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  1. 1. Organizational Behavior & Development Queens College School of Postgraduate Studies MBA Program Welcome to
  2. 2. Self Introduction Instructor: Abdulnasir Abdulmelike Mohammed Education: BA in Management, MBA Academic rank: Assistant Professor of Management Experience: more than 12 years in higher education, published more than 10 articles & presented at national & international conferences (for more search about me at researchgate)
  3. 3. Course Description Course code: MBA 625 Course title: Organizational Behavior & Development Course level: Advanced Course type: Major
  4. 4. Course Description The course is divided into four basic chapters. The first chapter discusses introductory concepts. The second chapter describes foundations of individual behavior - biographical characteristics, ability, and learning. It also discusses perception, attitudes, values and motivation.
  5. 5. Course Description The third chapter deals with foundations of group behavior with emphasis on formal and informal teams. Here students will also learn about Conflict and its dynamics. Finally, students will acquire knowledge about organization dynamics. Topics such as organizational structure, change & leadership.
  6. 6. Course Objectives At the end of this course you should be able to: • Explain the impact that individuals, groups and organization dynamics have on behavior within organizations • Explain the foundations of individual behavior in organizations • Explain the foundations of group behavior in organizations • Explain the foundations of organization behavior in organizations • Apply the knowledge of behavior within organizations to improve productivity and job satisfaction
  7. 7. Course Outline Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Individual behavior Chapter 3: Group behavior Chapter 4: Organization dynamics
  8. 8. Course Delivery • Lecture • Discussions
  9. 9. Course Assessment • Article review…………………………. 30% • Literature review …………………… 30% • Final exam …………………………….. 40% • Total ……………………………………… 100%
  10. 10. Recommended Readings Text book Robbins & Judge 2013, organizational behavior 15th edition.
  11. 11. Chapter 1 Introduction
  12. 12. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Demonstrate the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace. • Describe the manager’s functions, roles, and skills. • Define organizational behavior (OB). • Show the value of OB for systematic study. • Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. • Demonstrate why there are few absolutes in OB. • Identify the challenges and opportunities managers face in applying OB concepts.
  13. 13. Management • Management is the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently through the efforts of others to achieve organizational goal. • Until the late 1980s, business school curricula emphasized the technical aspects of management, focusing on economics, accounting, finance, and quantitative techniques. Course work in human behavior and people skills received relatively less attention. • Over the past three decades, however, business faculty have come to realize the role that understanding human behavior plays in determining a manager’s effectiveness, and required courses on people skills have been added to many curricula.
  14. 14. What Managers Do • They get things done through other people. • Management Activities: – Make decisions – Allocate resources – Direct activities of others to attain goals • Work in an organization – A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  15. 15. Four Management Functions • PLAN • A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. • ORGANIZE • Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
  16. 16. Four Management Functions • LEAD • A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. • CONTROL • Monitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation.
  17. 17. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles • Ten roles in three groups • Interpersonal • Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison • Informational • Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson • Decisional • Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, and Negotiator.
  18. 18. The Importance of Interpersonal Skills • Developing managers’ interpersonal skills help organizations attract and keep high-performing employees. • Organizational benefits of skilled managers include; –Lower turnover of quality employees –Higher quality applications for recruitment –Better financial performance
  19. 19. Katz’s Essential Management Skills • Technical Skills – The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise • Human Skills – The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups • Conceptual Skills – The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
  20. 20. Organizational Behavior A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
  21. 21. Intuition and Systematic Study • Intuition • Gut feelings • Individual observation • Common sense • Systematic Study • Looks at relationships • Scientific evidence • Predicts behaviors • The two are complementary means of predicting behavior.
  22. 22. An Outgrowth of Systematic Study… Evidence-Based Management (EBM) – Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. – Must think like scientists: • Pose a managerial question • Search for best available evidence • Apply relevant information to case
  23. 23. Managers Should Use All Three Approaches The trick is to know when to go with your gut. – Jack Welsh • Intuition is often based on inaccurate information • Systematic study can be time-consuming Use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience. That is the promise of OB.
  24. 24. Four Contributing Disciplines • Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. • Unit of Analysis: • Individual • Contributions to OB: • Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception • Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction • Individual decision making, performance appraisal, attitude measurement • Employee selection, work design, and work stress
  25. 25. Four Contributing Disciplines – Unit of Analysis: – Organizational System –Contributions to OB: • Group dynamics • Work teams • Communication • Power • Conflict • Intergroup behavior – Group • Formal organization theory • Organizational technology • Organizational change • Organizational culture • Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
  26. 26. Four Contributing Disciplines • Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. – Unit of Analysis: • Group – Contributions to OB: • Behavioral change • Attitude change • Communication • Group processes • Group decision making
  27. 27. Four Contributing Disciplines – Unit of Analysis: -- Organizational System –Contributions to OB: • Organizational culture • Organizational environment -- Group • Comparative values • Comparative attitudes • Cross-cultural analysis • Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
  28. 28. Challenges and Opportunities for OB • Responding to Globalization • Managing Workforce Diversity • Improving Quality and Productivity • Improving Customer Service • Improving People Skills • Stimulating Innovation and Change • Coping with “Temporariness” • Working in Networked Organizations • Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts • Creating a Positive Work Environment • Improving Ethical Behavior
  29. 29. Challenges and Opportunities for OB • Responding to Globalization – Increased foreign assignments – Working with people from different cultures – Coping with anti-capitalism backlash – Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor – Managing people during the war on terror • Managing Workforce Diversity – The people in organizations are becoming more heterogeneous demographically (disability, gender, age, national origin, race, and domestic partners) – Embracing diversity – Changing demographics – Management philosophy changes – Recognizing and responding to differences
  30. 30. Developing an OB Model • A model is an abstraction of reality: a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon. • Our OB model has three levels of analysis: • Each level is constructed on the prior level • Individual • Group • Organizational Systems
  31. 31. OB Model Source: Robbins & Judge, 2013 Inputs The individual Diversity Personality Values Group Structures Roles Team responsibilities Organization Structure Culture Processes Individual Emotions & moods Motivation Perception & decision making Group Communication Leadership Power & politics Conflict Organizational HRM Change practices Outcomes Individual Attitudes Task performance Citizenship behavior Group Group cohesion Group functioning Organizational Productivity Survival
  32. 32. Summary and Managerial Implications • Managers need to develop their interpersonal skills to be effective. • OB focuses on how to improve factors that make organizations more effective. • The best predictions of behavior are made from a combination of systematic study and intuition. • Situational variables moderate cause-and-effect relationships – which is why OB theories are contingent. • There are many OB challenges and opportunities for managers today.
  33. 33. End of Chapter 1
  34. 34. Chapter 2 Individual Behavior
  35. 35. Lesson 1 Ability and Learning
  36. 36. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Contrast the two types of ability. • Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB. • Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB. • Define learning and outline the principles of the three major theories of learning. • Describe how behavior can be shaped.
  37. 37. Ability Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.  Made up of two sets of factors:  Intellectual Abilities  The abilities needed to perform mental activities.  General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall intelligence.  Wonderlic Personnel Test: a quick measure of intelligence for recruitment screening.  Physical Abilities  The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  38. 38. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability • Number Aptitude • Verbal Comprehension • Perceptual Speed • Inductive Reasoning • Deductive Reasoning • Spatial Visualization • Memory
  39. 39. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Perceptual speed test In the first round of this test consider only diagrams with rectangular design. Next a panel of nine instruments is shown for a very limited time. Instruments 6, 7, 8 and 9 share rectangular design, which is crucial in this example. So, copy their readings from left to right starting from top row.
  40. 40. Nine Basic Physical Abilities
  41. 41. Biographical Characteristics Objective and easily obtained personal characteristics.  Age  Older workers bring experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. But older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology.  Gender  Few differences between men and women that affect job performance.  Race (the biological heritage used to identify oneself)  Contentious issue: differences exist, but could be more culture-based than race-based.
  42. 42. Other Biographical Characteristics • Tenure • People with job tenure (seniority at a job) are more productive, absent less frequently, have lower turnover, and are more satisfied. • Religion • employees and supervisors have different religion and when one perceives others religion as wrong negative consequences will take effect. Stress may also happen.. • Gender Identity • Relatively new issue – transgendered employees.
  43. 43. Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience • Learning components: • Involves Change • Is Relatively Permanent • Is Acquired Through Experience
  44. 44. Theories of Learning • Classical Conditioning • A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. • Operant Conditioning • A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. • Social-Learning Theory • People can learn through observation and direct experience.
  45. 45. Classical Conditioning  Pavlov’s Dog Drool  Key Concepts:  Unconditioned stimulus  A naturally occurring phenomenon.  Unconditioned response  The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus.  Conditioned stimulus  An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation.  Conditioned response  The response to the artificial stimulus. This is a passive form of learning. It is reflexive and not voluntary – not the best theory for OB learning.
  46. 46. Operant Conditioning  B. F. Skinner’s concept of Behaviorism: behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.  Key Concepts:  Conditioned behavior: voluntary behavior that is learned, not reflexive.  Reinforcement: the consequences of behavior which can increase or decrease the likelihood of behavior repetition.  Pleasing consequences increase likelihood of repetition.  Rewards are most effective immediately after performance.  Unrewarded/punished behavior is unlikely to be repeated.
  47. 47. Social-Learning Theory  Based on the idea that people can also learn indirectly: by observation, reading, or just hearing about someone else’s – a model’s – experiences.  Key Concepts:  Attentional processes  Must recognize and pay attention to critical features to learn.  Retention processes  Model’s actions must be remembered to be learned.  Motor reproduction processes  Watching the model’s behavior must be converted to doing.  Reinforcement processes  Positive incentives motivate learners.
  48. 48. Behavior Modification (OB Mod) The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. • Follows the Five-Step Problem-Solving Model: • Identify critical behaviors • Develop baseline data • Identify behavioral consequences • Develop and apply intervention • Evaluate performance improvement
