of success and failure, performance attitudes to achievement or, the so- called self-promotion attitudes (Dweck and Leggett, 1988; Dweck 1996; McLean, 2003) [6, p.256- 273] and, very often, by low self-efficacy beliefs, while a growth mindset causes effort interpretations of success and failure, mastery attitudes to achievement or, the so-called self-
  8. 8. 2014 META Conference Brochure improvement attitudes (Dweck, 1996; McLean, 2003) and consequently, very often, high self- efficacy beliefs. In her research, C.Dweck has “been amazed over and over again, at how quickly students of all ages pick up on messages about themselves – at how sensitive they are to suggestions about their personal qualities or about the meaning of their actions and experiences. The kinds of praise (and criticism) students receive from their teachers and parents tell them how to think about what they do – and what they are.”[8, p.4] In other words, teachers possess all the required tools to help children adopt positive self-beliefs. A. McLean distinguishes four classroom energisers/instruments that teachers can employ in this respect: engagement, stimulation, structure and feedback. A. ENGAGEMENT, which is giving children a sense of belonging. Teacher’s input: SHOWing YOU CARE – Valuing Student’s output: A Sense of Belonging This driver shapes the quality of the relationships between the teachers and students as well as between peers; it is about how teachers show they are interested in children and what climate they manage to create in their lessons. B. FEEDBACK, which gives children information about how well they are doing. Teacher’s input: SHOWing YOU BELIEVE - Informing Student’s output: Self-Efficacy Beliefs Motivating feedback involves praising effort and strategy use, making students feel responsible for success and linking failure to factors students can repair. C. STIMULATION, which relates to the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom and refers to the intrinsic aspects of the curriculum. Teacher’s input: SHOWing YOU LOVE TEACHING THEM - Enthusing Student’s output: A Sense of Purpose Relevance, challenge, control, curiosity and fantasy are some of the key intrinsic motivators. D. STRUCTURE, which is a sense of clarity towards goals. Teacher’s input: SHOWing YOU TRUST - Empowering Student’s output: Self-Determination This driver determines the amount of explicit information that is made available in the classroom. The required level of structure is reached by clearly setting boundaries, communicating goals and responding consistently. It is the key issues with autonomy support. [3, p.14] As a practitioner I managed to apply A. McLean’s theory in my classroom which was possible by means of a group of methods and techniques meant to generate and maintain my students’ motivation or the so-called `motivational strategies` suggested by Z.Dörnyei for the language classroom. In his work Z. Dörnyei defines the strategies as being motivational influences that are consciously exerted to achieve some systematic and enduring positive effect. [1, p.28] Our approach in organizing them focuses on the 4 drivers and the 3 ‘A’ needs described by A. McLean in the Motivated school. We find them extremely useful for any teacher interested in driving their
  9. 9. 2014 META Conference Brochure students’ self-motivation. The classification that we have adopted results in a Motivational Toolkit for Language teachers. [Appendice 1] CONCLUSION To summarize, we would quote A.McLean on the role of teachers today: „The teacher really has to become a social engineer, or someone who is really spending a lot of his time not just thinking about the curriculum or teaching and learning, but thinking about the classroom climate; that’s why the classroom climate is so important. Not only does it set the scene for the transmission of the curriculum and the transmission of the teachers values, but it is creating a climate for the peer group to operate in, and the peer group is a fundamental component in this whole motivation game. What is interesting, as well, is the motivating teacher who has the capacity to do that feels good about themselves as teachers, because it is the same thing; it is a circle of motivation, without being too complicated” [10] BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Dörnyei, Z. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. - 155 p. 2. Ginott, H. G. Teacher and child: A book for parents and teachers. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1972. – 323 p. 3. McLean, A. The motivated school. London: Paul Capman Publishing, 2003. - 144 p. 4. Scheidecker, D., Freeman, W. Bringing out the best in students: How legendary teachers motivate kids. Thousand oaks, CA: Corvin Press, 1999. – 168 p. 5. Routledge encyclopedia of language teaching and learning/ Byran, M. – London and New York: Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group, 2000. – 736 p. 6. Dweck, C.S., Leggett, E.L. A social cognitive approach to Motivation and personality// Psychological Review. - 1988. – num.2, vol. 95 – P. 256-273. 7. McLean, A. About Motivation. Available URL: http://www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/videos/expertspeakers /aboutmotivationalanmclean.asp [accessed 10 March 2014] 8. Dweck, S.C. Caution-Praise can be dangerous// American Educator. American Federation of Teachers. - spring 1999. , Available URL: http://www.scottishschools.info/Websites/SchSecValeOfLeven/UserFiles/file/Whats%20on /Mindset/Mindsets%20VOLA.pdf , accessed [23 March 2014] 9. McLean, A. Motivating all learners, Available URL: http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/video/a/video_tcm4531622.asp?strReferringChannel =search&strReferringPageID=tcm:4-615801-64 , accessed [19 March 2014] 10. McLean, A. The motivating teacher. Available URL: http://www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/videos/expertspeakers/themotivatingteacheralanmcl ean.asp [accessed 20 March 2014]
  10. 10. 2014 META Conference Brochure 11. McLean, A. The three As of motivation. Available URL: http://www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/videos/expertspeakers/the3asofmotivationalanmcle an.asp [accessed 18 March 2014] 12. Sutherland, M.J., Smith, C.M., McLean, A., A model for Motivation. Available URL: http://www.scotedreview.org.uk/pdf/276.pdf [accessed 28 March2014]
  11. 11. 2014 META Conference Brochure Appendix 1 Motivational Toolkit for Language teachers (Sample) A. Through ENGAGEMENT or Valuing (teacher’s input) to AFFILIATION or Sense of Belonging (students’ output) Teacher: I CARE Student: I BELONG  Include a specific `group rules' activity at the beginning of a group's life to establish the norms explicitly.  Try and promote interaction, cooperation and the sharing of genuine personal information among the learners.  Establish a norm of tolerance.  Show students that you accept and care about them.  Pay attention and listen to each of them. B. Through FEEDBACK or Informing (teacher’s input) to AGENCY or Self-Efficacy Beliefs (students’ output) Teacher: I BELIEVE in YOU Student: I CAN DO this  Indicate to your students that you believe in their effort to learn and their capability to complete the tasks.  Avoid social comparison, even in its subtle forms.  Help learners accept the fact that they will make mistakes as part of the learning process.  Encourage learners to explain their failures by the lack of effort and appropriate strategies applied rather than by their insufficient ability.  Refuse to accept ability attributions and emphasise that the curriculum is within the learners' ability range. C. Through STIMULATION or Enthusing (teacher’s input) to AUTONOMY or Sense of Purpose (students’ output) Teacher: I LOVE TEACHING YOU Student: I am DETERMINED  Make tasks challenging.  Make task content attractive by adapting it to the students' natural interests or by including novel, intriguing, exotic, humorous, competitive or fantasy elements.  Vary the learning tasks and other aspects of your teaching as much as you can.  Relate the subject matter to the everyday experiences and backgrounds of the students.  Highlight and demonstrate aspects of L2 learning that your students are likely to enjoy. D. Through STRUCTURE or Empowering (teacher’s input) to AUTONOMY or Self-Determination (students’ output) Teacher: I TRUST YOU Student: I am TRUSTWORTHY  Teach students communication strategies to help them overcome communication difficulties.  Provide appropriate strategies to carry out the task.  Explain the purpose and utility of a task.  Make sure that they receive sufficient preparation and assistance.  Make sure they know exactly what success in the task involves.
