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Gymnema sylvestre

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Gymnema sylvestre

  1. 1. Gymnema sylvestre By Pallavi Bohra
  2. 2. Introduction Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 2  Herb, climber  8 m/600m height  Native of southern, central India and Srilanka, africa,Malasiya  Also known as Asclepias geminata, Gymnema melicida, and Pinus sylvestris  Other names  English: Periploca of woods  Hindi:Gurmar (Destroyer of sugar)  Sanskrit:Madhuashini  Marathi:Dhuleti  Kannada:Sannageraseha -mbu
  3. 3. Classification Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 3  Kingdom: Plantae  Subkingdom: Tracheobionta  Superdivision: Spermatophyta  Division: Magnoliophyta  Class: Magnoliopsida  Subclass: Asteridae  Order: Gentianales  Family: Asclepiadaceae  Genus: Gymnema  Species: sylvestre R.Br. (Robert Brown)
  4. 4. Plant morphology Stem: Arial, hard and branched. Young stem’s branches are smooth and cylindrical. Leaves: Elliptic, base acute to acuminate, glabrous and opposite. Infloroscence: Umbellate cyme with small yellow coloured flowers A.Sabhitha rani et.,al GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE:AN IMPORTANTANTIDIABETICPLANTOF INDIA:.2012 4
  5. 5. Cultivation  Best is sandy loam soil.  For preparation : Make soil weed-free  10-12 tonnes/hectare of FYM and 250 kg of NPK added as a basal dose at the time of preparation  October-December : Seeds are collected and sown in polybags.  Feb-March: Seedling raised are planted in field  1-1.5 m spacing is recommended  Green gram can be grown as a intercrop  Irrigation require once a week  October-Feb. One year leaves are ready to harvest  Roots are collected in summers  Aphid sp. is observed to attach this plant National medicinal plant board 5
  6. 6. Harvesting  Leaves: 30-40 days leaves can be used  One year time is best  Post harvesting methods:  Dried in shade  Packed in polybags  Moisture content should only 8%  Chemical constitute:  7-9.6% of gymnemic acid  Yield and cost of cultivation:  1250 kg of dry leaves from one hectare in every three months  Cost of cultivation is 25000 Rs/hectare National medicinal plant board 6
  7. 7. Phyto Chemistry Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 www.natureherbs.com 7  G.syvestre leaves extract contain oleanane and dammarene classes of triterpene saponins.  Major component: Gymnemic acid, gurmarin, gymnemasaponins and gymnemasides  Gymenemic acid and gymnemasaponins are group of oleanane type of saponins  Dammarene saponins are gymnemasides and gurmarin  Other components: Resins, albumin, chlorophyll, carbohydrates, tartaric acid, formic acid, butyric acid, anthraquinone derivatives, inositole  Alkaloids, organic acid (5.5%), parabin, calcium oxalate (7.3%), lignin (4.8%), cellulose (22%)
  8. 8. Nutraceutical values  Slow the transport of glucose from the intestine to the bloodstream Lower blood sugar Lower gycosylated heamoglobin HbAC1 Lower glycosylated plasma protein levels Decreasing glycosuria  Chewing the leaves destroys the ability to identify the sweet taste  Fruits and leaves used for treating blood pressure and heart rhythms http://www.drwhitaker.com/the-benefits-of-gymnema-sylvestre-extract http://www.drugs.com/npc/gymnema.html A.Sabhitha rani et.,al GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE:AN IMPORTANTANTIDIABETICPLANTOF INDIA:.2012 8
  9. 9. Continue……….  Leaves are bitter, astringent and acrid  Also, anti-inflammatory, anthelmenthics, cardiotonic, expectorant and antipyretic.  Leaves are also used for stomach ailments, water retention, and liver disease, anaemia and eye complaints, jaundice, asthma and leucoderma.  Leaves also used to treat snake bite. A.Sabhitha rani et.,al GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE:AN IMPORTANTANTIDIABETICPLANTOF INDIA:.2012 9
  10. 10. continue…..  Lowering serum cholesterol and triglycerides  Reduce the complications of retinopathy by 38%  Other : Anti-inflammatory, anodyne, digestive, liver tonic, anti-emetic, diuretic, stimulant, laxative, uterine tonic and urinary disorder.  Useful in dyspepsia, constipation and jaundice, haemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis, amenorrhoea, conjunctivitis and leucoderma Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 10
  11. 11. Mechanism of G.sylvestre (Gymnemic acid)- hypogycimic effect  It promotes regeneration of islet cells  It increases secretion of insulin  It causes inhibition of glucose absorption from intestine  It increases utilization of glucose as it increase the activities of enzymes responsible for utilization of glucose by insulin-dependent pathways, an increase in phosphorylase activity, decrease in gluconeogenic enzymes and sorbitol dehydrogenase  Decrease glucose absorption in the intestine Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 11
  12. 12. Ethnobotanical Uses (Tribal people)  Jungle Irulas , Bourgeois classes inhabitants of Nagari Hills (North Arcot District, Bombay and Gujarat): Habit of chewing a few green leaves in the morning in order to keep their urine clear and to reduce glycosuria  Vaids (Bombay and Madras): Used leaves in the treatment of furunculosis and madhumeha (Honey urine)  Juice obtained from root is used to treat vomiting and in dysentery  Plant paste is applied with mother’s milk to treat mouth ulcer Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 12
  13. 13. Pharmacology studies  Antiobesity Study:  Gurmarin peptide block the ability to taste sweet or bitter flavors and thus reduces sweet cravings  Gymnema sylvestre extract and hydroxycitric acid, niacin bound chromium can serve as an effective and safe weight loss formula  *Who took gymnema one hour before food eat less than the participants who had not consume gymnema  Antimicrobial Activity:  Against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus  Ethanolic, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of the aerial parts -antibacterial effects against P. vulgaris, E. coli, P. aeroginosa, Klebsella pneumoniae and S. aureus Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 13
  14. 14. Suggested combinations with other herbs  Diabetes :G. sylvestre can be taken along with fenugreek, goat’s rue and neem leaves .  Weight loss :G.sylvestre with globe artichoke or blue flag for weight loss.  Hypercholesterolaemia: G. sylvestre recommended with turmeric, hawthorn, Silybum, globe artichoke and garlic. Ankit Sanejal et.,al Gymnema sylvestre.2010 14
  15. 15. Limitation  No major side effects have been reported  Can cause hypoglycaemia-medical supervision require Market info  2006/07  Market price:50Rs/kg (dry leaves)  Market demands: 1tonnes/year www.natureherbs.com 15
  16. 16. Some products http://www.mynutramart.com/vista-nutritions-resveratrol-plus-with-gymnema-sylvestre.html, http://www.shopclues.com/amway-nutrilite-glucose-health- 19.html?gclid=CNTbr9umtMICFQcRjgod9xUAuQ&gclsrc=aw.ds 16 Some products
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