  49. 49. Shaping: A Managerial Tool Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.  Four Methods of Shaping Behavior:  Positive reinforcement  Providing a reward for a desired behavior (learning)  Negative reinforcement  Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (learning)  Punishment  Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (“unlearning”)  Extinction  Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation (“unlearning”)  Removing of all reinforcement that might be associated with a behavior.
  50. 50. Summary and Managerial Implications • Three Individual Variables: • Ability • Directly influences employee’s level of performance • Managers need to focus on ability in selection, promotion, and transfer. • Fine-tune job to fit incumbent’s abilities. • Biographical Characteristics • Should not be used in management decisions: possible source of bias. • Learning • Observable change in behavior = learning. • Reinforcement works better than punishment.
  51. 51. Lesson 2 Attitude
  52. 52. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Contrast the three components of an attitude. • Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. • Compare and contrast the major job attitudes. • Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured. • Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction. • Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction
  53. 53. Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Three components of an attitude: • Affective – The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude • Cognitive – The opinion or belief segment of an attitude • Behavioral – An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
  54. 54. Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? • People watch television programs they like, or that employees try to avoid assignments they find distasteful (behavior follows attitude) • A friend of yours has consistently argued that the quality of cars assembled in Ethiopia isn’t up to that of imports and that he’d never own anything but a Japanese car. But his dad gives him a Lifan 630 automobile, and suddenly he says Ethiopian cars aren’t so bad.
  55. 55. Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? • Leon Festinger – No, the reverse is sometimes true! • Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes – Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency – Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization – Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: • Importance of elements • Degree of individual influence • Rewards involved in dissonance
  56. 56. What Are the Major Job Attitudes? • Job Satisfaction • A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. • Job Involvement • Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth. • Psychological Empowerment • Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy.
  57. 57. Another Major Job Attitude • Organizational Commitment • Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. • Three dimensions: • Affective – emotional attachment to organization • Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying • Normative – moral or ethical obligations • Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees. • Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than to a given employer.
  58. 58. And Yet More Major Job Attitudes… • Perceived Organizational Support (POS) • Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. • Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. • High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. • Employee Engagement • The degree of involvement, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. • Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.
  59. 59. Job Satisfaction •One of the primary job attitudes measured. –Broad term involving a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements. •How to measure? –Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best –Summation score (many questions/one average) - OK
  60. 60. Causes of Job Satisfaction • Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. – After about $40,000 a year (in the U. S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. – Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction. • Personality can influence job satisfaction. – Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. – Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied with their jobs.
  61. 61. Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction • Exit – Behavior directed toward leaving the organization • Voice – Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions • Neglect – Allowing conditions to worsen • Loyalty – Passively waiting for conditions to improve
  62. 62. Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction
  63. 63. Outcomes of Job Satisfaction • Job Performance – Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! – The causality may run both ways. • Organizational Citizenship Behaviors – Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. • Customer Satisfaction – Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. • Absenteeism – Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.
  64. 64. More Outcomes of Job Satisfaction • Turnover • Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. • Many moderating variables in this relationship. • Economic environment and tenure. • Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. • Workplace Deviance • Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction.
  65. 65. Summary and Managerial Implications • Managers should watch employee attitudes • They give warnings of potential problems • They influence behavior • Managers should try to increase job satisfaction and generate positive job attitudes • Reduces costs by lowering turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, and theft, and increasing OCB • Focus on the intrinsic parts of the job: make work challenging and interesting • Pay is not enough
  66. 66. Lesson 3 Personality and Values
  67. 67. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson you should be able to:  Define personality, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality.  Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and assess its strengths and weaknesses.  Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model.  Demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work.  Identify other personality traits relevant to OB.  Define values, demonstrate their importance, and contrast terminal and instrumental values.  Compare generational differences in values, and identify the dominant values in today’s workforce.  Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.
  68. 68. What is Personality? The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. - Gordon Allport • The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits •Measuring Personality • Helpful in hiring decisions • Most common method: self-reporting surveys • Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality – often better predictors
  69. 69. Personality Determinants • Heredity • Factors determined at conception: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and bio-rhythms • This “Heredity Approach” argues that genes are the source of personality • Twin studies: raised apart but very similar personalities support the heredity approach. • Parents don’t add much to personality development • There is some personality change over long time periods (eg. Dependability increase when young adults take on roles)
  70. 70. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior • The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important the trait. • Two dominant frameworks used to describe personality: • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) • Big Five Model
  71. 71. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • Most widely-used instrument in the world. • Participants are classified on four axes to determine one of 16 possible personality types, such as ENTJ. • Extroverted (E) vs. Introverted (I) • Sensing (S) vs. Intuitive (N) • Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) • Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)
  72. 72. The Types and Their Uses  Each of the sixteen possible combinations has a name, for instance:  Visionaries (INTJ) – are original, stubborn and driven.  Organizers (ESTJ) – realistic, logical, analytical and businesslike.  Conceptualizer (ENTP) – entrepreneurial, innovative, individualistic and resourceful.  Research results on validity mixed.  MBTI® is a good tool for self-awareness and counseling.  Should not be used as a selection test for job candidates.
  73. 73. The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions • Extroversion • Sociable, gregarious, and assertive • Agreeableness • Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting • Conscientiousness • Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized • Emotional Stability • Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative) • Openness to Experience • Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
  74. 74. How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior?  Research has shown this to be a better framework.  Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to higher job performance:  Highly conscientious people develop more job knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better performance.  Other Big Five Traits also have implications for work.  Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction.  Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills.  Open people are more creative and can be good leaders.  Agreeable people are good in social settings.
  75. 75. Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB • Core Self-Evaluation • The degree to which people like or dislike themselves • Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job performance • Machiavellianism • A pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means • High Machs are manipulative, win more often, and persuade more than they are persuaded. Flourish when: • Have direct interaction • Work with minimal rules and regulations • Emotions distract others • Narcissism • An arrogant, entitled, self-important person who needs excessive admiration • Less effective in their jobs
  76. 76. More Relevant Personality Traits • Self-Monitoring • The ability to adjust behavior to meet external, situational factors. • High monitors conform more and are more likely to become leaders. • Risk Taking • The willingness to take chances. • May be best to align propensities with job requirements. • Risk takers make faster decisions with less information.
  77. 77. Even More Relevant Personality Traits • Type A Personality • Aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less time • Impatient: always moving, walking, and eating rapidly • Strive to think or do two or more things at once • Cannot cope with leisure time • Obsessed with achievement numbers • Type B people are the complete opposite • Proactive Personality • Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres to completion • Creates positive change in the environment
  78. 78. Values Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable – “How to” live life properly. Importance of values • Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors • Influence our perception of the world around us • Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong” • Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others
  79. 79. Classifying Values – Rokeach Value Survey • Terminal Values • Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime • Instrumental Values • Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values • People in same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values. • But values vary between groups. • Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate and may create conflict.
  80. 80. Terminal and instrumental Values in Rokeach value Survey
  81. 81. Generational Values Cohort Entered Workforce Approximate Current Age Dominant Work Values Veterans 1950-1964 65+ Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Boomers 1965-1985 40-60s Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Xers 1985-2000 20-40s Work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Nexters 2000-Present Under 30 Confident, financial success, self- reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships
  82. 82. Linking Personality and Values to the Workplace Managers are less interested in someone’s ability to do a specific job than in that person’s flexibility. Person-Job Fit:  John Holland’s Personality-Job Fit Theory  Six personality types  Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI)  Key Points of the Model:  There appear to be intrinsic differences in personality between people.  There are different types of jobs.  People in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied and have lower turnover.
  83. 83. Holland’s Personality Types • Six types: • Realistic • Investigative • Artistic • Social • Enterprising • Conventional • Need to match personality type with occupation
  84. 84. Still Linking Personality to the Workplace In addition to matching the individual’s personality to the job, managers are also concerned with: •Person-Organization Fit: • The employee’s personality must fit with the organizational culture. • People are attracted to organizations that match their values. • Those who match are most likely to be selected. • Mismatches will result in turnover. • Can use the Big Five personality types to match to the organizational culture.
  85. 85. Hofstede’s Framework: Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. • Low distance • Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth • High distance • Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
  86. 86. Hofstede’s Framework: Individualism • Individualism • The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups • Collectivism • A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