  12. 12. 2014 META Conference Brochure THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE WRITING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Burea Svetlana, UST svetlanaburea@gmail.com Creative writing is seen as a facilitator of the teaching-learning process in terms of providing enthusiasm for reading and literature, developing students` reading, grammar, vocabulary, listening, pronunciation and writing skills and increasing students` self-confidence with the English language. Making up one’s own characters can become an efficient individual activity that requires a lot of formative activities that suppose mental processes and contribute to linguistic skills increase. In shaping the methodology of the creative writing activities it is important to mention three key factors: motivation, type of the activity and stages of the activity performing. These activities suppose reading, dealing with linguistic difficulties (translating) plus mental processes like thinking, analyzing, understanding and writing will certainly contribute to linguistic and not only growth. Keywords: creative writing, writing skills, foreign language, interactive activities, drafting, editing, publishing, writing approaches. Intellectual challenge in teaching a foreign language can take a variety of forms nowadays. Activities for developing creative writing skills can be one of the most important. Qualities like being innovative, original, being able to find solutions and many others like these are wanted today. That`s why the development of creativity by the education system is seen as a key device. Creativity, ingenuity, and innovation are the keys to success in the evolving global economy. To prepare young people for work and life in the 21st century, educators must cultivate students' creativity. Scholars from the teaching field encourage teachers to set aside a few minutes a day to allow students to just let their imaginations run wild. "There's no greater freedom than the freedom of daydreaming," they say. Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols, so it supposes communication. What is creative writing then? It’s a writing that expresses ideas and thoughts in an imaginative way. In studying foreign language creative writing does not have only communication function, it is a way of language learning. There are more reasons for teaching students creative writing: • Creative writing reinforces the grammatical structures, idioms, and vocabulary that teachers have been teaching students; • It gives our pupils a chance to be adventurous with the language, to take risks; • Creative writing enriches knowledge experience. The close relationship between writing and thinking makes writing a valuable part of any language course. A great deal of writing that goes on in foreign language lessons is sentence writing. Students repeat or complete the given sentences to reinforce the structure, grammar, and vocabulary they have learned. So why should the students practice creative writing during the foreign language lesson? [3] • to communicate with a reader;
  13. 13. 2014 META Conference Brochure • to express ideas without the pressure of face-to-face communication; • to explore a subject; • to record experience; • to become familiar with the conventions of written English text; There is no one best way to teach writing in foreign class. There are as many answers as there are teachers and teaching styles, or learners and learning styles. Some approaches to teaching creative writing are outlined here. [4] The Controlled-to-Free Approach In the 1950s and early 1960s, the audio-lingual approach dominated foreign language learning. Writing served to reinforce speech through mastering grammatical and syntactic forms. Students were given sentence exercises then paragraphs to copy or manipulate grammatically, changing questions to statements, present to past, or singular to plural. Overall, this approach stressed grammar, syntax, and mechanics, and emphasis accuracy rather than fluency. The Free-Writing Approach This approach stresses quantity of writing rather than quality. Pupils should put content and fluency first and not worry about form. Once ideas are down on the page, grammatical accuracy, organization, and the rest will gradually follow. The Paragraph-Pattern Approach This approach focuses on organization by copying the paragraphs or model passages. It is based on the principle that in different cultures or situations, people construct and organize communication with each other in different ways. The stress is put on organization. The Grammar-Syntax-Organization Approach This approach stresses simultaneously work more than composition feature. Writing cannot be seen as composed of separate skills which are learned one by one. So learners must be trained to pay attention to the organization while they work on grammar or syntax. The Communicative Approach The communicative approach stresses the purpose of a piece of writing and the audience for it. Learners work with tasks that encourage them to behave like writers in real life and to ask themselves the questions about purpose and audience: “Why am I writing this?”, “Who will read it?” The writing must be truly communicative and writing for a real reader. Readers are brought into writing assignments through writing back, asking questions, making comments. The Process Approach The teaching of writing has begun to move away from a concentration on the written product to an emphasis on the process of writing. Writers ask themselves not only questions about purpose and audience, but questions like: “How do I write this?” or “How do I get started?” Here, pupils are trained to generate ideas for writing, to think of purpose, audience, ways of communication and so on. In fact it is a developmental process from generating ideas to expressing them, drafting, and so on. This process of writing has more stages: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing. In teaching creative writing, the teacher mixes more styles in order to get results. The methodology of teaching creative writing is based on the structure (actions) plus content and
  14. 14. 2014 META Conference Brochure motivational factor. The teaching of creative writing basically focuses on students’ self- expression. It is taught by taking students through a series of steps that demonstrate the process of writing. First, students are introduced to a range of fictional and non-fictional texts. Students’ attention is drawn to the distinctive structural and linguistic features of each text. They are taught about the importance of the purpose, audience and context for which specific texts are written. Next, students practice. The students are given practice in the use of linkers, connectives and other semantic markers that are used to connect and present ideas logically in a text. Typical semantic markers in narrative texts are words such as because, although, when, where, since and so on. They perform various functions in the text, such as showing time relationships, cause and effect relationships, conditions, sequence of events and so on. Students also practice developing an appropriate vocabulary (e.g., formal versus informal words and phrases, colloquial terms, terms of endearment). Teacher must teach students to see writing as an act of writing and rewriting to give coherent shape of thoughts. Writing is a thinking intellectual work. That is why students must understand creative writing as a process formed in stages: Prewriting -Students discover the topic, purpose, and audience. They organize their ideas while preparing to write through the use of techniques (free writing, looping, listening, outlining, charting, mapping. Drafting - Students write the first piece of writing that is based on prewriting. Drafting is a working thesis and students must be learned to use sketch to generate new details or provide main ideas with details. The focus in this stage is on content, not grammar or spelling. Revising-Editing - Revising is the act of creation. Students must focus on content and organization, while revising he expands and clarifies ideas. While editing students focus on spelling, grammar and punctuation. They read for meaning, complete sentences, and look for grammar spelling. Teachers teach them to use actions like: adding, rearranging, removing, replacing. Check if sentences start with capital letters, proper nouns capitalized title with a capital letter. Publishing - Students must be taught how to read and share their writing with the rest of the classmates. Guidelines for Teachers in Teaching Creative Writing Teachers must teach strategic so students learn how to give structure and unity to their writing. Teach students how to build a paragraph as the smallest unity of a piece of writing: 1. Topic sentence (reason, advantages or disadvantages). - Details that supports the reason. -Example (s) 2. Supporting sentence (reason advantages or disadvantages). -Details -Example(s) 3. Concluding sentence.
  15. 15. 2014 META Conference Brochure While working with their piece of writing students should be oriented to pay attention to several helpful tips: • state the purpose of their writing • do not focus on spelling and grammar while drafting, they can check later in writing process • think how to arrange the best information • state the main idea and its supporting details • read aloud if possible and listen to their words • look for problematic areas • check spelling, grammar, and punctuation • get feedback from their peers • get help from their teacher A new checklist can be devised to fit each writing assignment, focusing attention on the critical features of one particular task: • Which sentence expresses the main idea? • Which sentences develop that main idea? • Is every verb in the correct tense? • Have you used the correct form of each tense? Activities like shared writing, case study, developing imagination through story making and characters shaping are useful in creative writing development. The point of using a shared writing strategy is to make the writing process a shared experience, making it visible and concrete while inviting students into the writer’s world in a safe, supportive environment. At the same time, it gives teachers the opportunity of direct teaching of key skills, concepts and processes. All aspects of the writing process are modeled, although not always all at once. At the lower grade levels especially, teachers can concentrate on one or two key aspects of writing in short, focused lessons. Using student input, the teacher guides the group in brainstorming ideas and selecting a topic. As a group, they talk about topics, audience, purpose, details they will include and other considerations. As the group composes the text, the teacher asks probing questions to bring out more detail and to help students make their writing more interesting and meaningful. The tone of this discussion should be collaborative rather than directive. The teacher might say something like, I wonder if we should add more details here. How might we do that? rather than We need to add more details here. While some pieces will be short and completed in one lesson, others will be longer and may continue through several days’ lessons. This allows students to see that writing can be an extended, ongoing process, and it also allows the teacher to train the students to look at their work critically through strategies such as the periodic re-reading of one’s work before resuming writing and completing the composition. Some teachers include a few well-chosen, purposeful errors during drafting to facilitate the later editing stage. Writing with the class or group, the teacher also has an opportunity to highlight and model the revision process, helping students add to or take away from their text. The group may also decide to change words, text order or other aspects of the writing to achieve their intended
  16. 16. 2014 META Conference Brochure meaning. The teacher will often ask questions to help the students focus on communicating their message clearly and concisely. If needed, the teacher can help guide the group in adding detail, taking away unnecessary and confusing words or passages, or changing the structure of the text to clarify meaning. The teacher can also use the shared writing strategy for editing text and focusing on mechanics and conventions such as spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar. The structure of the text — that is, paragraph division etc. — is also a focus in this stage, as it is in the drafting and revising stages. Making up one’s own characters can become an efficient individual activity that requires a lot of formative activities that suppose mental processes and contribute to linguistic skills increase. Creative writing is seen as a facilitator of the teaching-learning process in terms of providing enthusiasm for reading and literature, developing students` reading, grammar, vocabulary, listening, pronunciation and writing skills and increasing students` self-confidence with the English language. References: 1. Carter, R.. Language and creativity: the art of common talk. London: Rutledge, 2004. 2. Cohen, A., and Brooks-Carson, A. (2001). Research on direct versus translated writing: Students’ strategies and their results. The Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 169–188. 3. Silva, T., and Brice, C. (2004). Research in teaching writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 70-106. 4. Crystal, D.. Language Play. London: Penguin, 1998. 5. Ramet, A.. Creative Writing. How to Unlock your Imagination, Develop your Writing Skills, and Get Published. Oxford, Copyright 2007.
