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Sea of Change: Your Role in Marine Conservation

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Sea of Change: Your Role in Marine Conservation

  1. 1. YOUR ROLE IN MARINE CONSERVATION Christine Paula Love R. Bernasor
  2. 2. The Philippines Has one of the longest coastlines in the world— estimated at 36,289 kilometers. The coastline extends 2,000 kilometers from north to south, with 25 major cities lying on the coast.
  3. 3. The Philippines Coral Triangle is a marine area located in the western Pacific Ocean. Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Papua New Guinea Timor Leste Solomon Islands
  4. 4. The Philippines 75% of the world’s coral species are found here— nearly 600 different species. Six of the world’s seven marine turtle species More than 2000 species of reef fish
  5. 5. People of the World
  6. 6. Total water use increased almost 10 fold along the 20th Century
  7. 7. Estimates of the Earth’s carrying capacity for humans
  12. 12. Should We Look Into Space? No Habitable Planets Yet – Time to Travel ‘Earthening’ Planets – Too Slow Population Control and Management To Look From Space Rather Than Into Space The 9 Billion Question
  13. 13. By the law of nature these things are common to mankind— the air, running water, the sea, and consequently the shores of the sea. A consequence of the common nature of the oceans, where private property does not generally occur, is that no one takes responsibility for the problems plaguing the oceans and that its resources are overexploited even where regulations, but insufficient enforcement, exist. TRAGEDY OF COMMONS
  14. 14. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
  15. 15. Rising temperatures & Ocean Acidification Twin threats to ocean life resulting from the increased levels of carbon dioxide we are pumping into the atmosphere as a result of our dependence on fossil fuels
  16. 16. Coral Reef Degradation The Philippines coral reef area is the second largest in Southeast Asia More than 400 scleractinian coral species, 12 of which are endemic. Less than 1% of our coral reefs are in excellent condition
  17. 17. Loss of Sea Grass Beds and Mangroves Of the more than 10,000 square kilometers of 98 sites surveyed, only 978 square kilometers of sea grass beds remain We lost 30-40 percent of our sea grass beds Only 140,000 hectares of mangroves remains out of 450,000 hectares.
  18. 18. Shark Finning Nearly 40 million sharks are killed annually for their fins, which are considered a delicacy in Asia and prepared primarily in soups and cosmetics. No legislation to ban the catching of all sharks and rays in Philippine waters
  19. 19. Pollution All sorts of human-generated pollutants are degrading the marine environment, including those discharged from factories on land, pesticides and nutrients from agriculture, sewage, plastics, toxic chemicals and oil resulting from spills, and evenradioactive discharges from nuclear power stations situated near the coast.
  20. 20. Sea Levels Rising Philippines has seen three times the global average in sea level rising making it more vulnerable to natural disasters Philippines posted the highest average increase in sea levels, at 60 cms, against the global average of 19 cms since the year 1901.
  21. 21. Overfishing and Illegal Fishing 75% percent of fisheries are overfished Philippines will run out of fish in ten years if it fails to stop overfishing. Compared to 1960’s only 10% of the fish population remain today
  22. 22. Today we allocate important resources to search for water and oceans in distant planets - so far with no success... But we largely ignore our ocean, the “inner space”
  23. 23. At least 4,951 species of marine plants and animals are found in Philippine coastal and marine habitats. The 381 coral species and 1,030 species of fish recorded in Philippine coral reefs ranks the country second to the great Barrier Reef in coral and coral reef fish diversity 3,967 species of coral reefs 481 species of sea grass beds There are 16 taxa of seagrasses recorded in the Philippines making the country the second highest in terms of seagrass species richness in the world 370 species of mangroves 70 species soft bottom communities Home to Millions ..
  24. 24. Scientists believe that phytoplankton contribute between 50 to 85 percent of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere Seagrass meadows are strong natural carbon sinks even greater than the pristine Amazonian forest. It is estimated that four and a half million of hectares of mangroves in Indonesia can scrub the carbon emissions of some five million cars. Mangroves can sequester 1.5 tons of carbon per hectare per year Oxygen and CO2 Regulation
  25. 25. At least 40 million Filipinos depend on the sea for food and livelihood More than 1 million people (5 percent of the national labor force), with 68% employed in the municipal sector and 28% in the commercial and aquaculture sectors 6.2 million employed in tourism-related businesses At least $83 million per year annual direct benefits from mangroves Philippines accounts for 43% of the marine aquarium fish and 36 percent of the invertebrates traded globally Coral reefs alone contribute at least $1,064 billion annually 1 square kilometer of healthy coral reef with some tourism potential produces net revenues ranging from $29,000 to $113,000 Food and Livelihood
  26. 26. Coral reefs protect an estimated 200 million people from natural disasters and rising sea levels. Coastal Protection
  27. 27. Trabectedin is an anti-tumor drug. It is sold under the brand name Yondelis in Europe, Russia and South Korea for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma, such as ovary cancer. Green fluorescent proteins (GFP) are proteins that exhibit bright green fluorescence when excited by blue or UV radiation. First isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, GFP has been used to design biosensors for visualisation and diagnostic purposes. Market Value: US$9B in 2009, increasing at a rapid 9.4% from the previous year. 1 amylase, from a hydrothermal vent organism, used to liquefy corn biofuel deliver US$150M every year on patent use rights Apothecary
  28. 28. Myth: There are floating islands of plastics in every ocean. Fact: Only a small percentage of ocean plastics float at the sea surface. Myth #1
  29. 29. Myth: Ocean plastic primarily comes from ocean dumping and industry, such as cruise ships or container ships. Fact: Most of the plastics in the ocean come from items we use every day. Myth #2
  30. 30. Myth: Ocean trash gyres, large areas of the ocean where currents concentrate trash, can simply be cleaned out of existence. Fact: While some surface trash can be cleaned, many plastics break down and become dispersed. Myth #3
  31. 31. Myth: Ocean plastics are just a trash problem. Fact: Plastic particles are now found inside animals and throughout the ocean food chain Myth #4
  32. 32. Myth: There is one, simple solution capable of solving our ocean plastics problem. Fact: Bans, fees, recycling nor product redesign alone can fix this. Myth #5
  33. 33. Watch What You Are Eating!
  34. 34. Keep it Clean! Use Less Plastic
  35. 35. Reduce Your Energy Consumption
  36. 36. Keep Your Beach Clean!
  37. 37. Be A Responsible Traveler
  38. 38. Be An Active Ocean Defender

