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  1. read read read reading read may may have may have been may have been being SIMPLE COMPLEX
  2. read HEAD lexical verb /riːd/ /red/
  4. Presenttense indicative, all persons except3rdperson singular  I/You/We/They readthepaper Imperative mood  Read methat sentence again. Subjunctivemood Idemandedthatsheread thatout loud. Infinitive (withandwithout to) Ineedyou toread this. Can you read this? BASE FORM
  5. V-s FORM Present tense indicative, 3rdperson  He often reads poems.
  6. • You are certainlyreadingthe room. • Were you reading mylips? Combinedwith auxiliarybe, to denote progressive aspect. • Readingtoyoungchildren, helpsdeveloptheirlanguage skills. • Helikes reading about wildlife. In –ingparticiple dependent clauses
  7. PAST FORM (ed1) Pasttime indicative (regularverbs)  Hepublished his new e-book withouta cover.
  8. • They havenever published an e-book.. • She had postedupa list of books. Combinedwithauxiliaryhave to denotePERFECTASPECT (regular verbs) • Themenus werepostedoutsidethe door. • Ithadnever beenpublishedinprint. Combinedwithauxiliarybe to denotePASSIVEVOICE (regular verbs) • We willnotdistributebookspublished bythatpress. • Placed outbythreirintolerance,hedidn´tknowhowto react. In–ed PARTICIPLE CLAUSES -ed2
  9. 3 forms *quit *quits *quitting *hit *hits *hittting 4 forms *play *plays *played *playing *feel *feels *felt *feeling 5 forms 8 forms *do *does *did *done *doing *draw *draws *drew *drawn *drawing *be *am *is *are *was *were *been*being
  10. Doubling ofthe finalbaseconsonant Change of the final vowel –yinto –ie or –i: and thatof –ieinto -y Dropping of final“mute” -e S PELLING CHANG ES
  11. • When the base ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel symbol. • When the stress falls on the final base syllable Doubling of final base consonant • Compel – compelling- compelled • Refer – referring – referred • Fit –fitting - fitted Before -ing or -ed
  12. Exceptions L - ll (BrE) Cancel –cancelling -cancelled Label–labelling –labelled Travel–travelling– travelled M– mm Program–programming–programmed P –pp Handicap–handicapping– handicapped Kidnap–kidnapping– kidnapped Worship– worshipping–worshipped S– ss Bias– bias(s)ing –bias(s)ed Focus –focus(s)ing –focus(s)ed Thestressdoes notfall on the final consonant
  13. -c into -ck withthe base endingin -ic Frolic – frolicking– frolicked Panic– panicking– panicked Picnic– picnicking– picnicked Traffic – traficking- trafficked
  14. Final -yand-ie • defy- defies - defied marry - marries- married When the base ends in a consonant + -y, the –yis changedinto –ies, and–ied • Die– dying • Lie– lying • Tie - tying When the baseends in –ie,these letters are changedinto –ybefore -ing
  15. • come - coming • love - loving • make - making Deletion of -e • Exceptions: • Age –ageing • Dye- dyeing • Singe–singeing • Tinge- tingeing Whenthe base ends in mute -e, it is dropped before -ing
  16. IRREGULARVERBS V = V-ed bet – bet – bet cost – cost – cost cut – cut – cut put – put - put V ≠ Ved build – built – built feel – felt – felt find – found – found lead – led- led V≠ V-ed1≠V- ed2 begin- began – begun choose –chose– chosen see – saw – seen write – wrote - written
  17. beat come run ran came beat beaten come run
  18. Semantic categories activity communication mental causative occurrence existenceor relationship aspect
  19. Activity verbs They refer to a volitional activity, an action performed intentionally by a “doer”. e.g.bring, make,take, paint, run, meet, put, use, work, show etc.
  20. Communication verbs Subcategory ofactivity verbs that involve communication acts (speech and writing) e.g.ask, offer,talk, call,say, tell, claim, thank, describe, suggest, write, etc.
  21. Mental verbs They refertomentalstates orprocesses, emotions,attitudes,desires, perceptions and thereceiving of communication(read, hear) e.g, believe, find, listen, think,consider, love, expect,know,mean, like,need, suppose,doubtetc.
  22. Causative verbs They indicate that some person or thing helps to bring about a new state of affairs. e.g.cause, allow,let, require, enable, help etc.
  23. Verbs ofOccurrence They report events that occurwithoutan actor(active voice). The subjects are affected by the event that isdescribed by the verb. e.g. The lightturned off. The wind blew from the North. What hashappened here?