  87. 87. Hofstede’s Framework: Masculinity • Masculinity • The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued • Femininity • The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women
  88. 88. Hofstede’s Framework: Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them • High Uncertainty Avoidance: • Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. • Low Uncertainty Avoidance: • Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces them.
  89. 89. Hofstede’s Framework: Time Orientation • Long-term Orientation • A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence • Short-term Orientation • A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here-and- now
  90. 90. Hofstede’s Framework: An Assessment  There are regional differences within countries  The original data is old and based on only one company  Hofstede had to make many judgment calls while doing the research  Some results don’t match what is believed to be true about given countries  Despite these problems it remains a very popular framework
  91. 91. GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures  Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program.  Nine dimensions of national culture  Similar to Hofstede’s framework with these additional dimensions:  Humane Orientation: how much society rewards people for being altruistic, generous, and kind.  Performance Orientation: how much society encourages and rewards performance improvement and excellence.
  92. 92. Summary and Managerial Implications  Personality  Screen for the Big Five trait of conscientiousness  Take into account the situational factors as well  MBTI® can help with training and development  Values  Often explain attitudes, behaviors and perceptions  Higher performance and satisfaction achieved when the individual’s values match those of the organization
  93. 93. Lesson 4 Perception and Individual Decision Making
  94. 94. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson you should be able to:  Define perception.  Describe the individual decision making process.
  95. 95. What is Perception? • A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. • People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. • The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.
  96. 96. Factors affecting Perception • Target/perceived: Characteristics of the target affect what we perceive. • Eg. Loud people are more likely to be noticed in a group than quiet ones. So, too, are extremely attractive or unattractive individuals. • The perceiver: your interpretation is heavily influenced by your personal characteristics—your attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. • For instance, if you expect police officers to be authoritative or young people to be lazy, you may perceive them as such, regardless of their actual traits. • The context: The time at which we see an object or event can influence our attention, as can location, light, heat, or any number of situational factors. • Eg. At a night time, you may not notice a young guest “dressed to the well.” Yet that same person so attired for your Monday morning management class would certainly catch your attention (and that of the rest of the class).
  97. 97. Attribution Theory: Judging Others • Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior. • When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. • Internal causes are under that person’s control. • External causes are not – person forced to act in that way. • Causation judged through: • Distinctiveness • Shows different behaviors in different situations (Is the employee who arrives late today also one who regularly “blows off” commitments?) • Consensus • If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way • Consistency • Responds in the same way over time (Coming in 10 minutes late for work once in a month…)
  98. 98. Attribution Theory: Judging Others
  99. 99. Errors and Biases in Attributions • Fundamental Attribution Error • The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others • We blame people first, not the situation • Self-Serving Bias • The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors • It is “our” success but “their” failure
  100. 100. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others  Selective Perception  People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.  Halo Effect  Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic  Contrast Effects  Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
  101. 101. Another Shortcut: Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – a prevalent and often useful, if not always accurate, generalization •Profiling • A form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single, often racial, trait.
  102. 102. Perceptions and Individual Decision Making  Problem  A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state  Decisions  Choices made from among alternatives developed from data  Perception Linkage:  All elements of problem identification and the decision making process are influenced by perception.  Problems must be recognized  Data must be selected and evaluated
  103. 103. Decision-Making Models in Organizations • Rational Decision-Making • The “perfect world” model: assumes complete information, all options known, and maximum payoff • Six-step decision-making process 1. Define the problem. 2. Identify the decision criteria. 3. Allocate weights to the criteria. 4. Develop the alternatives. 5. Evaluate the alternatives. 6. Select the best alternative.
  104. 104. Decision-Making Models in Organizations • Bounded Reality • The “real world” model: seeks satisfactory and sufficient solutions from limited data and alternatives • Intuition • A non-conscious process created from distilled experience that results in quick decisions • Relies on holistic associations • Affectively charged – engaging the emotions
  105. 105. Common Biases and Errors in Decision- Making  Overconfidence Bias  Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions – especially when outside of own expertise  Anchoring Bias  Using early, first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgments  Confirmation Bias  Selecting and using only facts that support our decision  Availability Bias  Emphasizing information that is most readily at hand  Recent  Vivid
  106. 106. More Common Decision-Making Errors  Escalation of Commitment  Increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that it is wrong – especially if responsible for the decision!  Randomness Error  Creating meaning out of random events - superstitions  Winner’s Curse  Highest bidder pays too much due to value overestimation  Likelihood increases with the number of people in auction  Hindsight Bias  After an outcome is already known, believing it could have been accurately predicted beforehand
  107. 107. Individual Differences in Decision-Making  Personality  Conscientiousness may effect escalation of commitment  Achievement strivers are likely to increase commitment  Dutiful people are less likely to have this bias  Self-Esteem  High self-esteem people are susceptible to self-serving bias  Gender  Women analyze decisions more than men – rumination  Women are twice as likely to develop depression  Differences develop early (eg. Girls at 11 are more ruminating than boys)
  108. 108. Summary and Managerial Implications  Perception:  People act based on how they view their world  What exists is not as important as what is believed  Managers must also manage perception  Individual Decision Making  Most use bounded rationality: they satisfice  Combine traditional methods with intuition and creativity for better decisions  Analyze the situation and adjust to culture and organizational reward criteria  Be aware of, and minimize, biases
  109. 109. Lesson 5 Motivation Concepts
  110. 110. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson you should be able to:  Describe the three elements of motivation.  Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today.  Apply the predictions of Cognitive Evaluation theory to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.  Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and Management by Objectives.  Contrast reinforcement theory and goal-setting theory.  Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory.  Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees.  Compare contemporary theories of motivation.  Explain to what degree motivation theories are culture-bound.
  111. 111. Defining Motivation The result of the interaction between the individual and the situation. •The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal. •Three key elements: • Intensity – how hard a person tries. • Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals. • Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort.
  112. 112. Early Theories of Motivation These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers. •Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Alderfer’s ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth) •McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y •Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory •McClelland’s Theory of Needs
  113. 113. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs There is a hierarchy of five needs; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. •Levels: • Self-Actualization • Esteem • Social Higher order • Safety Lower Order • Physiological •Assumptions • Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. • Must move in hierarchical order.
  114. 114. Alderfer’s ERG Theory A reworking of Maslow to fit empirical research •Three groups of core needs: • Existence (Maslow: physiological and safety) • Relatedness (Maslow: social and status) • Growth (Maslow: esteem and self-actualization) •Removed the hierarchical assumption • Can be motivated by all three at once •Popular, but not accurate, theory
  115. 115. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (positive).  Managers used a set of assumptions based on their view  The assumptions molded their behavior toward employees  Theory X  Workers have little ambition  Dislike work  Avoid responsibility  Theory Y  Workers are self-directed  Enjoy work  Accept responsibility  No empirical evidence to support this theory
  116. 116. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory • Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs • Hygiene Factors - Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction • Work Conditions • Salary • Company Policies • Motivators - Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction • Achievement • Responsibility • Growth
  117. 117. Criticisms of Two-Factor Theory Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, then satisfaction can occur. •Herzberg is limited by his procedure • Participants had self-serving bias •Reliability of raters questioned • Bias or errors of observation •No overall measure of satisfaction was used •Herzberg assumed, but didn’t research, a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity
  118. 118. McClelland’s Three Needs Theory  Need for Achievement (nAch)  The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed  Need for Power (nPow)  The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise  Need for Affiliation (nAff)  The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships  People have varying levels of each of the three needs  Hard to measure
  119. 119. McClelland’s Three Needs Theory  Target A sits almost within arm’s reach. If you hit it, you get $2.  Target B is a bit farther out, but about 80 percent of the people who try can hit it. It pays $4.  Target C pays $8, and about half the people who try can hit it.  Very few people can hit Target D, but the payoff is $16 for those who do.  Finally, Target E pays $32, but it’s almost impossible to achieve. Which would you try for?
  120. 120. Performance Predictions for High nAch  People with a high need for achievement are likely to:  Prefer to undertake activities with a 50/50 chance of success – avoiding very low or high risk situations  Be motivated in jobs that offer high degree of personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risk  Don’t necessarily make good managers – too personal a focus  Most good general managers do NOT have a high nAch  Need high level of nPow and low nAff for managerial success  Good research support but it is not a very practical theory
  121. 121. Contemporary Theories of Motivation • Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Goal-Setting Theory • Management By Objectives (MBO) • Self-Efficacy Theory • Also known as Social Cognitive Theory or Social Learning Theory • Reinforcement Theory • Equity Theory • Expectancy Theory
  122. 122. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation •Major Implications for Work Rewards • Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not independent • Extrinsic rewards can undermine motivation if they are seen as coercive. They can increase motivation if they provide information about competence and relatedness. • Pay should be non-contingent on performance • Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation, tangible rewards reduce it •Self-concordance • When the personal reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with personal interests and core values (intrinsic motivation), people are happier and more successful.
  123. 123. Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory • Basic Premise: • That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance. • Difficult Goals: • Focus and direct attention • Energize the person to work harder • Difficulty increases persistence • Force people to be more effective and efficient • Relationship between goals and performance depends on: • Goal commitment (the more public the better!) • Task characteristics (simple, well-learned) • Culture
  124. 124. Implementation: Management By Objectives • MBO is a systematic way to utilize goal-setting. • Goals must be: • Tangible • Verifiable • Measurable • Corporate goals are broken down into smaller, more specific goals at each level of organization. • Four common ingredients to MBO programs: • Goal Specificity • Participative decision making • Explicit time period • Performance feedback