Notas del editor

  • Coral reefs regulate the carbon dioxide levels in the oceans by turning the CO2 into limestone (which eventually becomes our beaches). Without their efforts, the CO2 levels in the oceans would reach unsustainable levels; levels approaching what we’re seeing now, as a matter of fact. Right now we’re in a vicious and detrimental cycle where we have unapologetically destroyed more than a quarter of the reefs in the oceans (by some estimates a third), impacting and raising the CO2 levels, which in turn harms and kills even more coral reefs. As long as this cycle continues, the coral reefs and associated fisheries will continue to die. As the coral dies, so do the fisheries supported by them. As the CO2 levels increase, more fish are impacted and killed and even more fisheries are affected, even those not directly associated with coral reefs. There is a chain in the ocean and we are in the process of actively breaking a link in that chain.
  • Avoid buying seafood that comes from stocks that are being overfished or is caught using destructive fishing methods. Check the Red List here.
    Demand that your supermarket and tuna brand source sustainable tuna. Look for tuna cans with "Pole and Line" or "Hand-Caught."
    Speak up about your concerns if you spot a threatened species on the menu or at the seafood counter.
  • We need to use less fossil fuel to reduce the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the oceans. Leave the car at home at least one day a week and inflate your tyres more often. Be conscious of your energy use at home and work, switch to energy efficient light bulbs and unplug your appliances and gadgets or use a power strip to cut power to electronics when they are not in use.
  • For your holiday destination chose a country that supports ocean sanctuaries. Always research the most eco-friendly option and whenever possible avoid flying or offset your carbon footprint by supporting for example clean-energy projects. Avoid buying coral jewellery, tortoiseshell hair accessories, and shark or other endangered marine species products.

    No matter how far from the sea you live, your drainage water will eventually end up in the ocean. Use biodegradable washing powder, chemical free household and gardening products or simple, non-toxic ingredients like vinegar, baking soda, or lemon juice.

  • Learn more about the oceans, marine life and the need for ocean sanctuaries, then share your knowledge so you can educate and inspire others.
    You can help influence change. Contact your local politicians to let them know you support ocean sanctuaries and other marine conservation projects, and vote for environmentally-minded parties.