  24. Verbs ofExistence or Relationship They report a state of existence or a logical relationship thatexist between entities. (copular verbs) e.g. appear, seem, be, exist, live, include, look, stay, stand, represent, indicate, result, contain etc
  25. Verbs ofAspect They characterize the stage of progress ofan event or activity. They occur with -ing or to- infinitive clause. e.g She keptrunning out of the room. Ilikedrinking soda. Ineedto see you. I´ll tryto be present.
  26. Categories Person Number Finitude Mood Tense Aspect Voice Modality
  27. First Second Third
  28. Singular Plural
  29. Finite Mood Tense Aspect Voice Modality Non-finite (no mood, tense, aspect, voice or modality) Bare infinitive To-infinitive -ingparticiple -ed participle
  30. Come back soon! We spent our holidays in NY. I have never seen anything like this before. The research was carried out in UCLA. They shouldwork hard. • Finite Did hear the train come? I´d liketo see you. Sitting here, Ican enjoythe view. Cars imported from Europe are very expensive. • Non-finite
  31. Indicative Imperative Subjunctive It is a term used to referto finiteforms as serving to indicatethe speaker´s and writer´scommitment regarding the factualstatus of what he/sheis saying or writing. Itisusedtomakefactualstatements,askquestions,orexpress opinionsasifthey werefacts. Itindicates thatthespeakerdesires fortheactionexpressed (commandorrequest) totakeplace. Itisusedtoexplore conditionalorimaginary situationscontrarytofact.
  32. IMPERATIVE Form base  To give orders, instructions or to make invitations, suggestions. Eg: Stop talking.  Negation don´t + base Eg: Don´t be late.  Tag questions will you? Help me, will you?  Overt subject you / somebody / everybody You listen to me! (authority / anger / contrast) Don´t you dare! Somebody help me! Everybody get up!  Overt subject ≠ vocative John, you sit here. You, John, sit here. You sit here, John.  Emphatic Dosit down!  Let´s imperative Let ´s see. Let´s not go. Don´t let´s s go Do let´s go now.
  33. Formulaic Mandative Were-subjunctive SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD (non-fact mood)
  34. formulaic •God save the Queen •God bless you. •So be it. mandative •She demanded that he be on time. •It is our wish that he do as he pleases. •It is neccesary that he get a permit. were •Even if he were to arrive….. •If I were you…. •It´s time he / she were informed.
  35. Present Past
  36. Unrestrictive simple present (no limitation on the extension of the action; a period of time without a definite beginning or end including the present time) Iterative simple present (the event is habitual or recurrent). Simultaneous present simple (the event takes place simultaneously with the time of speaking)
  37. Historic simple present (past time) Story telling Dramatic heightening in fiction Headlines Photografic captions Historical summaries, tablets of dates etc
  38. Future simple present It is used to refer to future events which are considered ¨certain¨ Determined in advanced (calendar, timetable) Part of a plan or arrangement thought of as unalterable e.g. The competition starts with a massive fireworks display. e.g. Practice ends at 8:00 a.m. tomorrow. e.g. My flight leaves at 3 p.m. on Sunday.
  39. Simple present tense in subclauses Adverbialclausesof time. e.g. I´ll let you know as soon as she arrives. Adverbialclausesofcondition. e.g. If you smoke so much, you´ll have lung problems very soon.
  40. Past Time Hypothetical Past (condition which is not likely to be fulfilled) e.g. If you really loved me, ….. If I had money,……
  41. Progressive Perfect It refers to temporal relative distribution of anevent, focusing on duration up to the present or present result of a past event (perfect aspect), or to temporariness (progressive aspect)
  42. • She has waited. Present perfect • She is waiting Present progressive • She has been waiting. Present perfect progressive • She had waited. Past perfect • She was waiting. Past progressive • She had been waiting. Past perfect progressive
  43. Continuativepresent perfect ( a state extends over a period lasting up to the present) e.g Thehousehasbeenemptyforages. Iterativepresent perfect (habit or repetition in a period up to the present) e.g IhavealwayslivedinParaná.
  44. Unspecifyingpresentperfect(the time-when is unspecified / indefinite past / recent past) e.g.Haveyoueverhadanaccident? Susanhasjustleft. Resultativepresentperfect(the result of a past event is still operative at the present moment) e.g. Thedoor hasbeenpainted.
  45. `a PAST inthePAST´ ( a past event stretching before some definite point of orientation in the past) e.g. When Imet her, hermotherhadalreadydied. Back-shift (indirect or reported speech) e.g. He said hehadbeenabroad. Hypothetical condition (condition which cannot be fulfilled since the event occurred in the past) e.g. If Ihadmether, I would have let you know.