  125. 125. Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory • An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task • Higher efficacy is related to: • Greater confidence • Greater persistence in the face of difficulties • Better response to negative feedback (work harder) • Self-Efficacy complements Goal-Setting Theory
  126. 126. Increasing Self-Efficacy • Albert Bandura, proposes four ways self-efficacy can be increased: 1. Enactive mastery • Most important source of efficacy • Gaining relevant experience with task or job • “Practice makes Perfect” 2. Vicarious modeling • Increasing confidence by watching others perform the task • Most effective when observer sees the model to be similar to him- or herself 3. Verbal persuasion • Motivation through verbal conviction • Pygmalion and Galatea effects - self-fulfilling prophecies 4. Arousal • Getting “psyched up” – emotionally aroused – to complete task • Can hurt performance if emotion is not a component of the task
  127. 127. Reinforcement Theory  Similar to Goal-Setting Theory, but focused on a behavioral approach rather than a cognitive one  Behavior is environmentally caused  Behavior is controlled by its consequences – reinforcers  Not a motivational theory but a means of analysis of behavior  Reinforcement strongly influences behavior but not likely to be the sole cause
  128. 128. Adams’ Equity Theory • Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others • When ratios are equal: state of equity exists – no tension as the situation is considered fair • When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness • Underrewarded states cause anger • Overrewarded states cause guilt • Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity
  129. 129. Equity Theory’s “Relevant Others” • Can be four different situations: • Self-Inside • The person’s experience in a different job in the same organization • Self-Outside • The person’s experience in a different job in a different organization • Other-Inside • Another individual or group within the organization • Other-Outside • Another individual or group outside of the organization
  130. 130. Reactions to Inequity  Employee Behaviors to Create Equity  Change inputs (slack off)  Change outcomes (increase output)  Distort/change perceptions of self  Distort/change perceptions of others  Choose a different referent person  Leave the field (quit the job)  Propositions relating to inequitable pay:  Paid by time:  Overrewarded employees produce more  Underrewarded employees produce less with low quality  Paid by quality:  Overrewarded employees give higher quality  Underrewarded employees make more of low quality
  131. 131. Justice and Equity Theory • Organizational Justice • Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace • Made up of: • Distributive Justice • Fairness of outcome • Procedural Justice • Fairness of outcome process • Interactional Justice • Being treated with dignity and respect
  132. 132. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. •Important linkages: •Expectancy of performance success •Instrumentality of success in getting reward •Valuation of the reward in employee’s eyes
  133. 133. Summary and Managerial Implications  Need Theories (Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland, Herzberg)  Well known, but not very good predictors of behavior  Goal-Setting Theory  While limited in scope, good predictor  Reinforcement Theory  Powerful predictor in many work areas  Equity Theory  Best known for research in organizational justice  Expectancy Theory  Good predictor of performance variables but shares many of the assumptions as rational decision making
  134. 134. Lesson 6 Emotion and Mood
  135. 135. Lesson Objectives At the end of this lesson you should be able to:  Differentiate emotions from moods, and list the basic emotions and moods.  Discuss whether emotions are rational and what functions they serve.  Identify the sources of emotions and moods.  Describe Affective Events Theory and identify its applications.  Contrast the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence.  Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.  Contrast the experience, interpretation, and expression of emotions across cultures.
  136. 136. Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB?  The “Myth of Rationality”  Emotions were seen as irrational  Managers worked to make emotion-free environments  View of Emotionality  Emotions were believed to be disruptive  Emotions interfered with productivity  Only negative emotions were observed  Now we know emotions can’t be separated from the workplace
  137. 137. What are Emotions and Moods?  Affect  A broad range of feelings that people experience  Made up of:  Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something  Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus
  138. 138. The Basic Emotions  While not universally accepted, there appear to be six basic emotions: 1. Anger 2. Fear 3. Sadness 4. Happiness 5. Disgust 6. Surprise  All other emotions are subsumed under these six  May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion  Happiness – surprise – fear – sadness – anger - disgust
  139. 139. Do Emotions Make Us Irrational? Consider Phineas Gage, a railroad worker in Vermont. One September day in 1848, while Gage was setting an explosive charge at work, a 3-foot 7-inch iron bar flew into his lower-left jaw and out through the top of his skull. Remarkably, Gage survived his injury. He was still able to read and speak, and he performed well above average on cognitive ability tests. However, it became clear he had lost his ability to experience emotion; he was emotionless at even the saddest misfortunes or the happiest occasions. Gage’s inability to express emotion eventually took away his ability to reason. He started making irrational choices about his life, often behaving erratically and against his self-interests. Despite being an intelligent man whose intellectual abilities were unharmed by the accident, Gage drifted from job to job, eventually taking up with a circus. In commenting on Gage’s condition, one expert noted, “Reason may not be as pure as most of us think it is or wish it were . . . emotions and feelings may not be intruders in the stronghold of reason at all: they may be enmeshed in its networks, for worse and for better.” (Source: Robbins & Judge, 2013)
  140. 140. What is the Function of Emotion?  Do Emotions Make Us Irrational?  Expressing emotions publicly may be damaging to social status  Emotions are critical to rational decision-making  Emotions help us understand the world around us  What Functions Do Emotions Serve?  Darwin argued they help in survival problem-solving  Evolutionary psychology: people must experience emotions as there is a purpose behind them  Not all researchers agree with this assessment
  141. 141. Sources of Emotion and Mood  Personality  There is a trait component – affect intensity  Day and Time of the Week  There is a common pattern for all of us:  Happier in the midpoint of the daily awake period  Happier toward the end of the week  Weather  Illusory correlation – no effect  Stress  Even low levels of constant stress can worsen moods  Social Activities  Physical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods
  142. 142. More Sources of Emotion and Mood • Sleep • Poor sleep quality increases negative affect • Exercise • Does somewhat improve mood, especially for depressed people • Age • Older folks experience fewer negative emotions • Gender • Women tend to be more emotionally expressive, feel emotions more intensely, have longer lasting moods, and express emotions more frequently than do men • Due more to socialization than to biology
  143. 143. Emotional Labor An employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work Emotional Dissonance:  Employees have to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another  Can be very damaging and lead to burnout Types of Emotions:  Felt: the individual’s actual emotions  Displayed: required or appropriate emotions  Surface Acting: displaying appropriately but not feeling those emotions internally  Deep Acting: changing internal feelings to match display rules - very stressful
  144. 144. Emotional Intelligence (EI)  A person’s ability to:  Be self-aware  Recognizing own emotions when experienced  Detect emotions in others  Manage emotional signs and information  EI plays an important role in job performance  EI is controversial and not wholly accepted  Case for EI:  Intuitive appeal; predicts criteria that matter; is biologically-based  Case against EI:  Too vague a concept; can’t be measured; its validity is suspect
  145. 145. Summary and Managerial Implications • Moods are more general than emotions and less contextual • Emotions and moods impact all areas of OB • Managers cannot and should not attempt to completely control the emotions of their employees • Managers must not ignore the emotions of their co-workers and employees • Behavior predictions will be less accurate if emotions are not taken into account
  146. 146. End of Chapter 2
  147. 147. Chapter 3 Group Behavior
  148. 148. Lesson 1 Groups and Teams
  149. 149. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Define groups and differentiate between different types of groups. • Identify the five stages of group development. • Show how role requirements change in different situations. • Demonstrate how norms and status exert influence on an individual’s behavior. • Show how group size affects group performance. • Contrast the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups. • Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making. • Compare the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal, and electronic meeting groups. • Evaluate evidence for cultural differences in group status and social loafing, and the effects of diversity in groups. • Discuss about teams in organizations
  150. 150. Defining and Classifying Groups • Group: • Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives • Formal Group: • Defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks • Informal Group: • Alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined • Appear naturally in response to the need for social contact • Deeply affect behavior and performance
  151. 151. Sub-classifications of Groups Formal Groups • Command Group • A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager • Task Group • Those working together to complete a job or task in an organization but not limited by hierarchical boundaries Informal Groups • Interest Group • Members work together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned • Friendship Group • Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics
  152. 152. Why People Join Groups • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement
  153. 153. Five Stages of Group Development Model 1. Forming • Members feel much uncertainty 2. Storming • Lots of conflict between members of the group 3. Norming Stage • Members have developed close relationships and cohesiveness 4. Performing Stage • The group is finally fully functional 5. Adjourning Stage • In temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance
  154. 154. Critique of the Five-Stage Model • Assumption: the group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages • Not always true – group behavior is more complex • High levels of conflict may be conducive to high performance • The process is not always linear • Several stages may occur simultaneously • Groups may regress • Ignores the organizational context
  155. 155. An Alternative Model for Group Formation Temporary groups with deadlines don’t follow the five-stage model •Punctuated-Equilibrium Model • Temporary groups under deadlines go through transitions between inertia and activity—at the halfway point, they experience an increase in productivity. • Sequence of Actions 1. Setting group direction 2. First phase of inertia 3. Halfway point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity
  156. 156. Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
  157. 157. Group Properties Group Performance: • Roles • Norms • Status • Size • Cohesiveness
  158. 158. Group Property 1: Roles • Role • A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit • Role Identity • Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role • Role Perception • An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation – received by external stimuli • Role Expectations • How others believe a person should act in a given situation • Psychological Contract: an unwritten agreement that sets out mutual expectations of management and employees • Role Conflict • A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations
  159. 159. Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment (Stanford University) • Faked a prison using student volunteers • Randomly assigned to guard and prisoner roles • Within six days the experiment was halted due to concerns: • Guards had dehumanized the prisoners • Prisoners were subservient • Fell into the roles as they understood them • No real resistance felt • Conclusion: the Stanford Prison Experiment revealed how people will readily conform to the social roles they are expected to play, especially if the roles are as strongly stereotyped as those of the prison guards.
  160. 160. Group Property 2: Norms • Norms • Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members • Classes of Norms • Performance norms - level of acceptable work • Appearance norms - what to wear • Social arrangement norms - friendships and the like • Allocation of resources norms - distribution and assignments of jobs and material
