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Choosing the appropriate research topic. satya pptx

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*Development of scientific attitude -
 Evidence based medicine
*Learning research methodology
*Curricular requirement
*pub...
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Choosing the appropriate research topic. satya pptx

  1. 1. *
  2. 2. *Development of scientific attitude - Evidence based medicine *Learning research methodology *Curricular requirement *publication *
  3. 3. *
  4. 4. *It Is a systematic and organised scientific process *To find answers to questions
  5. 5. * Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought………. ----Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
  6. 6. *is an important and complex part of the research process *You will need to do some research and reading *
  7. 7. CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE RESEARCH TOPIC Dr. V. Sathyanarayanan M.D., Professor of Pharmacology
  8. 8. *To know the processes involved in choosing the appropriate research topic *To formulate a research question ( aim and objectives ) *To assess the quality of the research question effectively *To formulate a hypothesis for testing the research question *OBJECTIVES
  9. 9. *First and foremost, it must be interesting *You should learn something of value to you *It should be productive *
  10. 10. * Choose a mentor or guide
  11. 11. and then… 1. Develop a research question * Do a thorough search of medical literature * Identify the edge of knowledge related to that question and gaps in knowledge * Be certain that your question has not already been answered AND that filling the gaps is important 2. Develop a testable hypothesis *
  12. 12. *The man with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds….. *
  13. 13. *Not necessarily Archemedes or edison
  14. 14. *as you go about your daily clinical practice * observe with curiosity and enquire….. * Sometimes it is the result of having a disagree ment with a colleague *Define the problem well *
  15. 15. *Etiology and *Elucidate mechanisms pathogenesis *Pathophysiology *Diagnosis *Diagnostic approaches *Therapeutic *Treatment interventions *prognosis *Research into the prognostic factors *
  16. 16. *Consider personal interests *Engage in conversations with the mentor, colleagues, teachers and experts *Read articles *Browse recent issues of journals or magazines *Browse the shelves for books on your subject *Identify the research question area *Aware of overuse of ideas
  17. 17. *Concluding sections in the critically examined individual studies, systematic review *Remaining gaps in literature *Further define the research question *MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCEDIRECT, * MEDSCAPE *
  18. 18. *From standard text books *Use article databases to scan current magazine, journal or newspaper articles on the topic * Use Web search engines to find Web sites on the topic *
  19. 19. *Keep it manageable. *Be aware if a topic is very recent *discuss your topic with your guide *
  20. 20. * Look for words that best describe your topic *Find synonyms, broader and narrower terms for each keyword you find *Keep a list of these words to use later as you search *
  21. 21. * it is common to modify your topic during the research process * Be aware of the depth of coverage needed and the due date. *Your guide will probably provide specific requirements *
  22. 22. *You will often begin with a word, *develop a more focused interest in an aspect of something relating to that word, * then begin to have questions about the topic. *Significance of the research question must be identified *
  23. 23. *Use the key words you have gathered to research in the * catalog, article databases * and Internet search engines. * Find more information to help answer your research question. *
  24. 24. * To steal from one is plagiarism.to steal from many is research… ---Steven Right
  25. 25. * This may be the answer to your research question * and/or a way to clearly state the purpose of your research. * Your thesis statement will usually be one or two sentences * that states precisely what is to be answered, proven, or what you will inform your audience about your topic. *
  26. 26. * Trying to turn a statement into a real question *
  27. 27. *Possibly the most difficult part * is to come up with a reasonable question *and focus it to the point *where it can be answered *
  28. 28. * defining the goal of your research, * identifying objectives, * refining and refining it some more and * refining it even more until * you have a neat and simple question * that is feasible to answer. *
  29. 29. * stated in broad terms * and covers the topic that interests you *
  30. 30. * more focused * There could be more than one *but all would contribute to the overall goal *Define it *
  31. 31. * one of the on going topics in recent years is * whether medical marijuana has any place in the mains tream medical world. * The goal of research in this area would be *to assess whether medical marijuana is a useful treatment *
  32. 32. *What is the population I want to study? *How do I describe it – age, sex, background? *What is the intervention I want to study? *Do I have all the details of the intervention? *What is the outcome I want to achieve? *How am I going to measure the outcome? *
  33. 33. *PICO *P ‐ Population *I ‐ Intervention *C ‐ Comparison *O – Outcome Measured *
  34. 34. *Population ‐ children with cerebral palsy * Described ‐ ages 6 to 16 *Intervention ‐ Medical marijuana * Details of intervention – dose and given orally *Outcome – frequency of spasm by 50% * Measure of outcome – Tic spasm score. *
  35. 35. *Medical marijuana, given orally X mg q.i.d will *reduce the frequency of spasms by 50%, as me asured by the Tic spasm score, in children with *cerebral palsy between the ages of 6 and 16 ye ars. *
  36. 36. * single statement that contains sufficient information that it can be tested using *statistical methodology
  37. 37. * are procedures for making rational decisions about *what is real and what is opinion *
  38. 38. *F – Feasible *I – Interesting *N – Novel *E – Ethical *R ‐ Relevant *
  39. 39. *Number of subjects *Alter inclusion and exclusion criteria *Equipment *cost *
  40. 40. *To you *To the guide *To the peers *Editors of the journals *Reviewers *
  41. 41. *Newer topic or idea *Not duplicated *Duplicated Will have a lower rating *
  42. 42. * Should follow existing guidelines like * ICMR code of Ethics in biomedical research * Clinical trials should follow  Good Clinical Practice Guidelines published by Government of India * Get the IEC approval *
  43. 43. *Addresses certain community needs *Addresses issues that will have an impact for policy making *
  44. 44. Questions to ask yourself Yes No Vague Is the question asked in a single sentence? Is the question simple? P Does the question specify the population? I Does the question state the intervention? C Is there a comparison group? O Is there a clear outcome in the question? O Has the measure for the outcome been specified? F Is the question FEASIBLE? I Is it INTERESTING ? to you? to others? N Is it NOVEL? ‐‐ new? Innovative? E ETHICAL? ‐‐ is there a state of equipoise between comp eting therapies? Will your investigations  harm? R RELEVANT? To policy makers? To patients?
  45. 45. * What is the sample size you are looking for ? * would you have access to the population you wanted? * Would the selected population agree to participate? * Would you be able to obtain the drug samples? * Think through what budget you might need? * Will the ethics committee approve of your project? * How novel are the questions? ( not repeated ) *
  46. 46. * Generating a good research question is an iterative process * that requires you to develop new conceptual schemes for the problem * the generation of “Concept Maps” a very useful technique for keeping our thinking straight * MindManager (www.mindjet.com) * Inspiration (www.inspiration.com) *
  47. 47. * you can write the one page description required for the assi gnment. * should write the goal of the research, * what the general objective of the research is, * try to formulate specific aims which can be your refined que stion(s) and then, * if you have a hypothesis that can be tested, write that down. * summarize your thinking on the feasibility * and general plans you have for conducting the research. *
  48. 48. * Hulley SB, Cummings SR. “Designing Clinical Research: An epidemiological approach. * Centre for Health Evidence: “Users’ Guides to Evidence Based Practice” * http://www.cche.net/usersguides/start.asp#Questions * Guidelines for graduate students: “Choosing and refining a research topic” http://www.fiu.edu/~kowert/topic.html * How to write Specific Aims: http://www.theresearchassistant.com/tutorial/4‐4.asp *
  49. 49. Even thousands of miles of journey starts with a single step…….. lao tzu a chinese mystic

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