  17. 17. 2014 META Conference Brochure LANGUAGE THROUGH LITERATURE: APPROACHES TO TEACHING LITERATURE IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM Ina COLENCIUC, senior lecturer Free International University of Moldova, icolenciuc@yahoo.com This article aims at gaining a general overview of approaches to teaching literature and at identifying activities to apply with literature lessons at the university to easily conform to the student-centered and interactive tenets of communicative language teaching. Literature improves students’ English language skills, appeals to their imagination, develops cultural awareness, and encourages critical thinking about plots, themes and characters. The teacher’s task is to choose the approach that best meets students’ needs. Scholars generally present three main models of teaching literature: the Cultural model, the Language Model and the Personal-Growth Model. These three models denote six approaches: New Criticism, Structuralism, Stylistics, Reader-Response, Language-Based, and Critical Literacy. The Cultural Model represents the traditional approach to teaching literature. Using this approach, lecturers encourage students to understand different cultures in relation to their own. The Language Model is also known as language-based approach. The approach enables students to access a literary text in a systematic and methodological way in order to exemplify specific linguistic features. The Personal Growth Model attempts to bridge the Cultural Model and Language Model by focusing on a particular use of language in a text as well as placing it in a specific cultural context. Having analyzed the approaches to teaching literature in the English classroom, the author can make the following conclusions. The most suitable approaches are Reader-Response and Language-Based ones. Some elements of Stylistics and Critical Literacy enrich the approaches that are motivating and communicative for students. Students’ motivation in the learning process is often determined by their interest in the material used in the classroom, by the level of persistence, concentration and enjoyment. This type of involvement is something that cannot be imposed; it must come from the lessons and materials implemented in the classroom. Keywords: literature, approach, motivation, teaching, learning, student-centered and communicative lessons Reading literary texts is an excellent way for students to make progress in English language learning. It exposes them to exciting plots, interesting characters and authentic dialogues because they learn the language in context. Brumfit and Carter state “there is an interaction between the reader and literary texts as the texts provide examples of language resources being used to the full
  18. 18. 2014 META Conference Brochure and the reader is placed in an active interactional role in working with and making sense of this language” [2, p.34]. According to Collie and Slater, this interaction can be a source of enjoyment for the students [4, p.18]. Maley and Duff argue that literature can make people respond personally to other people’s way of seeing things and can engage both their intellect and their emotions [7, p.12]. As integrating literature into the EFL syllabus is beneficial to learners’ linguistic development, teachers need to choose an approach which best serves the needs of students and the syllabus. Carter and Long describe the rationale for the use of the following three models to literature teaching: cultural model, the language model and the personal growth model [3, p.7]. The cultural model views a literary text as a product. This means that it is treated as a source of information about the target culture. It is the most traditional approach used in university courses on literature which examine the social, political and historic background to a text, literary movements and genres. It should be pointed out that this model is often rejected by teachers of literature because there is very little opportunity for extended language work. The language model asks students, as they proceed through a text, to pay attention to the way language is used. They come to grips with the meaning and increase their general awareness of English. Within this model of studying literature, the teacher can choose to focus on general grammar and vocabulary or use the following strategies in language teaching- cloze procedure, prediction exercises, jumbled sentences, summary, creative writing and role-play. These activities are disconnected from the literary goals of the specific text. There is little engagement of the student with the text other than for purely linguistic purposes. The personal growth model attempts to bridge the cultural and the language models by focusing on a particular use of language in a text as well as placing it in a specific cultural context. It is also a process-based approach that encourages students to draw on their opinions, feelings and personal experiences. This model aims for interaction between the text and the reader in English, helping make the language more memorable. According to Banegas, students are encouraged to “make the text their own” [10]. The model under consideration recognizes the immense power that literature can have to move people and attempts to use that in the classroom. These three models of teaching literature differ in terms of their focus on the text. In the first the text is seen as a cultural artifact. In the second, the text is used as a focus for grammatical and structural analysis. In the third, the text is an incentive for personal growth activities. The three models discussed denote six approaches: 1) New Criticism, 2) Structuralism, 3) Stylistics, 4) Reader-Response, 5) Language-Based, and 6) Critical Literacy. The New Criticism approach to literature appeared in the United States after World War I. According to this approach, meaning is contained solely within the literary text, apart from the effect on the reader or the author’s intention, and the external elements are disregarded when analyzing the text. The student’s role is to discover the correct meaning by a close reading and analysis of formal elements such as symbolism, metaphors, similes, and irony. According to
  19. 19. 2014 META Conference Brochure Thomson, the world of the literary text work is self-contained, and readers must exercise total objectivity in interpreting the text [9, p.3]. The major drawback of New Criticism is that most class activities are dedicated to identifying formal elements and literary devices rather than to discovering the beauty and value of a literary text. I believe that the application of the New Criticism approach offers students little enjoyment or recognition of value of literature, and, perhaps, creates a negative attitude towards literature. Structuralism is an approach that gained importance in 1950s; instead of interpreting a literary text as an individual entity, this approach determines where a literary text fits into a system or framework [9, p 4]. Like New Criticism, Structuralism emphasizes total objectivity in examining literary texts and denies the role of readers’ personal responses in analyzing literature. It requires students to approach literary texts scientifically and to use their knowledge of structures and themes to place the work into meaningful hierarchical system. Cummins came to the conclusion that Structuralism does not focus on the aesthetic value of literature, but on the different processes and structures that are “involved in the process of meaning” [5, p.20]. Carter and Long also criticize Structuralism approach when they write that ”instead of being concerned with how a literary text renders an author’s experience of life and allows us access to human meanings, the structuralist is only interested in mechanical formal relationship, such as the components of a narrative, and treats the literary text as if it were a scientific object” [3, p.183]. To my mind, Structuralism is less relevant for teaching of literature because the EFL students may possess inadequate skills and knowledge to approach the text scientifically, which makes the study of the process useless and results in a lack of motivation for reading literature. The Stylistic approach, which emerged in the late 1970s, analyzes the features of literary language to develop students’ sensitivity to literature. This includes the unconventional structure of literature, especially poetry, where language is often used in non-grammatical and loose manner. Whether these unconventional structures confuse or enhance student’s knowledge of the language is the subject of debate. In this regard one must consider the difference between genres. For example, poetry is often abstract and imaginative, while dialogues in drama are often very realistic. In the Stylistic approach, the teacher encourages the students to use their linguistic knowledge to make aesthetic judgments and interpretations of the texts. According to Rodger, the language plays the most important role in deciphering a poem’s significance [9, p. 5], while others such as Moody see the importance of the reader’s background knowledge, along with close attention to language features, as important to interpreting complex texts that are “capable of analysis and commentary from a variety of different points of view” [8, p. 23]. One useful model of Stylistics is comparative analysis, in which excerpts from literature are compared to extracts from other texts, such as news reports, tourist brochures, or advertisement. This technique illustrates that the language of literature is an independent kind of discourse and teaches students different ways that language can be used. I consider the Stylistic approach to be relevant because it clarifies one of rationales for teaching literature: to highlight the
