Minor Project Report
PROJECT MONITERING & CONTROLLING USING MICROSOFT PROJECT
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL (M.P)
In Partial fulfillment for the awardof degree of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
Submitted to:- Submitted by:-
Dr. Rajeev kumar Mr. Priyanshu kumar
(Hod- Civil dept.) 0876CE141113
The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from
many people and we are extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of our
project work. Whatever we have done is only due to such guidance and assistance and we
would not forget to thank them.
We owe our profound gratitude to our project guide Asst. Prof Lalitesh Sinha , who took keen
interest on our project work and guided, us all along, till the completion of our project work
by providing all the necessary information, constant encouragement, sincere criticism and
sympathetic attitude. The completion of this dissertation would not have been possible without
such guidance and support.
We extend our deep sense of gratitude to our, Prof S.R. Kumar,HOD, Department of Civil
Engineering or his support and suggestions during this project work.
We respect and thank to our Hon’ble Principal Dr. Shilpa Tripathi, for giving us an opportunity
to do the project work in campus and providing us all the necessary resources, support and
constant motivation which made us to complete the project on time.
we are thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement and guidance from all
teaching staffs of department of Civil Engineering which helped us in successfully completing
our project work.
We would like to extend our sincere regards to all the non-teaching staff of department of Civil
Engineering for their timely support.
3. I N D E X
CHAPTER PAGE No
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Project Management 3
1.2 processes 6
1.3 Planning and Design 7
1.4 Executing 7
2. Literature Survey 9
2.1. History of Project Management 9
2.2. Studies 11
2.2.1. Study 1 11
2.2.2. Study 2
2.2.3. Study 3
2.3. Objectives 14
2.3.1. Critique 17
3. Methodology 21
3.1 Introduction 21
3.1.1.Project management technique 21
3.1.2. Critical Path Method (CPM)
3.1.3.Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
4. Results Analysis 28
4.1 Drawing the PERT CPM Network 28
4.2 Result Analysis for time estimation in PERT 28
4.3 Result Analysis for monitoring and controlling project cost 29
4.4 Summary 32
Project management is the process and activity of planning, organizing, motivating, and
controlling resources, procedures and protocols to achieve specific goals in scientific or daily
problems. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or
result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by
funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring
about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast
with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent
functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two
systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills
and management strategies.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and
objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope,
time, quality and budget. The secondary — and more ambitious — challenge is to optimize
the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.
6. LIST OF TABLES
S.NO NAME OF THE TABLE PAGE NO
1. Activities and immediate predecessors 14
2. Time estimates 17
3. Monitoring and controlling budgeted cost 18
4. Normal and crash data 20
7. LIST OF FIGURES
S.NO NAME OF THE FIGURE PAGE NO
1. Initiating process 2
2. Executing 4
3. Plan of the project 12
4. Network diagram 13
5. Grant chart showing activities scheduling 15
9. 1. INTRODUCTION
The Project Management Institute defines a project as follows:
A Project is a unique undertaking with a defined starting point and duration directed at
achieving defined objectives, utilizing finite or infinite resources.
The key parts of this definition:
1. A project has a unique objective.
2. A project has a definite start, duration and finish. It has a temporary rather than
Some examples of projects are:
Building a house
Relocating a data center
Writing a book
Developing a software program
Project management is the management of an organized set of activities directed toward a
common goal, using specialized management structures and techniques. It includes:
Determining project objectives
What is the goal (or goals) of the project? Examples of project goals include building a bridge,
relocating the MIS department to a new site or installing a new phone system. More
importantly, some examples of things that are NOT projects include scheduling the usage for
a training facility or scheduling engineers in a technical service department. These are not
projects because they do not meet all the criteria of a project. They do not have a definitive
start, finish, and duration.
Managing budgets and resources
Projects do not get done without resources to do them. To ensure successful completion of a
project, it is important to estimate correctly the number of personnel and the amount of
equipment needed. With this, it is important to realize the cost of the project. Some projects
can be completed in a shorter time by increasing the manpower on the project. However, doing
this also increases the cost. One of the project manager’s jobs is to maintain a balance between
reducing costs and reducing the time to complete the project.