  161. 161. Group Norms and the Hawthorne Studies A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932 • Research Conclusions • Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. • Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. • Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. • Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
  162. 162. Norms and Behavior • Conformity • Gaining acceptance by adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group • Reference Groups • Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
  163. 163. Defying Norms: Deviant Workplace Behavior • Deviant Workplace Behavior • Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility • Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization • Typology: • Production – working speed • Property – damage and stealing • Political – favoritism and gossip • Personal Aggression – sexual harassment
  164. 164. Group Influence on Deviant Behavior • Group norms can influence the presence of deviant behavior • Simply belonging to a group increases the likelihood of deviance • Being in a group allows individuals to hide – creates a false sense of confidence that they won’t be caught
  165. 165. Group Property 3: Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others – it differentiates group members • Important factor in understanding behavior • Significant motivator • Status Characteristics Theory • Status derived from one of three sources: • Power a person has over others • Ability to contribute to group goals • Personal characteristics
  166. 166. Status Effects • On Norms and Conformity • High-status members are less restrained by norms and pressure to conform • Some level of deviance is allowed to high-status members so long as it doesn’t affect group goal achievement • On Group Interaction • High-status members are more assertive • Large status differences limit diversity of ideas and creativity
  167. 167. Group Property 4: Size • Group size affects behavior • Size: • Twelve or more members is a “large” group • Seven or fewer is a “small” group • Best use of a group: Attribute Small Large Speed X Individual Performance X Problem Solving X Diverse Input X Fact-Finding Goals X Overall Performance X
  168. 168. Issues with Group Size • Social Loafing • The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually • Ringelmann’s Rope Pull: greater levels of productivity but with diminishing returns as group size increases • Caused by either equity concerns or a diffusion of responsibility (free riders) • Managerial Implications • Build in individual accountability • Prevent social loafing by: • Set group goals • Increase intergroup competition • Use peer evaluation • Distribute group rewards based on individual effort
  169. 169. Group Property 5: Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group •Managerial Implication • To increase cohesiveness: • Make the group smaller. • Encourage agreement with group goals. • Increase time members spend together. • Increase group status and admission difficulty. • Stimulate competition with other groups. • Give rewards to the group, not to individuals. • Physically isolate the group.
  170. 170. Group Decision Making Phenomena • Groupthink • Situations where group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views • Hinders performance • Groupshift • When discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. This causes a shift to more conservative or more risky behavior.
  171. 171. Groupthink • Symptoms: • Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. • Members apply direct pressure on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority. • Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings. • There appears to be an illusion of unanimity. • Minimize Groupthink By: • Reduce the size of the group to 10 or less • Encourage group leaders to be impartial • Appoint a “devil’s advocate” • Use exercises on diversity
  172. 172. Evaluating Group Effectiveness Effectiveness Criteria Type of Group Interacting Brain- storming Nominal Electronic Number and quality of ideas Low Moderate High High Social Pressure High Low Moderate Low Money Costs Low Low Low High Speed Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Task Orientation Low High High High Potential for Interpersonal Conflict High Low Moderate Moderate Commitment to Solution High N/A Moderate Moderate Development of Group Cohesiveness High High Moderate Low
  173. 173. Groups and Teams • A group interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility (no joint effort required) • Work teams generate positive synergy through coordinated effort. The individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs
  174. 174. Types of Teams • Problem-solving Teams • Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment • Self-Managed Work Teams • Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors
  175. 175. Types of Teams • Cross-Functional Teams • Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task • Task forces • Committees
  176. 176. Types of Teams  Virtual Teams  Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal Characteristics  Limited socializing  The ability to overcome time and space constraints To be effective, needs:  Trust among members  Close monitoring  To be publicized
  177. 177. Summary and Managerial Implications • Performance • Typically, clear role perception, appropriate norms, low status differences, and smaller, more cohesive groups lead to higher performance • Satisfaction • Increases with: • High congruence between boss’s and employees’ perceptions about the job • Not being forced to communicate with lower-status employees • Smaller group size
  178. 178. Lesson 2 Communication
  179. 179. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Identify the main functions of communication. • Describe the communication process and distinguish between formal and informal communication. • Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication with examples. • Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication. • Compare and contrast formal communication networks and the grapevine. • Analyze the advantages and challenges of electronic communication. • Show how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel. • Identify common barriers to effective communication. • Show how to overcome the potential problems in cross-cultural communication.
  180. 180. Communication & its Functions • Communication • The transference and the understanding of meaning • Communication Functions: • Control member behavior • Foster motivation for what is to be done • Provide a release for emotional expression • Provide information needed to make decisions
  181. 181. The Communication Process • The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning  The Sender – initiates message  Encoding – translating thought to message  The Message – what is communicated  The Channel – the medium the message travels through  Decoding – the receiver’s action in making sense of the message  The Receiver – person who gets the message  Noise – things that interfere with the message  Feedback – a return message regarding the initial communication
  182. 182. Communication Direction • Communication can flow vertically or horizontally. • Vertical flow consists upward & downward whereas horizontal flow involves lateral flow • Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. • Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. • When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication.
  183. 183. Interpersonal Communication  Oral Communication  Advantages: Speed and feedback  Disadvantage: Distortion of the message  Written Communication  Advantages: Tangible and verifiable  Disadvantages: Time-consuming and lacks feedback  Nonverbal Communication  Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings  Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message
  184. 184. Nonverbal Communication • Body Movement • Unconscious motions that provide meaning • Shows extent of interest in another and relative perceived status differences • Intonations and Voice Emphasis • The way something is said can change meaning • Facial Expressions • Show emotion • Physical Distance between Sender and Receiver • Depends on cultural norms • Can express interest or status Exhibit 11-2
  185. 185. Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks • Chain: • Rigidly follows the chain of command • Wheel: • Relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all communication • Team with a strong leader • All Channel: • All group members communicate actively with each other • Self-managed teams
  186. 186. Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks
  187. 187. Small Group Network Effectiveness • Small group effectiveness depends on the desired outcome variable TYPES OF NETWORKS Criteria Chain Wheel All Channel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a leader Moderate High None Member satisfaction Moderate Low High
  188. 188. The Grapevine • Three Main Grapevine Characteristics: 1. Informal, not controlled by management 2. Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications 3. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it • Results from: • Desire for information about important situations • Ambiguous conditions • Conditions that cause anxiety • Insightful to managers • Serves employee’s social needs
  189. 189. Barriers to Effective Communication  Filtering  A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver  Selective Perception  People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes  Information Overload  A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity  Emotions  How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted.
  190. 190. More Barriers to Effective Communication • Language • Words have different meanings to different people. • Communication Apprehension • Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both
  191. 191. Summary and Managerial Implications  The less employees are uncertain, the greater their satisfaction; good communication reduces uncertainty!  Communication is improved by:  Choosing the correct channel  Being a good listener  Using feedback  Potential for misunderstanding in electronic communication is higher than for traditional modes  There are many barriers to communication that must be overcome
  192. 192. Lesson 3 Leadership
  193. 193. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Define leadership and contrast leadership and management. • Summarize the conclusions of trait theories. • Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories. • Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support. • Contrast the interactive theories (path-goal and leader- member exchange). • Identify the situational variables in the leader-participation model. • Show how U.S. managers might need to adjust their leadership approaches in Brazil, France, Egypt, and China.
  194. 194. What Is Leadership? • Leadership • The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals • Management • Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members • Both are necessary for organizational success
  195. 195. Trait Theories of Leadership • Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders • Not very useful until matched with the Big Five Personality Framework • Leadership Traits • Extroversion • Conscientiousness • Openness • Emotional Intelligence (Qualified) • Traits can predict leadership, but they are better at predicting leader emergence than effectiveness
  196. 196. Behavioral Theories of Leadership • Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders • Differences between theories of leadership: • Trait theory: leadership is inborn, so we must identify the leader based on his or her traits • Behavioral theory: leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders
  197. 197. Important Behavioral Studies • Ohio State University • Found two key dimensions of leader behavior: • Initiating structure – the defining and structuring of roles • Consideration – job relationships that reflect trust and respect • Both are important • University of Michigan • Also found two key dimensions of leader behavior: • Employee-oriented – emphasize interpersonal relationships and is the most powerful dimension • Production-oriented – emphasize the technical aspects of the job • The dimensions of the two studies are very similar
  198. 198. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid® • Draws on both studies to assess leadership style • “Concern for People” is Consideration and Employee-Orientation • “Concern for Production” is Initiating Structure and Production-Orientation
  199. 199. Contingency Theories • While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is missing: the environment in which the leader exists. • Contingency Theory deals with this additional aspect of leadership effectiveness studies. • Three key theories: • Fielder’s Model • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory • Path-Goal Theory
  200. 200. Fiedler Model • Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the situation • Assumes that leadership style (based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire) is fixed • Considers Three Situational Factors: • Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust in the leader • Task structure: degree of structure in the jobs • Position power: leader’s ability to hire, fire, and reward • For effective leadership: must change to a leader who fits the situation or change the situational variables to fit the current leader
  201. 201. Fiedler Model
  202. 202. Assessment of Fiedler’s Model • Positives: • Considerable evidence supports the model, especially if the original eight situations are grouped into three • Problems: • The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood • LPC scores are not stable • Contingency variables are complex and hard to determine