  20. 20. 2014 META Conference Brochure aesthetic value of literature and provide access to the meaning by exploring the language and form of the literary text with a focus on meaning. From my teaching experience I find that students appreciate literature more when they can explore the beauty of the literary language. For example, when my students read the poem “Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe, they were excited to discover how the form of the poem reflects its theme. They found the process of exploring the language style and form of the poem both entertaining and valuable. However, they realized that this analysis was not possible without guidance from the teacher and they felt they would lack of confidence if working alone. If the Stylistic approach is the only method used in the EFL context, some problems may arise. Challenges include, for example, the difficulty of recognizing irony in literature of the foreign culture. This problem appears in the classroom with limited language resources. In this case the teacher must be knowledgeable about the terminology of literary devices in order to guide students. The principles of the Reader-Response approach include attention to the role of the reader and process-oriented approach to reading literature. Reader-Response supports activities that encourage students to rely on their personal experience, opinions, and feelings in their interpretation of literature. Dias and Hayhoe point out that it is precisely the role of the reader in the act of reading that has not been sufficiently and properly addressed” [6, p.15]. Reader- Response approach addresses the problem by making the learners active participants in the learning process [9, p. 6]. The Reader-Response approach makes an important contribution to learning by demystifying literature and connecting it to individual experience. Researchers and university teachers support the idea of making literature more accessible by activating students’ background knowledge so they can better predict and decode the language and schemes of literary texts. I also agree that activating students’ schemata in reading literature is important and that personalizing the learning experience increases student participation and motivation. Nevertheless, some problems with the Reader-Response approach have been identified, including: - Students’ interpretation may deviate greatly from the work, making it problematic for the reader to respond and evaluate. - Selecting appropriate materials can be problematic because the level of language difficulty and unfamiliar cultural content may prevent students from giving meaningful interpretations. - The lack of linguistic guidance may hinder students’ ability to understand the language of the text or respond to it. Like the Stylistic approach, The Language-Based approach emphasizes awareness of the language of literature, and it is a basic stage for EFL students. However, this approach facilitates
  21. 21. 2014 META Conference Brochure students’ responses and experience with literature, and it is more accessible for language learners than the Stylistic approach [1, p.43]. In addition, the Language-Based approach calls for a variety of language instruction activities, including brainstorming to activate background knowledge and make predictions, rewriting the ends of stories or summarizing plots, cloze procedures to build vocabulary and comprehension, and jigsaw readings to allow students to collaborate with others, form opinions, and engage in spirited debates. The point is that literature is an excellent vehicle for methods that result in four-skill language development through interaction, collaboration, peer teaching, and student independence. The teacher’s role is not to impose interpretations but to introduce and clarify terms, to prepare and offer appropriate classroom procedures, and to intervene when necessary to provide prompts. In my opinion the Language-Based approach responds to language students’ needs in learning literature: they receive the skills and techniques to facilitate access to texts and develop sensitivity to different genres so they can enjoy a piece of literature that relates to their lives. Moreover, this approach meets students’ needs in learning a language: students communicate in English to improve their language competence; they develop the necessary skills of working in groups; and they become active learners while teachers support and guide them in the learning process. Critical Literacy is drawn from a variety of theories such as critical language studies and educational sociology [9, p.7]. This approach has important implications for teaching both language and literature because it reveals the interrelationship between language use and social power. According to Cummins “truth presented in the classroom as knowledge is rooted in a set of power relationships” [5, p. 253]. Discourse reflects the power relationship in society and, as researchers and practitioners note, the teaching and learning process is not neutral with respect to social realities and intergroup power relations. As for the interaction between readers and text, Luke and Freebody state that authors “construct a version of the social world; they position or locate the reader in a social relation to the text and the world” [9, p.8]. I think the main objective of Critical Literacy is to encourage learners to explore how social and political factors shape the language they are learning so that students are more aware of the sociopolitical reasons behind their choice to use certain language varieties. As literature should contribute to students’ personal development, enhance cultural awareness and to develop language skills, the Reader-Response and Language-Based approaches are well-suited for teaching literature. Elements of Stylistics and Critical Literacy enrich the approaches that are the most motivating and communicative for students. References: 1. Brown, D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. New York: Longman, 2001. - 569 p. 2. Brumfit, C., Carter R. Literature and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. - 289 p. 3. Carter, R., Long M. Teaching Literature. Harlow: Longman, 1991. - 200 p.
  22. 22. 2014 META Conference Brochure 4. Collie, S., Slater, S. Literature in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. - 274 p. 5. Cummins, J. Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual Children in Crossfire. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters, 2000. - 309 p. 6. Dias, P., Hayhoe, M. Developing Response to Poetry. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1998. - 142 p. 7. Maley A., Duff A. Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.- 168 p. 8. Moody, H. L. Approaches to the study of literature: A practitioner’s view. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon, 1983. - 289 p. 9. Truong, T.V. The Relevance of Literary Analysis to Teaching Literature in the EFL Classroom. / Anderson D., Boyum R., Davis, K., et al. // English Teaching Forum. – 2009. – num.3, vol. 5 – p. 9 10. Dario Banegas, (2010), The Role of Literature in ELT. Available URL: http: //www. teachingenglish.or.uk/ blogs/ dario-banegas /role –literature.elt.-part-one
  23. 23. 2014 META Conference Brochure EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION– INTERLANGUAGE SYNONYMS, HOMONYMS AND PARONYMS. Oxana GOLUBOVSCHI, Senior Lecturer at State Pedagogical University“Ion Creanga” Master Degree in English Philology e-mail: golubovschi@mail.ru Lilia HERȚA, Senior Lecturer at State Pedagogical University“Ion Creanga” Master Degree in English Philology The main purpose of this article is to explain the concept of equivalence in translation. As well to touch upon the subject of interlanguage homonyms, synonyms and paronyms - the so-called translator’s false friends. The process of finding equivalents in the two languages is that the translator should first decode the Source Text (ST), that is, to figure out the meaning, message, intention of the original speaker or writer and then ask himself or herself how the same decoded meaning, message, intention is encoded in the Target Text (TT). Finding equivalents in translation involves facing problems, at this moment we can speak about linguistic phenomenon of interlanguage homonyms or the so called ‘translator’s false friends’ which was introduced by the French theorists of translation M. Koessler and J. Derocquigny in 1928. This term means a word that has the same or similar form in the Source and Target languages but another meaning in the target language. Translators’ false friends result from transferring the sounds of a Source language word literally into the Target language. They are also called deceptive cognates, as their meanings are different and they can easily confuse the target text receptor. Among them are found such a class of words called International words, i.e. words which have gained currency in different languages while preserving one and the same meaning. Most of them denote notions referring to science, technique, culture, and politics. In the article are discussed these problems of linguistic misunderstandings and confusions and how to avoid such mistake making. As a matter of fact, not many words have the same meanings in different languages. Therefore, every qualified interpreter or translator has to give particular attention to interlingual homonyms, as they can be extremely confusing. One should always be able to distinguish translator’s “false friends”. Key words: Equivalence, translation, doublet, interlanguage, synonym, homonym, paronym, Source text/language, Target text/language. The main subject of this article is the problem of equivalence in translation with a special emphasis on “translator’s false friends”. But first we should answer the question: What is translation? Translation is a transfer process, which aims at the transformation of a Source Language (SL) text into an optimally equivalent Target Language (TL) text, and which requires the syntactic, the semantic and the pragmatic understanding and analytical processing of the SL. The process of finding equivalents in the two languages is that the translator should first decode the Source Text (ST), that is, to figure out the meaning, message, intention of the original speaker