Reporting progress is a key to project management. It is essential that key players in a project
know what is happening, and whether they are on track, behind, or ahead of schedule. By
reviewing progress on a regular basis, you can try to avoid possible problems in advance. For
example, if you notice that a certain task was scheduled to take 10 days to accomplish, but on
day 5 only 25% of the work was finished, you could possibly re-allocate resources to that task
in order to complete it on time.
10. Evaluating efficiency and effectiveness
During and after a project, it is important to review and analyze the performance on the project.
This information can provide valuable insight into possible changes to make for future projects.
For example, your project was to build a house, and one of the steps involved was landscaping.
After the project is finished, you notice that it took less time to do the landscaping than you
originally planned. This information could be valuable if you build another house, because you
could reduce the time allocated for landscaping. By constantly reviewing the efficiency and
effectiveness of your project, you can more accurately plan future projects.
Traditionally, project management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups,
and a control system. Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic
project management processes will be used. Major process groups generally include
Planning or design
Production or execution
Monitoring and controlling
In project environments with a significant exploratory element (e.g., research and
development), these stages may be supplemented with decision points (go/no go decisions) at
which the project's continuation is debated and decided. An example is the Phase–gate model.
The initiating processes determine the nature and scope of the project. If this stage is not
performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’ needs.
The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and
making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies
should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them.
11. The initiating stage should include a plan that encompasses the following areas:
• analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals
• reviewing of the current operations
• Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget
• Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project
• Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule
1.1.3 Planning and design
After the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail (see example
of a flowchart). The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate
the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation
process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully
accomplishing its goals.
Project planning generally consists of
• determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or rolling wave);
• developing the scope statement;
• selecting the planning team;
• identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure;
• identifying the activities needed to complete those deliverables and networking the
activities in their logical sequence
• Estimating the resource requirements for the activities;
Estimating time and cost for activities;
• developing the schedule;
• developing the budget;
• risk planning;
• gaining formal approval to begin work.
Additional processes, such as planning for communications and for scope management,
identifying roles and responsibilities, determining what to purchase for the project and holding
a kick-off meeting are also generally advisable.
12. For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product
may be performed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the
planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities.
Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project plan to
accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and
resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with
the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes
performed as defined in the project management plan and other frameworks that might be
applicable to the type of project at hand.
Execution process group include:
• Direct and manage project execution
• Quality assurance of deliverables
• Acquire, develop and manage Project team
• Distribute information
• Manage stakeholder expectations
• Conduct procurement
• Test the deliverables against the initial design
Executing process group processes
14. 2.1LITERATURE SURVEY
THE HISTORY OF PROJECTMANAGEMENT
As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including
construction, engineering and defense. In the United States, the forefather of project
management is Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is
famously known for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool.
His work is the forerunner to many modern project management tools including the work
breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Again, in the United
States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts,
and informal techniques and tools.
At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were developed:
(1) the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT, developed by Booz-Allen &
Hamilton as part of the United States Navy's (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation)
Polaris missile submarine program; and
(2) the "Critical Path Method" (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont
Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.
At the same time, technology for project cost estimating, cost management, and engineering
economics was evolving. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE
International; the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering) was formed by early
practitioners of project management. AACE has continued its pioneering work and in 2006
released the first ever integrated process for portfolio, program and project management (Total
Cost Management Framework).
In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed to serve the interests of the
project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and techniques of project
management are common even among the widespread application of projects from the
software industry to the construction industry. In 1981, the PMI Board of Directors authorized
the development of what has become A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK Guide), containing the standards and guidelines of practice that are widely used
throughout the profession.
1.P.S, G.LRoy (2009) CPM, a technique for analyzing projects by determining
the longest sequenceoftasks (or the sequenceoftask with the least slack) through
a project network Organizations today are also increasingly using virtual project
management teams. They are procuringexpertise and materials from all corners
of the world. Therefore, CPM process is even more complicated than in the past.
These environments also create their own problems and bottleneck that have to
be also considered when studying and process or revenues has forced many
establishments to try to optimize their resources. Every organization is created to
serve and develop specific function, procedures and responsibilities.
