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Made With Creative Commons - Open Business Models



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Presentation given at Open Education Conference in Richmond Virginia describing how organizations use Creative Commons as an integral part of their business to generate economic and social value while successfully operating and sustaining their business.

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Made With Creative Commons - Open Business Models

  1. 1. Made With by Paul Stacey, Creative Commons The 13th Annual Open Education Conference November 3, 2016 Richmond, VA #OpenEd16 Except where otherwise noted these materials are licensed Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY)
  2. 2. A Book About Open Business Models 1,687 backers. Thank you backers!
  3. 3. Goals: Interview 24 businesses, creators, and organizations across sectors and from around the world who have made CC core to their operations. Tell their stories in a way that conveys their origins, goals, what they do, and how they do it. Describe their sustainability strategy including revenue generation. Analyse the stories and identify common practices, themes, and strategies. Combine case study analysis with a review of related literature. Generate a a big picture framework for contextualizing, thinking about, and analyzing Made With Creative Commons initiatives. Provide Made With CC recommendations and guidance. Produce and distribute Made With CC as ebook and physical print book.
  4. 4. Part 1 = The Forest Big Picture Framework​ ​- 10,000 Foot View Forest by Mickey O’Neil Unsplash ​​ licensed CC0
  5. 5. ●The Commons and Commoning ●The Commons, The Market, The State ●Parts of a Resource ○ Attributes ○ Social ○ Norms and Rules-in-Use ○ Use ●The History of the Commons ●Today’s Commons ●Creative Commons Role in the Commons ●The Alt-Market ●Open Business Models ●Benefits of the Commons ●Commons Principles
  6. 6. Part 2 = Paths Taken Ground Level View Forest by Jens Lelie Unsplash ​​ licensed CC0
  7. 7. ●What it means to be Made With CC ○ Made With CC = sharing creative work + set of values ○ Obscurity ○ Piracy ●More than a copyright license ●Making Made With CC sustainable ○ Sustainability = $ + reciprocity ○ Types of value ■ Commercial value ■ Symbolic value ■ Public value ■ Reuser value ■ Commons value ○ Reciprocity feeds financial sustainability ●Inspiring reciprocity ○ Connection ○ Be human
  8. 8. ○ Build trust ○ Have trust ○ Treat humans as humans ●Collaboration ○ How to collaborate ○ Creative collaboration ○ Other types of collaboration ●Community ●How to make enough money ○ Costs to create ○ Costs to distribute ●Market-based revenue ○ Charging for service ○ Charging for a different version of your content ○ Charging for access to an audience ○ Charging for access to a brand
  9. 9. ●The role of CC licensing in market-based revenue streams ○ Copying to increase eyeballs and name recognition ○ Copying as a marketing tool ●Reciprocity-based revenue ○ Memberships and individual donations ○ Pay what you want models ○ Subsidizing content creation up front ○ Physical copies ●Blending market and reciprocity revenue ●Choosing a license ○ The more restrictive license options ○ Enabling hands-on engagement with your work
  10. 10. Part 3 = Each Individual Tree - 24 Case Study Stories Tree by Milada Vigerova Unsplash ​​ licensed CC0
  11. 11. Made With Creative Commons Case Studies 1. Opendesk​ ​(UK, open 3D design / furniture manufacturing) 2. Lumen Learning​ ​(US, higher education/OER) 3. OpenStax​ ​(US, education/open textbooks/publisher) 4. Wikimedia Foundation​ ​(US, encyclopedia +) 5. Rijksmuseum​ ​(Netherlands, Museum/GLAM) 6. Noun Project​ ​(US, icons/symbols platform) 7. Open Data Institute​ ​(UK, open data advocacy and services) 8. Tribe of Noise​ ​(Netherlands, music platform) 9. Figshare​ ​(UK, research data/education/publishing) 10.Cards Against Humanity​ ​(US, game) 11.Amanda Palmer​ ​(US, musician, author, artist) 12.Cory Doctorow​ ​(Canadian but living in LA, writer, activist) 13.Arduino​ ​(Italy, open hardware & software)
  12. 12. 14.The Conversation​ ​(Australia/US/France/Africa, journalism) 15.Jonathan Mann​ ​(US, music) 16.Shareable Magazine​ ​(US, niche publishing) 17.Knowledge Unlatched​ ​(UK, open monograph publishing) 18.Sparkfun​ ​(US, hardware) 19.PLOS​ ​(US, research journal) 20.Blender​ ​(Netherlands, film, 3D modeling) 21.Artica​ ​(Uruguay, cultural management) 22.TeachAids​ ​(US, software & education) 23.Siyavula​ ​(Africa, textbooks and intelligent practice)​ ​(New Zealand, open data publishing)
  13. 13. Case Studies Summary Table​: ●Business / Organization Name ●Country ●What they do ●CC license ●Revenue model ●Motivation Recommended Reading
  14. 14. RESOURCES Attributes Norms Rules-In-Use Social Use Physical or Digital Scarce or Abundant Who can access & use? Who says, how determined? Direct or Indirect Informal (norms) or Formal (laws) Additive or Extractive Goals of use Use Outcome Measures