  24. 24. 2014 META Conference Brochure or writer and then ask himself or herself how the same decoded meaning, message, intention is encoded in the Target Text (TT). Finding equivalents in translation involves decoding the ST text and attempting to find an appropriate equivalent in the TL (to encode whatever has been decoded in SL). Finding equivalents is the most problematic stage of translation. More specifically, this article is about the concept of equivalence in translation and the subject of interlanguage synonyms, homonyms and paronyms, the so-called “translator’s false friends.” The term ‘translator’s false friends’ means a word that has the same or similar form in the Source and Target languages but another meaning in the target language [1,p.24]. Translators’ false friends result from transferring the sounds of a Source language word literally into the Target language. They are also called deceptive cognates, as their meanings are different and they can easily confuse the target text receptor. Among them are found a class of words called International words, i.e. words that have gained currency in different languages while preserving the same meaning. Language cannot exist without ambiguity; which has represented both a curse and a blessing through the ages. Language is a very complex phenomenon. Psychological, social and cultural events provide a moving ground on which those meanings take root and expand their branches. Throughout history, translation has made inter-linguistic communication between peoples possible. Theoretically, one can consider translation a science; practically, it seems rational to consider it an art. However, regardless of whether one considers translation a science, an art, or a craft, one should bear in mind that a good translation should fulfill the same function in the TL as the original did in the SL. The first step in the process of translating a source language text is to find suitable equivalents in the target language. The term ‘equivalence’ is actually a key term in translation and scholars have defined it in different ways. Any ‘good’ or ‘accurate’ translation presupposes an ‘exact’ or ‘correct’ equivalence being rendered at linguistic, extra linguistic and paralinguistic levels in the target language. Translation has been defined as the replacement and transfer of ‘message’ from one language into another. Recent theories look at translation in the light of the speech act and discourse theories and define translation as the phenomenon of replacement of a text in a source language by a semantically and pragmatically equivalent text in the target language with the same ‘illocutionary effect’. Translation has also been considered as the transfer of ‘signs’ from one language into another giving it a semiotic dimension. Debates on whether translation is ‘possible’ or ‘impossible’ have led the people interested in translation to think on the aspect of faithfulness and fidelity in translation and later on to questions like whether translations are to be literal or liberal, etc. Some tend to dwell on this - question of literal and liberal. They say that the two are incompatible, i.e., what is ‘beautiful’ cannot be ‘faithful’ and what is ‘faithful’ cannot be ‘beautiful’. To render a satisfactory translation the translator needs to be acquainted with phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, idiomatic, religious and cultural systems of both the SL and TL to either find standard equivalents, give explanation otherwise to convey the author has intended meaning to the TL audience without any mistakes. In the case of interlingual translation, the translator uses synonyms to get the meaning of the ST. This indicates that the complete equivalence is absent between code units in interlingual translations. According to R. Jacobson’s
  25. 25. 2014 META Conference Brochure theory, “translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes” [2, p. 233]. He acknowledges that “whenever there is deficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan-translations, neologisms or semantic shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions” [2, p. 234]. The Romanian translation of the English phoneme /nait/, isolated from its context, can be either “cavaler” (knight) or “noapte” (night). However if the speaker talked about a “chivalrous and courageous knight”, there would be no hesitation in choosing the Romanian translation “cavaler”, rather than “noapte”. Therefore drawing a difference between linguistic meaning and sense it is important to remember that in speech words lose some of the potential meanings attached to their phonemic structure and retain only their contextual relevant meaning. So, translators must be excellent readers in a source language, for example, in English as their second language, and excellent writers in a target language, for example, in Romanian as their native language. Linguistically, translation is a branch of applied linguistics, for in the process of translation the translator consistently attempts to compare and contrast different aspects of two languages to find equivalents. If a specific linguistic unit in one language carries the same intended meaning, message encoded in a specific linguistic medium in another, and then these two units are considered to be equivalent. Finding equivalents is the most problematic stage of translation. The same applies to the relation between English and Romanian, with the qualification that the pronunciation of many English international terms is often very difficult. That international words are the easiest to translate or understand should not be considered to be an absolute rule. There are instances when these words are far more difficult than the words we simply do not know and have to look up in a dictionary. They are more difficult because they are misleading; apparently they are identical with this or that Romanian word, while actually they mean an altogether different thing. These would be examples of international words or “false friends”. These “false friends” make a mixture, which we will also call “doublet words”. The term doublets, as used in philology, means two words derived from the same root. Such words have the same derivation but differ in form and usually in meaning; such an explanation is given by N. Rayevska [6, p.17]. Another specialist in language study, Galina Salapina, talks about “etymological doublets”, these are - ‘words of the same language which have been derived by different routes from the same language source, they differ to a certain degree in form, meaning and usage’. The same phenomenon is observable in translation process, as practice shows such words exist as well within the vocabulary stock of two languages.In our case these are doublet words that are found in English and Romanian. Therefore, the peculiar interest of this article is to state and mention this phenomenon and see and define the problems that appear while translating these words. The meaning of the term “false friends” may be extended to include also those lexical units, which, in the same language, have altered their meaning or meanings in the course of their historical development. As mentioned earlier in our article, to render a satisfactory translation the translator needs to be acquainted with phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, idiomatic, religious and cultural systems of both the SL and TL to either find standard equivalents or give explanation to convey the author’s intended meaning to the TL audience
  26. 26. 2014 META Conference Brochure without any mistakes. Nevertheless, mistakes may occur due to the linguistic phenomena connected with finding an appropriate equivalent. American structuralist, Roman Jacobson, claims, [2, p. 135] “there is ordinarily no full equivalence between code units”. To corroborate his idea, Jacobson uses the example of ‘cheese’, which does not have the same equivalent of the Russian ‘syr’; in Romanian we translate ‘cașcaval’. For the latter is code unite does not have the concept ‘cottage cheese’ so, the term is better to be translated by ‘tvorog’ not ‘syr’, in Romanian ‘brinza de vaci’ and not ‘cascaval’. R. Jakobson also points out that the problem of both meaning and equivalence is related to the differences between structures, terminology, grammar and lexical forms of languages. R. Jacobson stated, “Equivalence in difference is the cardinal problem of language and the pivotal concern of linguistics.” In the case of interlingual translation, R. Jakobson [2, p.116] maintains that the translator uses synonyms to get the meaning of the S.T. This indicates that the complete equivalence is absent between code units in interlingual translations. According to his theory, “translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes” [5, p. 233]. Loan words that can be borrowed from the source text but have developed their own meanings in the target texts. For example, interview = ‘a series of questions in a formal situation in order to obtain information about a person’; interviu = a journalist is questioning some public figure in order to be published in mass media’. Alternatively, they can have the same origin of the third language (mainly Greek and Latin) and be borrowed into both the source and target languages: aspirant = ‘a person, who has great ambition, desires strongly, strives toward an end, and aims at’; aspirant = ‘a graduate student’. Historically “false friends of a translator” are the result of language interaction, which can appear as a casual coincidence but in a limited number of cases. In kin languages they are based on cognates originating in common prototype in basis-language. “False friends of a translator” are the results of inadequate and poor translation based on sound similarity of words in foreign and native languages. For example, the English word “bucket” (“caldare”) has the Romanian homonym “buchet” and is a false equivalent for having a different meaning. Therefore, equivalence in translation can only be understood as a kind of similarity or approximation. When compared in the source and target texts, translators’ false friends can differ semantically, syntactically, stylistically, and pragmatically [4, p.174]. Semantic difference presupposes the following oppositions: generic vs. specific meaning: actual (real, existing in fact) – actual (topical); monosemantic vs. polysemantic: gallant (couth)– gallant (1. Showy and gay in appearance, dress, or bearing a gallant feathered hat; 2. Stately, majestic; 3. High-spirited and courageous gallant soldiers;4. Attentive to women, chivalrous, flirtatious.); different connotation (positive vs. negative): aggressive (determined to win or succeed) – agresiv (inclined to act in a hostile fashion). Structural difference leads to: different word combinations: comfortable – comfortabil have the same meaning ‘producing a feeling of physical relaxation’. However, in English this word is combined with the noun income (comfortable income), and in Romanian this combination is impossible – the English expression has the equivalent of venituri opportune. Likewise, sympathetic –simpatic, but sympathetic strike – grevă de solidaritate; impossibility of calque translation: persoanăerudite– walking library. In this case idiomatic meanings are expressed by
