Various Commissions and Frameworks with respect to post Independence Education era.
1. Topic : Various commissions and frameworks with respect to Post
Submitted by : Pramathi Devadhar
SDM College of Education Ujire.
• From 1947 , the government of India also appointed important
commissions and frameworks for suggesting educational reforms.
• The secondary Education Commission or Mudaliyar commission
• Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
• National Policy on Education( NPE -1986)
• National Curriculum Framework ( NCF )2005
3. Secondary Education
Government of India appointed Secondary Education Commission on
September 23, 1955 on the advise of Central Advisory Board of
Education, Dr. Lakshman Swami Mudaliyar, then the vice chancellor
of Madras University , was appointed the chairman of the Secondary
Education Commission. The commission was also called as Mudaliyar
4. Aims :
1. Education for development of democratic citizenship
• Development of capacity for clear thinking and receptivity to new
• Qualities should be cultivated for the purpose of discipline, social
sensitiveness and tolerance.
2. Education for Improvement Of vocational Efficiency of Learners
• Greater emphasis on crafts and productive work.
• Mother tongue or regional language should generally be the medium
of instruction throughout the secondary school stage.
• During the middle school stage, every child should be taught at least
• At the higher secondary stage, at least two languages should be
6. Curriculum :
• It is bookish and theoretical.
• It is over crowded, without providing rich and significant contents.
• It does not cater to the various needs and capabilities of the
• It is dominated too much by examinations.
• It does not include technical and vocational subjects which are
necessary for training the students to take part in the industrial and
economic development of the country.
7. Text books
• A High – power textbook committee should be constituted .
• A part of the amount out of the sale of the books should be used for
awarding scholarships, and providing books and other amenities for
• Frequent changes in textbooks should be encouraged.
8. Recommendations :
• At the middle stage, the curriculum should include: Languages, social
studies, General science, Mathematics, Art and Music , Craft and
• At the High school or Higher Secondary stage, diversified coursed
should be provided for die pupils.
• A certain number of core subjects should be common to all students
whatever the diversified courses of study that they may take. These
should consist of Languages, General science, Social studies, Maths
9. Methods of Teaching:
• Methods of teaching in school should not only aim at imparting knowledge
in an efficient manner, but at inculcating desirable values and proper
• Activity methods and project methods should be used.
• Emphasis on clear thinking and clear expression in speech and writing.
• Group activities or group projects should be used to develop qualities.
10. Kothari Education commission (1964-66)
• The commission in particular to advice the government on the national pattern of
education and on the general policies for the development of education at all
stages ranging from the primary to post graduate stage.
• The commission, tinder the chairmanship of Dr. D.S Kothari, chairman.
University Grants commission, consisted of sixteen members. Eleven being
Indians and five foreign experts.
• The commission began its task on October 2,1964 and submitted its report on
June 29,1966 to the union education minister.
11. Recommendations of the Kothari
• The recommendations of the commission confined to two major
aspects of the recommendations, education and national objectives
and educational structure.
12. Education and National objectives
1. Education and Modernization.
• The present society is the science based society. The present century
has made tremendous advancement.in scientific and technical
knowledge as a result of explosion of knowledge.
13. 2. Increase in productivity
• In order to link education and productivity the Indian education
commission made the following recommendations.
• 1.science is the basic components of education and culture, so it
should be made an integral part of school education.
• 2.To inculcate the value of Manual work the commission
recommended the introduction of work experience in school
14. 3. Promoting social and National
• National and social integration is the precondition for the progress
and development of a country.
• To make education a powerful instrument of national development,
common school system of public education should be adopted.
15. 4. Social, moral and spiritual values
• In order to develop social, moral and religious values, some periods
should be provided in the time table. Instruction of this type should be
given by general teachers.
16. Educational structure
• The commission recommended following new education structure.
• 1.one to three years of pre-school education.