  203. 203. Fiedler’s Cognitive Resource Theory • A refinement of Fielder’s original model: • Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and creator of unfavorable conditions • A leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to that stress • Stress Levels: • Low Stress: Intellectual abilities are effective • High Stress: Leader experiences are effective • Research is supporting the theory
  204. 204. Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership • A model that focuses on follower “readiness” • Followers can accept or reject the leader • Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions • “Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task • A paternal model: • As the child matures, the adult releases more and more control over the situation • As the workers become more ready, the leader becomes more laissez-faire • An intuitive model that does not get much support from the research findings
  205. 205. House’s Path-Goal Theory • Builds from the Ohio State studies and the expectancy theory of motivation • The Theory: – Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals – Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals – Leaders can display multiple leadership types • Four types of leaders: – Directive: focuses on the work to be done – Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker – Participative: consults with employees in decision-making – Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals
  206. 206. Path-Goal Model • Two classes of contingency variables: • Environmental are outside of employee control • Subordinate factors are internal to employee • Mixed support in the research findings
  207. 207. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory • A response to the failing of contingency theories to account for followers and heterogeneous leadership approaches to individual workers • LMX Premise: – Because of time pressures, leaders form a special relationship with a small group of followers: the “in-group” – This in-group is trusted and gets more time and attention from the leader (more “exchanges”) – All other followers are in the “out-group” and get less of the leader’s attention and tend to have formal relationships with the leader (fewer “exchanges”) – Leaders pick group members early in the relationship
  208. 208. LMX Model • How groups are assigned is unclear • Follower characteristics determine group membership • Leaders control by keeping favorites close • Research has been generally supportive
  209. 209. Vroom & Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model • How a leader makes decisions is as important as what is decided • Premise: • Leader behaviors must adjust to reflect task structure • “Normative” model: tells leaders how participative to be in their decision- making of a decision tree • Five leadership styles • Twelve contingency variables • Research testing for both original and modified models has not been encouraging • Model is overly complex
  210. 210. Summary and Managerial Implications • Leadership is central to understanding group behavior as the leader provides the direction • Extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness all show consistent relationships to leadership • Behavioral approaches have narrowed leadership down into two usable dimensions • Need to take into account the situational variables, especially the impact of followers
  211. 211. Lesson 4 Conflict and Negotiation
  212. 212. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Define conflict. • Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict. • Outline the conflict process. • Define negotiation. • Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. • Apply the five steps in the negotiation process. • Show how individual differences influence negotiations. • Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations. • Describe cultural differences in negotiations.
  213. 213. Conflict Defined • A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about – That point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict • Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations – Incompatibility of goals – Differences over interpretations of facts – Disagreements based on behavioral expectations
  214. 214. Transitions in Conflict Thought • Traditional View of Conflict – The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided – Prevalent view in the 1930s-1940s • Conflict resulted from: – Poor communication – Lack of openness – Failure to respond to employee needs
  215. 215. Continued Transitions in Conflict Thought • Human Relations View of Conflict • The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group • Prevalent from the late 1940s through mid-1970s • Interactionist View of Conflict • The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively • Current view
  216. 216. Forms of Interactionist Conflict • Functional Conflict • Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance • Dysfunctional Conflict • Conflict that hinders group performance
  217. 217. Types of Interactionist Conflict  Task Conflict  Conflicts over content and goals of the work  Low-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL  Relationship Conflict  Conflict based on interpersonal relationships  Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL  Process Conflict  Conflict over how work gets done  Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL
  218. 218. The Conflict Process • Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility – Communication • Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” – Structure • Size and specialization of jobs • Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity • Member/goal incompatibility • Leadership styles (close or participative) • Reward systems (win-lose) • Dependence/interdependence of groups – Personal Variables • Differing individual value systems • Personality types
  219. 219. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization • Important stage for two reasons: 1. Conflict is defined • Perceived Conflict • Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise 2. Emotions are expressed that have a strong impact on the eventual outcome • Felt Conflict • Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility
  220. 220. Stage III: Intentions • Intentions – Decisions to act in a given way – Note: behavior does not always accurate reflect intent • Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions: – Cooperativeness • Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns – Assertiveness • Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns
  221. 221. Stage IV: Behavior • Conflict Management • The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict • Conflict-Intensity Continuum
  222. 222. Conflict Resolution Techniques – Problem solving – Superordinate goals – Expansion of resources – Avoidance – Smoothing – Compromise – Authoritative command – Altering the human variable – Altering the structural variables – Communication  Bringing in outsiders  Restructuring the organization  Appointing a devil’s advocate
  223. 223. Stage V: Outcomes • Functional – Increased group performance – Improved quality of decisions – Stimulation of creativity and innovation – Encouragement of interest and curiosity – Provision of a medium for problem- solving – Creation of an environment for self- evaluation and change • Dysfunctional – Development of discontent – Reduced group effectiveness – Retarded communication – Reduced group cohesiveness – Infighting among group members overcomes group goals • Creating Functional Conflict – Reward opposition and punish conflict avoiders
  224. 224. Negotiation • Negotiation (Bargaining) • A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them • Two General Approaches: • Distributive Bargaining • Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation • Integrative Bargaining • Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution
  225. 225. Third-Party Negotiations • Four Basic Third-Party Roles • Mediator • A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives • Arbitrator • A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. • Conciliator • A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent • Consultant • An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis
  226. 226. Summary and Managerial Implications • Conflict can be constructive or destructive • Reduce excessive conflict by using: – Competition – Collaboration – Avoidance – Accommodation – Compromise • Integrative negotiation is a better long-term method
  227. 227. End of Chapter 3
  228. 228. Chapter 4 Organization Dynamics
  229. 229. Lesson 1 Organizational Structure and Culture
  230. 230. Chapter Objectives At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Identify the six elements of an organization’s structure. • Identify the characteristics of a bureaucracy. • Describe a matrix organization. • Identify the characteristics of a virtual organization. • Show why managers want to create boundaryless organizations. • Demonstrate how organizational structures differ, and contrast mechanistic and organic structural models. • Analyze the behavioral implications of different organizational designs. • Show how globalization affects organizational structure.
  231. 231. What Is Organizational Structure? • Organizational Structure – How job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated – Key Elements: 1. Work specialization 2. Departmentalization 3. Chain of command 4. Span of control 5. Centralization and decentralization 6. Formalization
  232. 232. 1. Work Specialization • The degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs • Division of Labor – Makes efficient use of employee skills – Increases employee skills through repetition – Less between-job downtime increases productivity – Specialized training is more efficient – Allows use of specialized equipment • Can create greater economies and efficiencies – but not always…
  233. 233. Work Specialization Economies and Diseconomies • Specialization can reach a point of diminishing returns • Then job enlargement gives greater efficiencies than does specialization
  234. 234. 2. Departmentalization • The basis by which jobs are grouped together • Grouping Activities by: • Function • Product • Geography • Process • Customer
  235. 235. 3. Chain of Command • Authority – The rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed • Chain of Command – The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom • Unity of Command – A subordinate should have only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible
  236. 236. 4. Span of Control • The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct • Wider spans of management increase organizational efficiency • Narrow span drawbacks: • Expense of additional layers of management • Increased complexity of vertical communication • Encouragement of overly tight supervision and discouragement of employee autonomy
  237. 237. 5. Centralization and Decentralization • Centralization • The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. • Decentralization • The degree to which decision making is spread throughout the organization.
  238. 238. 6. Formalization • The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized. • High formalization • Minimum worker discretion in how to get the job done • Many rules and procedures to follow • Low formalization • Job behaviors are nonprogrammed • Employees have maximum discretion
  239. 239. Common Organization Designs: Simple Structure • Simple Structure • A structure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization
  240. 240. Common Organizational Designs: Bureaucracy • Bureaucracy • A structure of highly operating routine tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command
  241. 241. An Assessment of Bureaucracies Strengths Weaknesses • Functional economies of scale • Minimum duplication of personnel and equipment • Enhanced communication • Centralized decision making • Subunit conflicts with organizational goals • Obsessive concern with rules and regulations • Lack of employee discretion to deal with problems
  242. 242. Common Organizational Designs: Matrix • Matrix Structure – A structure that creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization • Key Elements – Gains the advantages of functional and product departmentalization while avoiding their weaknesses – Facilitates coordination of complex and interdependent activities – Breaks down unity-of-command concept
  243. 243. New Design Options: Virtual Organization • A small, core organization that outsources its major business functions • Highly centralized with little or no departmentalization • Provides maximum flexibility while concentrating on what the organization does best • Reduced control over key parts of the business
  244. 244. New Design Options: Boundaryless Organization • An organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams • T-form Concepts • Eliminate vertical (hierarchical) and horizontal (departmental) internal boundaries • Break down external barriers to customers and suppliers
  245. 245. Four Reasons Structures Differ 1. Strategy – Innovation Strategy • A strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services • Organic structure best – Cost-minimization Strategy • A strategy that emphasizes tight cost controls, avoidance of unnecessary innovation or marketing expenses, and price cutting • Mechanistic model best – Imitation Strategy • A strategy that seeks to move into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been proven • Mixture of the two types of structure
  246. 246. Why Structures Differ 2. Organizational Size  As organizations grow, they become more mechanistic, more specialized, with more rules and regulations 3. Technology  How an organization transfers its inputs into outputs  The more routine the activities, the more mechanistic the structure with greater formalization  Custom activities need an organic structure 4. Environment  Institutions or forces outside the organization that potentially affect the organization’s performance  Three key dimensions: capacity, volatility, and complexity