  27. 27. 2014 META Conference Brochure different structures; multi-component phrase vs. one-word structure: calitatea de lector, citiror - readership, readers. Stylistic difference results in stylistic overtone of the words: neutral vs. emotionally coloured words: ambition (stylistically neutral) – ambiție (often negative); protection (neutral) –protecție (bookish); modern vs. archaic: depot – depozit (in the meaning of ‘a building where supplies are kept’); common word vs. term: essence – esență(vinegar). Pragmatic difference implies the different associations a word carries for various groups of people, nations, etc. Full equivalents are target language expressions whose components coincide fully (in terms of vocabulary, grammar and style) with the source language expressions. Full equivalents may be represented by some proverbs (All is well that ends well. – Totul este bine când se termină cu bine.); international phrases, especially biblical, mythological, or historical (Damocles’ sword – Sabia lui Damocles; Noah’s ark – Arca lui Noe); or other phrases (to play with fire – a se juca cu focul; to read between the lines – a citi printre rânduri). Partial equivalents differ from the source language expression either lexically (four corners of the world – cele patru parti ale lumii; to save money for a rainy day – economisi bani pentru o zi grea/zile negre) or grammatically (to have news first hand– a afla știri din prima mana; a juca în mâinile cuiva - to play into smb’shands). The figurative meaning, or the image, may be changed in translation: to sit on a powder keg – sta/trăi ca pe un vulcan; a sta pe ace – to sit on pins and needles. In general, idioms are open to a variety of translation procedures. Among them are: Substitution with the analogue: Do not teach your grandmother to suck eggs. – Ou invata pe gaina. However, in oral translation a translator should sustain the image. Then a new (changed) figurative meaning may frustrate the translator. When working with an analogue, one should be sure to use the same style and retain the meaning of the idiom. Zero equivalence occurs when there is no one-to-one equivalent between the ST and the TT. This happens when the translator deals with texts that contain many culturally bound words or expressions. Examples of this are the words ‘plăcintă’, sarmale, etc.’ In fact, zero equivalence rarely occurs at the text level, except in some literary forms as poetry and fairytales, and in case it happens, the translator may use translation recreation instead. It is impossible to disagree with the opinion in some publications that it happens among translators to justify their mistakes and unwillingness to analyze multiple meanings of English words by the existence of “false friends of a translator”. Almost any English word can be considered a “false friend of a translator”. The poorer the knowledge of a language the more often a translator is caught at a straw at a graphic similarity of words. The main sources of such mistakes are the correlations of functional and sound similarity or seeming identity of lexical units in both languages. Important place among “false friends of a translator” is occupied by the cases of interlanguage homonymy and paronymy. Interlanguage homonymy may arise in the process of interaction and comparison of languages (for example, “mark”- marca or “family”- familie. The differences in object-logical content of English and Romanian “false friends of a translator” in a number of cases are connected with the difference in the life of notion itself. ‘False friends’ as well are called interlanguage synonyms, homonyms and paronyms. Interlanguagesynonyms are words that coincide in one or more meanings. However, beside similar
  28. 28. 2014 META Conference Brochure meanings, they have some special meanings. For example, concert – concert. Both words have the meaning of ‘a musical performance’, but the English word has the second meaning: ‘agreement in purpose, feeling, or action’. The Romanian one has acquired a generic meaning of ‘any performance (reciting, drama extracts, etc.)’. Thus they can be equivalents in only the first meaning and somewhat erroneous in their second meaning. Interlanguage homonyms are words that have no common meanings, like accord – accord. The English word means ‘agreement, harmony; a settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; a settlement of points at issue between the nations. The Romanian word is more specific, meaning ‘musical chord’. Interlanguage paronyms are words with similar but not identical sound, and with different meanings. The case can be illustrated by example – exemplu. The Romanian word denotes ‘a copy’, whereas the English indicates ‘a representative of a group as a whole; a case serving as a model or precedent for another that is the same or similar’. At present there are three types of “false friends of a translator”: 1. Words and expressions meaning different things in both languages (application- anchtea unui candidat ; aplicatie - in Romanian; anecdote-eveniment din viata; anecdota - in Romanian) 2. Words and expressions which are partially similar in meaning (apartment- apartament; apartament- in Romanian; auditorium- audetorie; Romanian) 3. Words and expressions similar in meaning but different in style and in sphere of using (cable- canat, cablu). Besides, it is necessary to take into consideration possible differences of stylistic characteristics of associating words. These differences can accompany partial semantic differences but can occur in the words with the same meanings. Therefore, it is impossible to understand and use the word correctly without knowing its functional-stylistic and emotionally expressive shades. The differences in functional-stylistic shades occur most often in English- Romanian comparisons. For example, even in the similar meaning “intervedere a specialistilor” the English variant “consultation” and the Romanian one “consultatie” are not quite similar as the first word is stylistically neutral and the second word has a bookish shade. Stylistic difference makes many words incompatible in translation. The essential type of stylistic differences are the differences in evaluative and emotionally expressive shades. If the English word “compilation” (compilare, culegere) is quite neutral here but the Romanian word “compilare” has a shade of disapproval meaning the work based on the materials of other authors. Emotional shades often become apparent in figurative meanings: let us take, for example, the using of such Romanian words as “subiect”, “tip”, “fruct”, “element”, “exemplar” in the meaning of “om, personalitate”. In spite of the fact that the problem of “false friends of a translator” attracts attention of a number of translators, still there is no detailed research of this group of words in most languages. The differences in lexical combinatory make serious difficulties in learning languages and in translation but as a rule are not described in bilingual dictionaries. However, it is supposed that such difficulties are always surmountable in translation as the translator, using his linguistic feeling, “feels” in what combinations the word is relevant. It works mainly in the native language and is less successful in a foreign one. But the situation is complicated by the circumstances that
  29. 29. 2014 META Conference Brochure the preference can be given to this or that word in this combination basing on language tradition. The dictionaries of “false friends of a translator” do not strive to substitute classical bilingual dictionaries; they are collections of peculiar and rather valuable commentaries on the words in question. Such commentaries are directed at preventing mistakes when using a foreign language and sometimes at improving the quality of translation and even broadening our outlook. In theory and practice, the dictionaries of “false friends of a translator” are more useful as give the description of all meanings, express stylistic and emotionally expressive shades, and explain grammar characteristics and lexical combinatory, which is important in translation. The main task of the translator is to render the authentic meaning of the utterance. The “translator’s false friends” are an obstacle on the way to correct translation. In some cases theses deviations that are produced because of interfering influence of “translator’s false friends” are insignificant. In others, they can seriously affect the meaning of the utterance. The appearance of misleading words is conditioned by differences in lexical systems of English and Romanian.For an adequate translation a specialist should take into consideration the general idea of a sentence, the specifics of lexical combinatory of words, the style and the general contents of the text. Actually, not many words have the same meanings in different languages. Therefore, every qualified interpreter or translator has to give particular attention to interlingual homonyms, as they can be extremely confusing. One should always be able to distinguish interpreter’s/translator’s “false friends”. In order to improve one’s knowledge and avoid mistakes because of the existence of “false friends” an interpreter or translator should always remember the basic translating procedures, which fall into two major categories: • Technical procedures: a)analysis of the source and target languages; b) a thorough study of the source language text before attempting to translate it; c) making judgments of the semantic and syntactic approximations. 2. Organizational procedures: constant re-evaluation of the attempt made; contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same text done by other translators, and checking the text's communicative effectiveness by asking the target language readers to evaluate its accuracy and effectiveness and studying their reactions. However, it is no good to consider definitely that any mistakes of this kind indicate poor knowledge or carelessness of the speaker while a perfect command of language guarantees no mistakes. Knowledge of the second language in most cases cannot be perfect and fluent speaking two languages is possible only in theory. Therefore, an overwhelming majority of people who speak foreign languages make mistakes in translation and use. The main sources of such mistakes are the correlations of functional and sound similarity or seeming identity of lexical units in both languages. Every qualified interpreter or translator has to give particular attention to interlingual homonyms, as they can be extremely confusing. One should always be able to distinguish translator’s “false friends”. References: 1. Benjamin, W. The Task of the Translator. New York: Longman, 1999. - 354 p.
