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Psychology class Jan 22

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Psychology class Jan 22

  1. 1. Communication in Health Care
  2. 2. Communication & Metacommunication <ul><li>Communication is about sharing information </li></ul><ul><li>Metacommunication is about communicating something about the communication, itself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. A Study on Metacommunication <ul><li>Patch, et al (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Research Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Variable ________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable _________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental condition _______________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control condition ____________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychology Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Door-in-the-face (DIFT) technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A persuader tries to get compliance from others by making a large request, while knowing that the request will likely be rejected; so that the person will agree to a smaller request, since the smaller request seems very reasonable compared with the large one. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Study on Metacommunication <ul><li>Participants: U.S. men and women (students and non-students) </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures: Each participant was approached by a single requester when he or she was alone. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MC/DITF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DITF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MC/Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control moderate request </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater compliance in MC/DITF than DITF. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Compliance in MC/Control than Control. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Metacommunication strategy is effective in facilitating compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation: </li></ul>
  5. 5. Questions about research terminology <ul><li>In the above study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the independent variables? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is the dependent variable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which conditions are the experimental conditions? In each condition, what is the dependent variable? What is/are the independent variable(s)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is the control condition? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Verbal Communication <ul><li>Denotation & Connotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: ______________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English as a Second Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors to consider: ______________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slang and Jargon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples ______________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Why is nonverbal communication important in healthcare? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the functions of verbal and nonverbal communication? Please give examples to illustrate the functions. </li></ul><ul><li>In your view, what are the differences between verbal and nonverbal communication? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give examples of nonverbal communication? </li></ul><ul><li>In your view, are facial expressions universal? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the kinds of messages that can be conveyed by touch? Please provide examples. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why are nonverbal communication important in healthcare? <ul><li>Why and when do patients rely on nonverbal cues? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why and when do HCPs rely on nonverbal cues? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>____________________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What are the functions of verbal and nonverbal communication? <ul><li>replace verbal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>express feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>regulate interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>validate verbal messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>maintain self-image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>maintain relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What are some of the differences between verbal and nonverbal communication? <ul><li>Without words </li></ul><ul><li>Less voluntary </li></ul>
  11. 11. Examples of Non-Verbal Communication <ul><li>Body Language (gestures, facial expression, gaze) </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics (Distance) </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Paralinguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and environmental factors </li></ul>
  12. 12. Body Language <ul><li>Facial Expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six basic expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Are they universal? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Are Facial Expressions universal? <ul><li>Ekaman & Friesen (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People who lived in isolated areas of New Guinea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asked individuals to imagine different situations, I.e., you friend comes to visit and you are happy, a dead animal laying in the hot sun for many days and it smelled bad. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were asked to show how they would express their feelings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participants show similar facial expressions that North Americans might show in those situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_____________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Are Facial Expressions universal? <ul><li>Ekman (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who lived in widely separate countries were shown facial expressions of strangers from other countries and asked to classify those emotions into these categories:_______________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants classified the emotions accurately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Are Facial Expressions universal? <ul><li>Russell (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations to Ekman’s studies (1973, 1975) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Are Facial Expressions universal? <ul><li>Russell (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Western, non-western literate, and non-western isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul>56.0 29.0 46.0 52.0 36.0 92.0 Non-Western Illiterate Isolated 63.0 65.0 65.0 76.0 79.2 89.2 Non-Western Literate 81.2 82.6 77.5 80.5 87.5 96.4 Western Anger Disgust Fear Sadness Surprise happy
  17. 17. Are Facial Expressions universal? <ul><li>Instinct versus socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross cultural research suggested substantial agreement in recognition of facial expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization also is an important factor; facial expressions are not totally universal; contextual differences do exist with respect to precise meanings. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Body Language <ul><li>Gesture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you think of some gestures that help to regulate the flow of conversations? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you give examples of how eye contact carry out the functions of nonverbal communication? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Proxemics <ul><li>Hall’s study on distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were from the Northeastern United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate 1.5 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal 1.5 and 2.5 feet (arm’s length) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social 4 to 12 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public 12-25 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How may this study be relevant to you as a dental hygienist? What is the physical distance you maintain with your clients? </li></ul>
  20. 20. What kinds of messages are expressed by touch? <ul><li>Positive effect </li></ul><ul><li>Playful (humor) </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Task related, functional </li></ul>
  21. 21. A Study on Touch <ul><li>Crusco & Wetzel (1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a group of servers to greeted customers in 3 ways: a) refrained from touching in any manner, b) touched briefly on the hand, c) touched them for a longer period on the shoulder. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation (b) and (c) significantly increased tipping over the no-touch control condition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being touched in an innocuous, non-threatening way seemed to generate positive rather than negative reactions among participants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Studies on Touch <ul><li>Aguilera (1967) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Group: patients received touch and verbal communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Group: patients received only verbal communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patients in the experimental groups had more verbal interaction and more rapport with the nurse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Studies on Touch <ul><li>Patterison (1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In counseling session, the therapist’s touch contact has been related to increased amount of self-exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the limitations of Aguilera and Patterison’s studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a double blind situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be generalized to other contexts </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Touch in Health Care <ul><li>What are some of the factors that affect people’s receptivity to touch? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the Relationship </li></ul></ul>