• A primary stage of 7 to 8 years divided into a lower primary stage of 4 to 5years
and a higher primary stage of 3 or 2 years.
• A lower secondary stage of 3 or 2 years of general education or 1 to 3 year of
• A higher secondary stage of 2 years of general education or 1 to 3 years of
vocational education 50% of the total would be under vocational
• NPE 1986 is regarded as a new policy of education.
• For the first time in the history of Indian education, the government
chalked out a programme of action.
• NPE aimed at refinement of sensitivities and perception that
contribute to national cohesion a scientific temper and Independence
of mind and spirit.
• So development of scientific temper is included as one of the core
element in the curriculum suggested by NPE 1986.
19. 11 Salient Features of National policy
on Education (1986)
1) The Essence and Role of education
2) National system if education
3) Education for equality
4) Re-organisation of education of different stages
5) Technical and Management education
6) Making the system work
20. 7. Reorienting the content and process Of education
8. The Teacher and Teacher education
9. The management of education
10. Resources and Review
11. The Future
21. 1.The Essence and Role of education
1. All-round development
2. Acculturating Role
3. Man-power Development
4. A unique Investment
22. 2.Acculturating Role
• Education has to play an acculturating role as it refines sensitives and
perception that contribute to national cohesion, a scientific temper and
Independence of mind and spirit-thus furthering the goals of socialism
secularism and democracy enshrined in our Constitution.
1.All- round development
• In our national perception education is essential for all. As it is
fundamental to our all round development-material and spiritual.
23. 4.A unique Investment
• Education is a unique investment in the present and the future for all
round Development of nation in all its manifestations.
• Education Develops man-power for different levels of national
economy. It is also the substrata on which research and
Development flourish, being the ultimate guarantee of national
24. 2.National system of education
• The NPE 86 has lucidly explained:
• The concept of a ‘national system of education’ implies that up to a
given level, all student, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex
have access to education of a comparable quality.
• To achieve this end, the Government will initiate funded programmes.
• Effective measures will be taken in the direction of the common school
system recommended in 1968 policy.
25. • Common Education structure
• National curriculum framework with a common core
• Equality of opportunity of education
• Minimum levels of learning
• Understanding of cultural and social system
• Life long education
26. 3.Education for Equality
• The NPE 86 lays special emphasis on the removal of disparities and
to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs
of those who have been deprived of so far.
27. 1) Education for women’s equality
The policy states the Following:
• Status of women
• Empowerment of women
• Women’s studies
• Removal of women’s Illeteracy
• Women’s participation in technical and vocational education
28. • 2) Education of scheduled castes
• 3) The Education of scheduled Tribes
• 4) The Education of Backward Sections and Areas
• 5) Minorities
• 6) The Education of the Handicapped
• 7) Adult and Continuing Education
29. 4) Re-organization of Education at
• 1) Early childhood care and education
• For all-round development of child nutrition, health, social, mental,
physical, moral and development, early childhood care and education
will be accorded top priority.
• 2) Elementary Education
• The highest priority will be given to solve the problem of children
dropping out of the school.
30. 5) Technical and Management
• Technical Manpower Information System will be further developed
and strengthened. Continuing education covering established as well
as emerging technologies will be promoted.
• Programmes of computer literacy will be organized on wider scale
from the schools age.
31. 6) Making the system Work
1. A better deal to teachers with greater accountability.
2. Provision for better facilities to institutions.
3. Creation of a system of performance appraisals of institutions
according to standards and norms set at the national and state
32. 7) Re-orienting the content and process of
1. Cultural content
2. Value Education
3. Development of Languages
4. Improvement of libraries
5. Education and Environment
6. Science Education
7. Sports and Physical Education
33. 8) The Teacher and Teacher Education
1. Continuing Education
2. Establishment of District Institute of Education and Training
3. Upgrading selected Teacher training colleges
4. National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE)
5. Networking Arrangements
34. 9) The Management of Education
• Evolving a long term planning and management perspective of
education and its integration with the country’s development and man
• Decentralization and the creation of a spirit of autonomy for
• Inducting more women in the planning and management of
35. 10) Resources and Review
Investment of education will be gradually increased to reach a level
of expenditure of National Income as early as possible.
