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Indian grid system

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Indian grid system

  1. 1. Pranay Gupta Electronics Hardware Engineer
  2. 2. INDIAN GRID SYSTEM North- East Region Northern Region Eastern Region Southerionn Region Western Region
  3. 3. STATES UNDER GRID REGION
  4. 4. SwitchYard Definition- It is switching station with incoming and outgoing feeders but without the transformer. It is a type of substation but incoming feeders and outgoing feeders are of same voltage level. Some times, the out door area of a substation where the circuit breakers are located are also called switchyard of the substation  A switchyard connects and disconnects lines on the grid for various regions. The operations and equipment are essentially all at the same voltage level.
  5. 5. SwitchYard Equipment •Transmission conductor •Lightning Arrester •Capacitor Voltage Transformer •Wave Trap •Earth Switch •Isolator •Line Reactor •Current Transformer •Circuit Breaker •Bus Bar • Post Bus Insulator •Corona Ring •Static VAr Compensator •ICT
  6. 6. Transmission Conductor- •Application : To provide conducting medium and connecting substation. Specification: •Stranded wire is used for decreasing skin effect. •Material Used: ACSR Moose •Nominal Voltage: 400kv •Max. Systemvoltage:420kv Lightning Arrester A Surge Arrestor is a voltage-sensitive device that it operates in principle, as a non-liner resistor. It is a protective device which conducts the high voltage surges on the power systems to the ground.
  7. 7. ISOLATORS  Isolator is an off load device which is operated by remote control or local.  Isolators provided in switchyard are central break type. Earth switch Earth switch is required to discharge the trapped charges on the line & consists of vertical break. Earth switch can only be operated locally.
  8. 8. BUS BAR  The flow of electrical power between incoming and outgoing circuits takes place through the bus bars.  These are junction points carrying huge power’  These are copper rods or thin walled tubes operating at constant voltage. Wave traps Wave traps are used for communication purpose during fault conditions. Wave traps offer high impedance path for high frequency signals & low impedance path for power frequency current.
  9. 9. POST INSULATORS  These provides necessary insulation between line conductors and supports and thus prevent the leakage of current from conductors to earth Corona Ring To distribute the electric field gradient and lower its maximum values below the corona threshold preventing corona discharge.
  10. 10. CURRENT TRANSFORMERS Used for measuring high value currents.  Designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to current flowing in its primary coil.  Primary winding consists of very few turns.  Secondary winding consists of large no. of turns.  Current to be measured is passes through primary winding. Capacitor Voltage Transformer  Also known as Potential transformer Used to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective relay.
  11. 11. TRANSFORMER Used to step down /step up the voltage . In switchyard it is used step down to 11kv from 440kv of bus bars. Line Reactor It is used under the light load condition to compensate the capacitive Var of long lines.
  12. 12. Static VAr Compensator(SVC)  One of the FACTS devices.  Used to stabilization of voltage of line .  It provide and compensate the reactive power of line under variation of load.  Thyristor controlled device.  Removes 5th and 7th harmonics of line.
  13. 13. CIRCUIT BREAKERS  These are switching devices, design to close or open an electrical circuit under normal or abnormal conditions.  It is on load device.  For arc quenching medium SF6 used .  Spring SF6 circuit breaker  Hydraulic circuit breaker  Pneumatic circuit breaker Relay Relay detects the faulty element in the integrated power system and removes it with the help of circuit breaker from the remaining healthy system as quickly as possible to avoid the damage
  14. 14. KVL & KCL…???

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