  46. Temporary events or states (something is going on atthe moment of speaking or writing, stressing the notion of limited duration and/or incompletion) e.g. My friends are living in NY at the moment. • Temporariness It expresses the future in connection with a definite plan, arrangement or programme. Eg:He´sleaving to NY tomorrow. • Futurity
  47. To express something persistent or recurrent, and often showing an emotional colouring. e.g. He´s always getting into trouble. • Characteristichabit It combines the meaning of temporariness with that of repetition. e.g. I am working in the afternoon this week. • Iterativemeaning
  48. Incompletion The effect of surrounding a particular event by a temporal frame Toadd vividness of description • e.g. I was studying Grammar last night. • e.g. When Isaw him, hewastalkingtoyour wife. • e.g. The kids were running desperately in the middle of the night.
  49. Present simple or continuous? We use the present simple to describe: - Permanent situations - Facts - Opinions - Regular repeated actions - Immediacy of an event (sports commentaries) - Newspaper headlines We use the present continuous to describe: - A temporary situation in progress - Repeated events when they happen within a temporary period. - Pictures - Actions which form a background in a narrative - Things which are in process of change (trends)
  50. Past simple or continuous? We use the past simple to describe: - Completed actions in the past - Actions happening at the same time. - Repeated actions - Sequences of actions - One action resulting in another - States in the past We use the past continuous to describe: -An action in progress at a point of time in the past -A temporary, changing or developing action -An action that provides a background to completed past actions -2 actions in progress at the first time Also: -to contrast and ongoing action with a single past event which interrupts it -
  51. Present perfect or past simple? We use the present perfect to describe: - Unfinished states/ actions - Unfinished time - Present result/relevance - Indefinite time We use the past simple to describe: - Finished states / actions - Finished time - No indication of present relevance - Definite time
  52. Present perfect simple or continuous? We use the present perfect simple to indicate: - Completion - Repeated actions - Permanent situations - Focus on present result We use the present perfect continuous to indicate: - Continuation - Duration of action - Temporary situation - Focus on the activity
  53. Past perfect simple or continuous? We use the past perfect simple to describe: - A single or repeated action, completed before a time in the past - A situation which exists before a past event We use the past perfect continuous to indicate: - An ongoing situation or action which continued up to a time in the past Also: - To focus on the duration of the action
  54. Passive (marked) Active (unmarked)
  55. Information structure regarded as a master of presentation of a message on the part of the speaker/writer often reflects a division between what is assumed to beknown to the hearer/reader, and what is assumed not to beknown to the hearer/reader:the division between giveninformation and newinformation . Initialposition Given information Final position New information End-focus principle
  56. Final position Long / heavy elements End-weight principle
  57. Effects ofvoice contrast Agent (subject) Patient (direct object) Recipient (indirect object) A reversal of the orderofparticipant roles, possible through voicecontrast, may satisfy the need for an initial element containing giveninformation, which often goeshand in hand with the desire to place newinformation in final position, so that end-focus isachieved.In addition, final position for the agent-phrase may satisfy the requirement of end-weight.
  58. • transitivity • meaning (events/dynamic verbs) Verb constraints • Phrasalobjects (reflexiveor reciprocalpronoun) • Clausalobjects Object constraints • There is nocorresponding passive voice Agent constraints
  59. • The mechaniccouldnotrepair the car. (ability) • The carcouldnotbe repaired. (possibility) Semantic constraints • Active voice is more frequent than passive voice. • Passive voice is more frequent in scientific writing, official reports, newspapers and editorial (impersonal, objective prose) Frequency constraints
  60. Passivesentences frequently contain no by- prepositionphrase (short passive voice) This accounts in many cases for the preference for a passive construction: the passive enables the speaker/writer to leave the agent unmentioned, either because overt reference tothe agent is considered: -irrelevant or redundant, - better not to be mentioned explicitly (impersonalization).
  61. Theagent is OBVIOUS (textualor contextual) • A babywasrescued yesterday(by therescue team) • 1,500peoplewere injuredincoastalearthquakein Ecuador. The agent isUNIMPORTANT (generalization) / irrelevant • The125-footCarpeVitaisconsideredtheworld´smostluxuriousdiveboat. The agent isUNKNOWN. The140-footArenuiiscustom-builtwith12different typesof woods(the ownerssay 70%is recycled). Theuse of short passive voice
  62. Theuse oflong passive voice To accordwith theinformation-flowprinciple. To accordwith theend-weightprinciple. To placeinitialemphasis on anelementof a clause (subject) which isthetopic or theme ofthe discourse.