The implementation of various parameters by the new policy must be
reviewed every five years. Appraisal at short intervals will also be made
to ascertain the progress of implementation and the trends emerging
from time to time.
36. 11) The future
• It has been envisaged that not with standing the complexity of the
future shape given our tradition which has, almost always, put a high
premium on intellectual and spiritual attainment, we are bound to
succeed in achieving our objectives.
37. National Curriculum
Framework (NCF 2005)
National curriculum Framework 2005 was
published to guide the institutions and schools to
encourage to overall development of the children
and to move away from textbook –centric learning.
38. What is National curriculum
National curriculum framework is a system of education that
is developed keeping in mind the geographical and cultural
diversity as well as social environment.
39. Goals of NCF-2005
• To promote a wholesome development of the child.
• To enable the students of develop intellectual quotient by providing
them varied opportunities.
• To make the environment conducive to quality learning.
• To foster creative thinking skills by facilitating different activities.
• The schools must ensure no student is discriminated against based on
caste or religion, and social status.
40. Objectives of NCF-2005
• Introducing the concept of learning without too much load by
reducing the syllabus.
• All children should have access to quality education without any
• Curricular practices should be in alignment the secularism, social
justice, and equality.
• Strengthening a national education system in the society.
41. Principles of NCF-2005
1. Connecting learning to real life examples outside school.
2. Ensuring different learning approaches rather than rote methods.
3. Enhancing the curriculum to offer knowledge and experiences
4. Improving Flexibility of taking examinations and integrating them
with class school life.
5. Enhancing an overriding identity the democratic polity of the
42. Important components of NCF
1. Social context
The social context of education of India indicates many challenges
which should be included in the framework, which emphasizes that
schools must implement pedagogical practice.
2. Learning and knowledge
Learning should be faciliated in such away that it attracts the
attention of the students, rather than confining to the age old traditional
43. 3. The primacy of the active learners
School and Institutions are the medium through which the students get
to know about story, their culture and the world around them.
4. Curriculum and practice
Conductive interactive discussions and quiz sessions where the children
can ask questions and then answer those questions.
44. 5. Learners in context
Exactly a learning environment that is based on extream discipline
and stress that can only lead to Inadequate learning.
6. Critical pedagogy
Teacher and students engagement is important within the classroom,
as it helps to improve participatory learning.
45. Curricular Area, school stage and
The NCF for schools emphasizes the students should be multilingual
when the student should thought in a three language structure.
Higher goal of mathematics education is to help the child think and
reason mathematically to make assumption based on logical reasoning.
46. 3. Science
Science play a significant role in educating children where in they can
differentiate between facts and frictions. The pedagogy should be prepared in
such a way that it incorporates activities observations and expectations.
4. Social science
Subject such as history, geography, political science, economics, sociology and
anthropology significant as it helps to educate the child about his or her society.
5. Art education
Is often confined to either useful hobbies or leisure activities. They should
work towards nurturing the artistic capabilities within the children.
47. 6. Health and physical education
It aims to provide an understanding the overall importance of health and
7. Work education
Work education is related to incorporating activities that would ultimately
help the students inculcate with necessary life skills like problem solving,
creative thinking, situation based analysis and effective communication.
8. Education for peace
It is important to incorporate tolerance, justice, Intercultural
understanding, civil responsibility within the educational structure.
• The commissions and frameworks related to Education have from
time to time sought guidance from the constitutional vision of India as
a secular, egatalitarian and pluraristic society, founded on the values
of social justice and equality. Education has derived its content and
meaning from the constitution and the system has tried to democratic
opportunities to move in the direction of education for all.