Notas del editor

  • Originally Fayol put planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling as managerial functions.
  • Today’s challenges bring opportunities for managers to use OB concepts

    A noted behavioral researcher observed, “God gave all the easy problems to the physicists.” [Laws in the physical sciences—chemistry, astronomy, physics—are consistent and apply in a wide range of situations]. Human beings are complex, and few, if any, simple and universal principles explain organizational behavior. Because we are not alike, our ability to make simple, accurate, and sweeping generalizations is limited.
  • Increased foreign assignments: Companies have started to operate out of their border and this has necessitated the need to have adaptable managers.

    Working with people from different culture: What motivates one manager may not apply for others (especially, for those who came from different culture and background).

    Coping with anti-capitalism backlash: According to Gilbert Jeremy (2008) “… the function of all of these institutions (including democratic governments) is, and has been for several hundred years, to maintain the profitability of the corporations, financial institutions and wealthy individuals whose interests they represent. Certainly there are many occasions on which such aims happen to coincide with the promotion of the well-being of large publics, especially when the profitability of corporations happens to depend on the spending-power of those publics. But broadly speaking, Western governments and powerful institutions have never enacted major policy initiatives simply because their citizenry wanted them to or because it was the moral thing to do.” for further reading refer to Gilbert , J. (2008). Anticapitalism and culture: radical theory and popular politics. (Culture Machine Series). Oxford: Berg.

    Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor: eg. Nokia workers in Germany protested the companies decision to terminate the production of mobile phones in Germany (high labor cost) plant and to transfer the work to Romania (low labor cost).

    Managing people during the war on terror: In good times, understanding how to reward, satisfy, and retain employees is at a premium. In bad times, issues like stress, decision making, and coping come to the fore. [OB concept]

    Improving people skills: people should continually update their skills. The study of OB can help you better understand a work world of continual change, overcome resistance to change, and create an organizational culture that thrives on change.
  • Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests, for example, are designed to ascertain a person’s general intellectual abilities.
  • Perceptual speed (women outperform men)
    Reading: 4,1,6,7
  • recognizing that individuals have different abilities that can be taken into account when making hiring decisions is not problematic. However, it is discriminatory to make blanket assumptions about people on the basis of a disability.
    Balance: eg. Restaurant (waiter)
  • Age: The older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job. As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work. Their long tenure also tends to provide them with higher wage rates, longer paid vacations, and more attractive pension benefits. It’s tempting to assume that age is also inversely related to absenteeism. [discussion question: do older employees always come to work? Hint: avoidable and unavoidable causes of absenteeism].

    Gender: sex roles still affect our perceptions. For example, women who succeed in traditionally male domains are perceived as less likable, more hostile, and less desirable as supervisors. Research also suggests that women believe sex-based discrimination is more prevalent than do male employees, and these beliefs are especially pronounced among women who work with a large proportion of men.

  • Tenure vs satisfaction gives more sense when the type of work/role is clear [professional vs non-professional].

    Religion: employees and supervisors have different religion and when one perceives others religion as wrong negative consequences will take effect. Stress may also happen.

    Gender identity: not an agenda in Ethiopia but is an issue in developed countries. It determines the facility (like bathroom) that the organization should prepare, etc...
  • Ex. At one manufacturing plant, every time the top executive from the head office would make a visit, the plant management would clean up the administrative offices and wash the windows. This went on for years. Eventually, employees would turn on their best behavior and look good whenever the windows were cleaned even on those occasions when cleaning was not paired with the visit from the top executive.
  • Classical conditioning involves associating an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about associating a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

    Originally, Skinner trained rats to press a lever to get food. In this experiment, a hungry rat placed in a box containing a lever attached to some concealed food.
    Ex. Working hard and getting promotion will probably cause the person to keep working hard in the future
  • Attentional process: we tend to be most influenced by attractive models, which we think are important.
    Retention processes: a model’s influence depends on how well the individuals remember the model’s actions after the model is no longer readily available.
  • Positive reinforcement: eg. giving a student/worker a prize after he or she gets an A on a test
    Negative reinforcement: taking Aspirin to reduce the pain of a headache represents negative reinforcement. 

    In both cases, the reinforcement makes it more likely that behaviour will occur again in the future.

    Punishment: +ve eg. Giving a worker extra assignment after he or she misbehaves in the workplace; -ve eg. Taking away an employees car after he or she violates the organization policy.
  • Importance of elements: individuals tend to reduce dissonance when the attitudes or behavior are important
    Degree of individual influence: individuals tend to reduce dissonance when they feel that the dissonance is due to something they can control
    Rewards involved in dissonance: if rewards are attached to dissonance, we will continue on that behavior.
  • High levels of both job involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to organizational citizenship and job performance.
  • Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than to a given employer (for young generation).
  • Example of single rating question may be “considering all dimension of job, how satisfied are you with your job?”

  • Voice. This can be a constructive response. For instance, recommending ways to improve the conflict situation, or even filling formal grievances or making a coalition in order to oppose a decision.
    Loyalty. Normally, loyal professionals are employees who respond to dissatisfaction by patiently waiting. The loyal associates can suffer in silence for days, months or even years without clear problem resolution.
    Neglect. Neglect means lacking in diligence. It includes reducing work effort, paying less attention to service quality, increases in absenteeism and lateness. This type of behaviour has negative consequences for the organization.
  • Extrovert: focus on the world outside the self
    Introvert: focus on the inside world and are great listeners
    >65% of people are extroverts
    Sensors: are factual & process information through the 5 senses
    Intuition: people live in the future & are immersed in the world of possibilities (they see the big picture)
    >73% people are sensors
    Females are on average slightly more sensing than males
    Thinkers: make decision based on facts
    Feelers: make decision based on principle and values
    50% people are thinkers
    Majority of females are feelers
    Judging: people think sequentially
    Perceivers: are random thinkers who prefer to keep their options open (open to change)
    51% people are judgers
    Males are somewhat more perceiving than females on average
  • Gregarious: tending to associate with others of one's kind 

    Persistent: working for long than usual time
  • Machiavellianism: named after Nicolo Machiavalli, who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power.

    The story of Narcissus comes from Greek mythology. Narcissus is the son of the river god, Cephissus and a nymph named Liriope. Famous for his beauty, Narcissus fell in love with his reflection.
  • Realistic: Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination [Mechanic, drill press operator, assembly-line worker, farmer]
    Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding [Biologist, economist, mathematician, news reporter]
    Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression [Painter, musician, writer, interior decorator]
    Social: Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others [Social worker, teacher, counselor, clinical psychologist]
    Enterprising: Prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power [Lawyer, real estate agent, public relations specialist, small business manager]
    Conventional: Prefers rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities [Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, file clerk]
  • Distinctiveness/uniqueness: high – different behavior over a long period of time
  • Selective perception: a manager may have a favorite subordinate because they are biased by in-group favoritism. The manager ignores the subordinates poor attainment during evaluation.
    Halo effect: If you’re a critic of prime minister Abiy, try listing 5 things you admire about him. If you’re an admirer, try listing 5 things you dislike about him. No matter which group describes you, odds are you won’t find this an easy exercise! That’s the halo effect: our general views contaminate our specific ones.
    Contrast effect: In a series of job interviews, for instance, interviewers can make distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. A candidate is likely to receive a more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre applicants and a less favorable evaluation if preceded by strong applicants.
  • Stereotypes: can be deeply ingrained and powerful enough to influence life-and-death decisions. One study, controlling for a wide array of factors (such as aggravating or mitigating circumstances), showed that the degree to which black defendants in murder trials looked “stereotypically black” essentially doubled their odds of receiving a death sentence if convicted (found guilty).
  • Overconfidence: Individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability. Anchoring bias: For example, if you first see a T-shirt that costs $1,200 – then see a second one that costs $100 – you’re prone to see the second shirt as cheap. Whereas, if you’d merely seen the second shirt, priced at $100, you’d probably not view it as cheap.
    Framing bias: One of these cognitive biases is the framing effect, in which an identical situation can be described (framed) in opposing ways. For example: someone is more likely to buy an 80% fat-free yogurt (positive framing) compared to a 20% fat yogurt (negative framing)
    Availability bias: After reading an article about lottery winners, you start to overestimate your own likelihood of winning the jackpot. You start spending more money than you should each week on lottery tickets.
    Which job is more dangerous—being a police officer or a logger? While high profile police shootings might lead to you think that cops have the most dangerous job, statistics actually show that loggers are more likely to die on the job than cops.
  • Inability to predict the outcome

    Winner’s curse: when a company successfully bids for a supply or construction contract, the curse refers to the money it will lose because it significantly underestimated the overall cost of being the supplier or builder. Or in auctions when the successful bidder for an item overestimated its value – the winner paid too much.
  • Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being careful, or diligent. It does have two facets; achievement striving and duty

    Twenty years of study find women spend much more time than men analyzing the past, present, and future. They’re more likely to overanalyze problems before making a decision and to rehash (go again) a decision once made. This can lead to more careful consideration of problems and choices. However, it can make problems harder to solve, increase regret over past decisions, and increase depression.
  • High intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.
    Inspiration and motivation, are they the same?

    Inspiration is something you feel in the inside whereas motivation is from outside.

    “motivation is when you get hold of an idea and carry it through to its conclusion, and inspiration is when an idea gets hold of you and carries you where you are intended to go” (Dr. Wayne Dyer)

    In another way, throwing a wood in to a fire is like motivation and the fire itself is inspiration.
  • Ibn Khaldun (1332-1408) stated human desires and leisure in to five (he did not use hierarchy)
    The bodily appetites such as satisfying hunger, thirst, etc…
    The desire for safety, security, etc …
    The desire for affiliation
    The desire to express themselves
    Finally, humans seek to fulfil three sets of desires connected with leisure.