  30. 30. 2014 META Conference Brochure 2. Jacobson, R. On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. Chapter 8 essay, 1959. - (pp. 113 – 118) 3. Levitchi, Leon D. Limba Engleza Contemporana.Lexicologie. Bucuresti: 1970. - 127 p. 4. Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall Longman, 1988. - 292 p. 5. Nida, E. Toward a Science of Translating. Netherlands: Leiden, 1964. - 331 p. 6. Rayevska, N. English Lexicology. Kiev, 1971. - 334p.
  31. 31. 2014 META Conference Brochure PROMOTING STUDENTS’ ENGAGEMENT IN ENGLISH CLASSROOM THROUGH ACTIVE LEARNING GRAMA Stella, Graduate of “Ion Creanga” Pedagogical University in Chisinau, Foreign Languages Department Degree of Licentiate in Philology, II Didactic Degree English Teacher at “Prometeu-Prim”Lyceum in Chisinau stellagrama@yahoo.com The modernized national curriculum calls on teachers to revise traditional teaching methods. Students are not treated as recipients of information anymore. They become the subjects of the learning process. Their roles shift from passive listeners to active learners. Students used to listen, take notes and parrot back the content previously assimilated in the classroom. Modern schooling is totally different. It requires students to get involved in the process of learning, to discover new things, to ask and give feedback, to interact with others. Active learning refers to any teaching strategy that permits students to search for information, build their own knowledge, and feel responsible for their own education. It includes a variety of procedures that may be used in the classroom like individual activities, pair-work, informal small group discussions or cooperative projects. The choice belongs to the teacher. The major goal is to set activities that allow students to practise important skills besides covering the content. They need to learn effective decision making and improve interpersonal communicative skills. Beneficial, active learning situations are not easy to set up. The teacher has to be creative, invent new strategies, develop plans and try them out, collect feedback, modify and try again. Designing activities that would meet students’ needs is not facile either, but the fruit is sweet. The student-centered approaches offer various tools for making learning a pleasant and lasting process. Keywords: active learning methods, student-centered activities, student engagement. I. Active Learning Concepts Traditional schooling is focused on providing the student with knowledge on different school subjects as if a human’s mind were an empty vessel to be filled with information. The relationship between knowledge and feelings or attitudes and behaviours are often neglected. The student is assumed to take notes, information, thus, being passed from one recipient to another, without touching the student’s mind properly, or causing him or her to react emotionally, observe, discover or act. Active learning refers to any instructional method that engages students in the learning process and “implies deep learning on the part of students as they construct knowledge and create meaning from their surroundings”. [8] Traditional methods deal with information or content whereas “active learning involves students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing. Strategies that promote active learning allow students’ involvement in higher order thinking skills” [2, p.2]. “What is learned and how it is learned is often a result of socialization between the individuals and those around them. Active learning exercises help students to get to know each other, which
  32. 32. 2014 META Conference Brochure transforms passive learners into active participants during the transmission of information in classrooms.” [1] John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) stated that students would learn more if teachers spent less time teaching, and the students spent less time passively listening. In the frontispiece to the Didactica Magna (1628) he writes: “Let the long and the short of our didactic be to investigate and discover the means for teachers to teach less, and learners to learn more.” The demands of the modern world call for a revision of traditional classrooms, replacing standard lectures with complex modern teaching strategies that shift student’s role from a passive listener to an active learner. Thus, teacher’s goal is to create situations that enable students explore their intellectual abilities, build knowledge rather than receive information. Investigations on this subject describe several features of active learning such as: - meeting various needs and different learning styles; - soliciting a diversity of opinions; - making individual contributions valuable; - fostering interaction of students with each other; - increasing learners’ responsibility in the learning process. The aim of active learning methods is to create favourable conditions for active engagement of thinking processes. It “improves learners’ attitude towards their subject area” [14, p.92], improves relationships between students and increases retention power. Active learning happens when students solve problems, answer questions, generate their own questions, brainstorm, discuss, explain or debate in classroom. Different academic research on this issue done throughout the world favour student-centered approaches like case-study, problem-solving, peer-teaching, critical thinking, all of them motivating for an endless learning process. II. Implementing Active Learning Strategies in EFL Classes As I have mentioned above, a major goal of the teaching process is to develop students’ critical, analytical and problem-solving abilities. They need to learn effective decision making and improve interpersonal communicative skills. The experience of modern schooling requires teachers to change their methods, using active learning strategies. The learner should get involved in his own education and shoulder responsibility for the progress he makes. We should promote critical thinking, encourage group processes and foster social as well as academic interaction among students. Theoretical knowledge of this issue is not sufficient to encourage teachers reconsider their teaching
  33. 33. 2014 META Conference Brochure style. The most frequent question I hear when holding a discussion about this subject is whether active learning strategies really work. Well, they do. According to Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience [5, p.39], after two weeks of passive learning, students will remember not more than one third of the total volume of information. On the contrary, activities that focus on speaking, saying and doing, increases students’ engagement with what is learned, thus, stimulating higher cognitive processes and critical thinking. The learner will remember much more of what he practised in classroom. 1. Cone of Learning Adapted from Edgar Dale Active learning offers methods to reach the whole range of educational activities more efficiently than traditional approaches. It includes a variety of strategies that may be used in the classroom: - individual activities; - pair-work; - informal small group discussions; • cooperative projects. Some of them are oriented towards mastering basic skills and information, others aim at completing complex group projects often emphasizing higher order thinking skills. Each of them involves students in learning activities to a certain degree, thus we can group them into three categories: low, medium and high complexity strategies. 2. Categories of Active Learning Strategies For example, such techniques like brainstorming, T-chart, taboo, think-pair-share or graphic organizer do not take too much time, can be easily incorporated in classroom and may help to recall, record or structure information. On the other hand, complex methods like fishbone strategy, problem-solving, case investigation, jigsaw discussion, six-thinking hats encourage students to
  34. 34. 2014 META Conference Brochure think critically: discuss, state opinions and bring arguments, find solutions, choose the right alternative. They also learn to communicate efficiently and interact with the others. The choice depends on the content to be covered, values and objectives of the teacher, time available for preparation, learning stage, classroom space, seat arrangement, teacher’s desk, number of students in the class, etc. Active learning should interact with the curriculum and encourage knowledge as well as the achievement of various competences. Thus, the teacher’s role is to set activities that make students practise important skills. From my point of view, an efficient strategy would be the one that is highly relevant to the goals set by the instructor, is challenging and open. It is practice that makes theory successful. If a teacher meets students for the first time, the concept of active learning should be introduced step-by-step. Learners should be given clear instructions each time a new strategy is used. Allotting time for each activity, announcing the goals teacher aims for will facilitate the process. Initially, it is advisable to come with low- involving strategies like guided discussion, free writing, priority list, memory game. Soon students will get used to a new teaching style and become more willing to get involved. Then select and plan medium-impact strategies like Venn diagrammes, stick debates, revolving circle, role-playing. It is very important that teacher carefully selects goal-appropriate activities and considers the results expected from learners. Students will feel safe and confident, and start coping easier with high-involving activities like group discussions, forced debates, generating questions, cooperative projects, etc. Active learning strategies may be explored in various ways. For example, jigsaw, a technique designed according to the labour-division principle, can be applied as an efficient means to cover a big volume of content in a short period of