2.Chinked C. Nwachukwu and Fidelis I. Emoh (2011) The production of
building facility as we refer it to building construction or developmental process
attracts professionals from all fields of life and non professionals. Building
material production, marketing, distribution, supply, storage has a long and
strong chain like impact on the economy as we know in commerce that
production is not complete unless the products get to the hands of the final
consumers. The income generated by way of receiving wages and salary, buying
and selling by people within and outside the country contributes positively to the
world economic growth. To the estate surveyor and Valuer, more than eighty
percent of our professional activities revolves around building facility. To this
end, any effort to encourage investment in building facility should be seen as a
step in the right direction. One of the steps which form the main focal point of
this paper is making sure that building developments are project managed to
achieve success thereby reducing the rate at which building constructionprojects
fail, suffer abandonment and reduce if not eliminating the rate at which buildings
collapse in Nigeria.
3. A.F Tom, S Paul (2013) Project monitoring and control is the process of
collecting, recording, and reporting information concerning project performance.
Project controlling uses the data from monitor activity to bring actual
performance to planned performance. The present study deals with the project
monitoring process of “Standard Design Factory”, a four Storied (G+3) factory
16. building whose construction is in progress at Cochin, Kerala. A comparison
between the planned progress of construction work and actual progress is
performed in this study using projectmanagement software MS- Project. Despite
well-established principles and policies of project monitoring the process itself
may not be efficiently accomplished in a project, because of those practical
problems existing or arising in the project Such an attempt in realizing the
practical problems in implementation of project monitoring and control will
contribute to proper recognition of the problem areas and putting in place the
control process to rectify the deviations.
17. I. The main purpose is to govern the operations of a project such that all
activities involved are well administrated and that we can also control its
II. Understand and control project schedules and finances.
III. Communicate and present project information.
IV. Organize work and people to make sure that projects are completed on
On the basis of study of research paper presented above , it is concluded
that the studies are mainly carried on the cost of construction management for
design and effect of different materials used for the construction of sports
complex. We went on a site of a Sports Complex near Nagar Nigam Square
Indore for present study of finding and operation cost& estimated time for
“PROJECT MONITERING & CONTROLLING USING MS –PROJECT” is
least as compare to direct scheduling.
19. PROJECTMANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE
• Critical Path Method (CPM)
The Critical Path Method, sometimes referred to as Critical Path Analysis (CPA) was
developed in the 1950’s by DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation. It was
specifically developed to manage power plant maintenance projects. They wanted to develop
a management tool that would help in the scheduling of chemical plant shut downs for
maintenance and then restarting them once maintenance was complete. The CPM methods
saved the company one million dollars in the first year of use.
• ProjectEvaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Separate but similar work was also being conducted in the mid 1950’s by the United States
Navy. The US government discovered the Russians were developing their own missile
technology, and because national security was at stake the Navy immediately launched their
own program to close the missile gap.
• Gantt Chart
A bar chart. While visually appealing on a task/duration basis, it is limited because it
does not show task or resource relationships well. Strength: easy to maintain and read.
Both CPM and PERT are network based techniques. They are vital tools in the planning,
scheduling, and control of projects. A project is a collection of interrelated activities with each
activity consuming time and resources. In order to use either method you must:
(1) Define the activities involved for each project.
(2) Define the precedence relationship of activities:
- Can the activity be completed independently of other activities?
- Must the activity be preceded by another activity?
Once you have this information a network can be created showing the precedence relationship.
The next step involves specific computations to develop a time schedule for the project.
21. Drawing the PERT/CPMNetwork
There are two common techniques for drawing PERT networks.
Activity-on-node (AON) where the nodes represent activities.
Activity-on-arc (AOA) where the arcs are used to represent the activities.
The AON approach is easier and more commonly found in software packages.
One node represents the start of the project, one node for the end of the project, and
nodes for each of the activities.
The arcs are used to show the predecessors for each activity.
22. Activities and immediate predecessors
A Build internal components —
B Modify roof and floor —
C Construct collection stack A
D Pour concrete and install frame B
E Build high-temperature burner C
F Install control system C
G Install air pollution device D, E
H Inspect and test F, G
23. Gantt chart
Showing activities scheduling
THE TIME ESTIMATES IN PERT ARE:
1. Optimistic time (a) = time an activity will take if everything goes as well as possible.
There should be only a small probability (say, 1/100) of this occurring.