    Abraham maslow (1908-1970)

    Higher-order needs are satisfied internally (within the person), whereas lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by things such as pay, union contracts, and tenure). The hierarchy, if it applies at all, aligns with U.S. culture. In Japan, Greece, and Mexico, where uncertainty-avoidance characteristics are strong, security needs would be on top of the hierarchy. Countries that score high on nurturing characteristics—Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, and Finland—would have social needs on top.
  • Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    Is a simplification of Maslows hierarchy of needs theory. Existence (physiological needs, safety need),Relatedness (social need), Growth (actualization).
  • Theory X and Theory Y
    Under Theory X, managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it. Under Theory Y, in contrast, managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility.
  • Two-Factor Theory Believing an individual’s relationship to work is basic, and that attitude toward work can determine success or failure, psychologist Frederick Herzberg wondered, “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. The responses differed significantly and led Hertzberg to his two-factor theory—also called motivation-hygiene theory.
    Intrinsic factors such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement seem related to job satisfaction. Respondents who felt good about their work tended to attribute these factors to themselves, while dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions. The opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction.
  • McClelland’s Theory of Needs (also called learned needs theory)
    was developed by David McClelland and his associates. It looks at three needs: ● Need for achievement (nAch) is the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards. ● Need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in a way they would not have otherwise. ● Need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
    McClelland and subsequent researchers focused most of their attention on nAch. High achievers perform best when they perceive their probability of success as 0.5—that is, a 50–50 chance. They dislike gambling with high odds because they get no achievement satisfaction from success that comes by pure chance. Similarly, they dislike low odds (high probability of success) because then there is no challenge to their skills. They like to set goals that require stretching themselves a little. First, when jobs have a high degree of personal responsibility and feedback and an intermediate degree of risk, high achievers are strongly motivated. Among the early theories of motivation, McClelland’s has had the best research support. Unfortunately, it has less practical effect than the others.
  • If you selected C, you’re likely to be a high achiever.
  • Self-determination theory, which proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation. Cognitive evaluation theory is a sub-set/theory of self-determination theory. A recent outgrowth of SDT is self concordance theory.
  • Will you study as hard for an easy exam as for the difficult one?

    Task characteristics (simple, well-learned) – opposite : If we have to struggle to solve a difficult problem, we often think of a better way to go about it.
    Culture: In collectivistic and high-power-distance cultures, achievable moderate goals can be more highly motivating than difficult ones.
  • Self-efficacy (also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory) refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Employees whose manager sets difficult goals for them will have a higher level of self-efficacy and set higher goals for their own performance.
  • Enactive mastery: If you’ve been able to do the job successfully in the past, you’re more confident you’ll be able to do it in the future.
    Vicarious modeling—becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task.
  • Change outcomes (increase output) but with reduced quality especially when piece rate system exists

    Change self perception (For instance - I know that I’ve performed better and harder than everyone else).

    Change perception of others (For instance - Jack’s job is not as desirable as mine, earlier I thought it was).
  • Instrumentality: expectation that success brings reward
    Valence: value of the reward in employees’ eye
  • Emotions are reactions to a person (seeing a friend at work may make you feel glad) or an event (dealing with a rude client may make you feel frustrated).
    You show your emotions when you’re “happy about something, angry at some-one, afraid of something.
    Moods, in contrast, aren’t usually directed at a person or an event. But emotions can turn into moods when you lose focus on the event or object that started the feeling.
  • René Descartes (pronounced Rene Decart), often called the founder of modern philosophy, identified six “simple and primitive passions”— wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy, and Sadness.
    The closer two emotions are to each other on this continuum, the more likely people will confuse them. We sometimes mistake happiness for surprise, but rarely do we confuse happiness and disgust.
  • Our work-place interactions will probably be more positive from midmorning onward and also later in the week

    Monday morning is probably not the best time to ask someone for a favor or convey bad news.

    Illusory correlation: occurs when people associate two events that in reality have no connection
  • Employees exert physical & mental labor at work. Emotional labor is also equally important.
    Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. In contrast, displayed emotions are those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job
  • For example, the manager of a shop and his subordinate sales staff will become a command group.

    For example, all the sales staff members together form task group. It is similar with teams.

    An interest group always involves members sharing common and mutual goals. A friendship group, however, need not have common interests but members share mutual attributes.

  • Status--inclusion in a group viewed by outsiders as important; provides recognition and status
    Self-esteem--provides feelings of selfworth to group members, in addtiion to conveying status to outsiders
    Affiliation--fulfills social needs
    Power--what cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible with groups. Eg. people join political parties
    Goal achievement--some tasks require more than one person; need to pool talents knowledge or power to complete the job. in such instances managment may rely on the use of a formal group.
  • Forming: The first stage is when the team is formed and members meet.
    Storming: individual expression of ideas occurs and there is open conflict between members.
    Norming: the team develops work habits that support group rules and values.
    Performing: shows high levels of loyalty, participation, motivation, and group decision-making.
    Adjourning: For project teams, temporary committees, or task forces coming to an end, there will be a finalising stage as they celebrate and recognize group achievement.

    For continuous work teams, there may be a higher performance level as they develop and transform as individuals and reform into revised teams. It is important to note that continuous work teams may revert to prior stages when new people are added to the team.
  • Regress: the act of returning to a previous state.

    Time and effort are required to move through the various group development stages. Every group will go through all the stages. However the timeline of each stage may be different for each group depending on the individual members and their skill levels, the work the group is expected to accomplish, and group leadership during each stage.
  • The five stages model is linear but the nature of groups is dynamic.

    Groups remain fairly static, maintaining a certain equilibrium for long periods of time. Change during these periods is incremental, largely due to the resistance to change that arises when systems take root and processes become institutionalized. In this model, revolutionary change occurs in brief, punctuated bursts, generally catalyzed by a crisis or problem that breaks through the systemic inertia and shakes up the deep organizational structures in place. At this point, the organization or group has the opportunity to learn and create new structures that are better aligned with current realities.

    Groups can repeatedly cycle through the storming and performing stages, with revolutionary change taking place during short transitional windows.

    For organizations and groups who understand that disruption, conflict, and chaos are inevitable in the life of a social system, these disruptions represent opportunities for innovation and creativity.
  • Role conflict: For example 1, a fireman has a social role that asks him to protect society from danger. When a fire erupts on his own block, he is conflicted between his duties as a fireman and his role as a father and husband that requires him to take care of his own family first. Or 2. when a person is assigned as a supervisor at a factory may feel strain due to his or her role as friend and mentor to the subordinate employees, while having to exhibit a stern and professional watchful eye over the employees. 3. One supervisor may ask an employee to increase production and while another asks her to improve quality control.
  • Zimbardo and his colleagues (1973) were interested in finding out whether the brutality reported among guards in American prisons was due to the sadistic personalities of the guards (i.e., dispositional) or had more to do with the prison environment (i.e., situational).

    In this experiment, certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a guard and prisoner role (role identity), the individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation – received by external stimuli (role perception)-students studies their role and perceived accordingly, leaders observed this, how others believe a person should act in a given situation (role expectations)-experiment leaders had expected students,
  • The theory of status characteristics (Berger, Cohen, and Zelditch, 1966; Berger and Zelditch, 1977) says that status determines the way group members evaluate each other's ability. Group members overstate the performance of high status members and underestimate the performance of low status members.
  • Assertive – self-confident
  • in groupthink, the individual discards his personal view; in group shift, he has the opportunity to present an extreme position of it. 
  • Devil’s advocate:
  • Trait theory (focuses on qualities): this is a modification of great man theory that argues leaders are born not made. However, trait theory leaves a room for acquiring leadership quality.

    Different scholars contributed for this theory. Sir Francis Galton proposed that leadership qualities are generational (transferable from generation to generation), consider physical attributes, and psychological attributes. The US marine corps & army considered intelligence, values and energy as leadership attributes. Edwin Gheselli proposed that achievement (the drive to achieve something in life), intelligence (using good judgement, reasoning skill), decisiveness (making difficult decisions without hesitation), self-confidence (having positive self-image [self image psychology]), initiative (being a self starter), supervisory (the ability to supervise individuals). Paul Von Hindenburg (a German field marshal) put bright, dull, lazy and energetic as attributes of leaders. Paul Von Hindenburg proposed dimensions of leadership and concluded that people with bright and energetic attribute can be field commanders, dull and lazy people should be left alone, energetic and dull people could be frontline soldiers, bright and lazy people could be staff officers.

    2. Behavioral theory (focuses on actions of a leader):
  • The Hersey-Blanchard Model suggests no single leadership style is better than another.

    Instead of focusing on workplace factors, the model suggests leaders adjust their styles to those they lead and their abilities. Under the model, successful leadership is both task-relevant and relationship-relevant.
  • According to this , there are five decision-making styles guides group-based decision-making according to the situation at hand and the level of involvement of subordinates: Autocratic Type 1 (AI) [Decisions are made completely by the leader], Autocratic Type 2 (AII) [The decision is still made by the leader alone, but the leader collects information from the followers], Consultative Type 1 (CI) [The leader seeks input from select followers individually based on their relevant knowledge], Consultative Type 2 (CII) [Similar to CI, except the leader shares the problem with relevant followers as a group and seeks their ideas and suggestions], Group-based Type 2 (GII) [The entire group works through the problem with the leader. A decision is made by the followers in collaboration with the leader. In a GII decision, leaders are not at liberty to make a decision on their own].