time. On the other hand, it may challenge students’ thinking without worrying about a fixed amount of teaching material. Each student may be assigned a point of view in the discussion and his thoughts make the outcome that matters. III. Benefits and Disadvantages of Active Learning When I was a student, the academic system I experienced never helped me learn to speak a foreign language. We did things completely differently. When I try to compare my personal experience with how I teach English, I realize that my students are actually forced to communicate in English and do not see English language as a list of rules that has to be assimilated. When schooling engages them permanently in what they are learning, students have the opportunity to share ideas, learn how others think and react to problems. Using active learning strategies in classroom makes the lessons more captivating, increases students’ comprehension of real-life contents, creates a positive attitude towards learning. Even the most reserved individuals or the ones who slowly meet learning tasks, are unable to make great effort or encounter concentration problems, are determined to participate in building knowledge. Discovering new things opens multiple cognitive perspectives. Some of these perspectives will become basis for a new learning activity, creating an instructive circle that provides a flow of knowledge. Brought together, the results of these activities will lay the foundation for the development of various competences specified by the national curriculum and make the individual more flexible to daily life challenges. Benefits from active learning in a cooperative environment include:
  35. 35. 2014 META Conference Brochure - celebration of diversity; - acknowledgment of individual differences; - interpersonal development; - active involvement of students in learning; 1. more opportunities for personal feedback. Students learn to work with all types of people. During group interaction, they find many opportunities to generate questions, reflect upon their fellows’ reactions. Small groups also allow students to add their perspectives to an issue based on cultural differences. This exchange inevitably helps students to better understand other cultures and points of view. When questions are generated, different students will have a variety of responses. Any question is welcome. The discussion can reveal more perspectives and this way the content is more complete and comprehensive. Students learn to relate to their peers and other learners as they work together in pairs or groups. This can be especially helpful for students who have difficulty with social skills. They can benefit from structured interactions with others. Students are also apt to take more ownership of the material and analize issue connections. As there are more exchanges among students while sharing ideas, they receive more personal feedback. This feedback is often not possible in large-group instruction, in which one or two students exchange ideas and the rest of the class listens. In this case each one has the opportunity to contribute to classroom activities. A qualitative analysis of the active learning process reveals three major problems that teachers most often have to face: - some students refuse to work in groups; - some of the activities provide more noise than positive results; - sometimes conflicts may appear when students work in groups. Furthermore, it is not easy to plan an active learning activity to meet students’ needs. The teacher has to be creative, invent new strategies, develop plans and try them out, collect feedback, modify and try again. It’s a never-ending process. 3. Building Active Learning Classrooms
  36. 36. 2014 META Conference Brochure Beneficial active learning situations are not easy to set up. In many situations, particularly those in which people must work together on a problem, conflicts prevent learning. As a result, cooperative learning requires students to work well with others by solving these unavoidable conflicts. In order to prevent them, there should be established some rules, like: - describing wishes, expectations, feelings or emotions; - generating solutions for the problem if any, and searching for a compromise; - criticizing ideas, not people; - sharing responsibility for the outcome with your partner, group-mates; - listening to the others, taking turns while holding a discussion; - reporting each activity back to the class. Here are some tips that might be of great help: If somebody is impolite or difficult, we can offer them a separate seat and give them an individual task that won’t be as attractive as the one that groups are working with. To complete the task, the student will have to write a lot. In case something is not clear, he will be told that if he were a part of the group, his classmates would offer help. If we notice the situation is going to change, the student can be sent back to his place. A “sign of silence” can also be used, something the students are already familiar with, e.g. “yellow traffic light”. New instructions won’t be given unless students make silence. Students’ nice behavior should be rewarded. Teacher will need a box and small stones. Good behavior will be encouraged by throwing small stones in the box. When the box is full, students have the right to express a wish (e.g. a break of 2-3 minutes). “Signs for interruption” is another good tool to handle group energy. When a team is noisy, a “red sign” is put on their desk and they must keep silence for one minute. If they are pressed by the time and don’t manage to fulfill the task, they are to take responsibility for it. Sometimes I have to write the word “stop” on the board. If students are noisy, one letter is cleaned away. When all the letters are cleaned away, group activity comes to end and they receive individual tasks. When you give the instructions, allot time for each activity and teach students to respect time limit. Also tell them they are to report the activity back to class. It will make learners feel personally responsible for successful accomplishment of any group task. Conclusion The positive feedback I receive from my students validates the idea that active learning offer beneficial opportunities to make learning easy, pleasant and lasting, also get students engaged as active participants that cooperate and communicate efficiently. To accept, acknowledge the importance of a student-centered approach facilitates productive planning of EFL classes. Active learning methods can be successfully incorporated in classroom, they do help cover the content and meet modern standards of efficient education. To involve each student in classroom activities, interesting and appealing instructions will be selected. If the tasks are accessible to everyone, students will feel encouraged to participate. It is necessary that the teacher should provide moral support and realize positive feedback. While working together students improve their own learning skills and influence their teammates. Engaged in such kind of learning situations, students positively depend on each other, which
  37. 37. 2014 META Conference Brochure causes group devotion. When learning activities are frequently used, students that study alone turn to mates that study together. This way they improve their academic results, develop communication and interpersonal skills. They also learn to think critically and face daily life problems. References: 1. Beloff, F. J. (2009), Active Learning: Theories and Research. Available URL: http://www.lookstein.org/online_journal.php?id=260 [retrieved on March 28, 2014] 2. Bonwell, C. C. (1991), Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. Available URL:https://www.ydae.purdue.edu/lct/HBCU/documents/Active_Learning_Creating_Excitement_ in_the_Classroom.pdf [retrieved on March 30, 2014] 3. Brandes, D., Ginnis P. A Guide to Student-centered Learning. London: Nelson Thornes, 1996. - 275 p. 4. Brookhart, S. M. How to Assess Higher-order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2010. - 159 p. 5. Dale E. Audiovisual Methods in Teaching. New York, NY:Dryden Press, 1969. - 719 p. 6. Fogler, H.S., LeBlanc, S. E. Strategies for Creative Problem Solving. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1995. - 203 p. 7. Jones, Th. B., Meyers, Ch. Promoting Active Learning: Strategies for The College Classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1993. - 192 p. 8. Haack, K. (2008), UN Studies and the curriculum as active learning tool. Available URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528-3585.2008.00344.x/pdf [retrieved on March 30, 2014] 9. Nash, R. The Active Classroom Field Book: Success Stories From the Active Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2010. - 130 p. 10. Noone, D.J. Creative Problem Solving. New York, NY: Barron's, 1993. - 167 p. 11. Prince, M. J. (2004), Does active learning work? Available URL: http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Prince_AL.pdf [retrieved on March 28, 2014] 12. Silberman, M. L. Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1996. – 189 p. 13. Silberman, M. L. Teaching Actively: Eight Steps and 32 Strategies to Spark Learning in Any Classroom. Boston, MA: Pearson/A&B, 2006. - 148 p. 14. Smith, K. A., Sheppard, S. D., Johnson, D. W. et al. Pedagogies of Engagement: Classroom- Based Practices. Journal of Engineering Education. – January 2005. – p.87-101. Available URL: http://www.creighton.edu/fileadmin/user/AEA/docs/CASTLLawrieDocs.pdf [retrieved on March 30, 2014] 15. Steinaker, N.W., Leavitt, L.S. Interactive Learning: The Art and Science of Teaching. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt, 2009. - 290 p. 16. Yoder, J. D., Hochevar C. M. (2005), Encouraging Active Learning Can Improve Students’ Performance on Examinations. Available URL: http://www.vcu.edu/cte/workshops/workshop_list/references/Yoder_%26_Hochevar.pdf

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