24. 2. Pessimistic time (b) = time an activity would take assuming very unfavorable
conditions. There should also be only a small probability that the activity will really
take this long.
3. Most likely time (m) = most realistic time estimate to complete the activity
To find the expected activity time (t), the beta distribution weights the estimates as follows:
To compute the dispersion or variance of activity completion time, we use the formula:
25. Time estimates (Months)
t = [(a + 4m +
[(b – a)/6]2
A 1 2 3 2 4/36
B 2 3 4 3 4/36
C 1 2 3 2 4/36
D 2 4 6 4 16/36
E 1 4 7 4 36/36
F 1 2 9 3 64/36
G 3 4 11 5 64/36
H 1 2 3 2 4/36
• We accept the expected completion time for each task as the actual time for now.
• The total of 25 months in Table does not take into account the obvious fact that some
of the tasks could be taking place at the same time.
• To find out how long the project will take we perform the critical path analysis for the
• The critical path is the longest path through the network.
26. Monitoring and Controlling Budgeted Cost
COMPLETED ACTUAL COST
A 22,000 100 22,000 20,000 –2,000
B 30,000 100 30,000 36,000 6,000
C 26,000 100 26,000 26,000 0
D 48,000 10 4,800 6,000 1,200
E 56,000 20 11,200 20,000 8,800
F 30,000 20 6,000 4,000 –2,000
G 80,000 0 0 0 0
H 16,000 0 0 0 0
( in Thousand)
100,000 112,000 12,000
Monitoring and Controlling ProjectCosts
The value of work completed, or the cost to date for any activity, can be computed as follows:
Projects will sometimes have deadlines that are impossible to meet using normal
By using exceptional methods it may be possible to finish the project in less time than
normally required at a greater cost.
Reducing a project’s completion time is called crashing.
Crashing a project starts with using the normal time to create the critical path.
The normal cost is the cost for completing the activity using normal procedures.
If the project will not meet the required deadline, extraordinary measures must be taken.
The crash time is the shortest possible activity time and will require additional
The crash cost is the price of completing the activity in the earlier-than-normal time.
Normal and Crash Data
The activity difference is also of
Activity difference = Actual cost
– Value of work
A negative activity difference is a
cost underrun and a positive activity
= (Percentage of work complete)
x (Total activity budget)
TIME (months) COST CRASH
PATH?NORMAL CRASH NORMAL CRASH
A 2 1 22,000 23,000 1,000 Yes
B 3 1 30,000 34,000 2,000 No
C 2 1 26,000 27,000 1,000 Yes
D 4 3 48,000 49,000 1,000 No
E 4 2 56,000 58,000 1,000 Yes
F 3 2 30,000 30,500 500 No
G 5 2 80,000 86,000 2,000 Yes
H 2 1 16,000 19,000 3,000 Yes
29. Summary of the results obtained from the case study lead to following
· Project progress is 51.73% of the total work after consuming 62.48% of the total
estimated project duration.
· The project has a negative value for schedule variance (SV) which means that
the project is behind schedule.
· The originally estimated completion time for the project was 20 months, so the
project manager now knows that if work continues at the current rate the project
will take 5 months longer than originally planned as time estimate at completion
is 25 months.
· The project has a favourable cost variance of 12,000. A positive value of CV
means that the project is over budget.
· Costvariance percentage is 4.84% therefore the project is 4.84 % below budget
for the work performed till 31st Dec 2012, excluding penalties applicable due to
· Estimate to complete shows that Rs.1 crore is the expected cost required to
finish all the remaining work.
· Many issues in finish date variances and Various other issues in start date
variances are reported when the finish date variance threshold and start date
variance thresholds are monitored.
• This objective was achieved through revision of literatures and
methodologies involved in monitoring and control.
• The case study proved to be a guideline in understanding the progress of
Standard design construction work.
• Identify the specific problems arising during the process.
• Results of this study show the drawbacks of the present project
management and the importance efficient planning, monitoring and
controlling, as well as the need and effectiveness of a project management
software like MS project and any other in a construction project.
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