  15. 15. MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use STATE Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use Tri-Partite Resource Management Each functions differently • different norms & rules • different social • different use
  16. 16. MARKET STATE Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use Tri-Partite Long Ago
  17. 17. MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use STATE Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use State Takeover of Commons
  18. 18. MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use STATE Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use Tri-Partite Today
  19. 19. Indirect / Representational • government • elected officials • autocratic Policies Regulations Laws Public Goods Infrastructure • roads • bridges • sidewalks • telecommunication • Internet Facilities • schools • libraries • museums STATE Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use Natural • parks • forests • fish • waterways Outcome Measures • quality of life • social • economic • individual • community research GLAM education materials data software TYPES Physical Digital
  20. 20. Indirect / Representational • buyers • sellers • businesses • anonymous Laws • property • transactional • competition • value based on $ Private Goods • commodities • make digital scarce Outcome Measures • extraction • consumption • monetization • sales • revenue • profit • shareholder return • growth MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use
  21. 21. COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use Digital • non-rivalrous • non-excludable • non-depletable • replication = 0 cost Hybrid Physical • rivalrous • excludable • depletable • replication cost Abundance Based Scarcity Based Direct Participation (major difference) • community • creators purpose/intent • users who have an interest in resource use • resource collaboration • those impacted by use of resources Digital • attribution • share-alike • non-commercial • no derivatives Common Goods Physical (Ostrom) • Access: Right to enter defined area and enjoy its benefits without removing any resources. • Withdrawal: Right to obtain specified products from a resource system and remove that product from the area for prescribed uses • Management: Right to participate in decisions regulating resources or making improvements to infrastructure. • Exclusion: Right to participate in the determination of who has, and who does not have, access to and use of resources. • Alienation: Right to sell, lease, bequeath, or otherwise transfer any or all of the preceding component rights. Metrics • resources & views • uploads & downloads • remixes • # people, size of community • attributions, gratitude Outcome Measuress • participation (creation & use) • distributional equity • economic efficiency • costs & benefits - individual & community • impact on system and Commons itself Digital • music • images • OA • OER • culture Hybrid • books • 3D printing • CNC • laser cutting Physical TYPES
  22. 22. MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use STATE Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use Mixing of rules, means & aims. Each can do things the other can’t. Proportional balance between all three. Re-establish, grow Commons. Help State enable Commons. Help Market use & contribute to Commons. Made With Creative Commons Be more than licenses Add Social features/tools to complement licenses Add Use outcome measures - benefits/value Exercise convening power - convening of the commons for common good Why should the Market engage with the Commons? What can the Commons do that the Market cannot? Who gets value and how is value created in the Commons?
  23. 23. MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use WHY SHOULD MARKET ENGAGE WITH COMMONS? (Benefit of Commons over Market) Access • discoverable • accessible to all Equity • levels playing field • eliminates haves, have nots Efficiency • free flow • rapid dissemination • reduces sales & marketing • no DRM (no managing access control) • distributed rather than centralized • economies to scale • continuous improvements Participation • direct • create, use, and contribute • network effect Reach & Impact • global distribution • local making & use Innovation • speeds • distributes Lower Cost • free Flexibility • customizable Personalization • provenance • not mass produced • attribution & reputation • social engagement >ROI • for creators, investors, users, ... • public good
  24. 24. MARKET Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use COMMONS Attributes Norms Rules-Of-Use Social Use HOW SHOULD MARKET ENGAGE WITH COMMONS? Principles • add value • give more than you take • transparency - about what using, what adding, what monetizing • give attribution & gratitude • develop trust - don’t exploit • defend the Commons • declarations - CapeTown, + others Shift From • scarcity • exclusion • impersonal • extractive • commodity exchange • consumption • monetization • maximizing profit • growth To • abundance • inclusion - universal access • personal • additive • shared use and reuse • co-creation • value creation beyond $ • economic efficiency • sustainability - impact on system