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Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based ApplicationsOverview-: Web-based testing should be “RISK ORIENTED”. This article describes the risks, presents the types oftesting that can be used to address those risks in testing and provides guidance in using web-basedtest tools. The approach for testing web-based systems should be incorporated into a test plan andthat plan should be followed during test execution.This article will be helpful for beginners as well as professional testersWeb-Based Systems/Applications- : In general.....Web based application is a software package that can be accessed through the web browser.The software and database reside on a central server rather than being installed on the desktopsystem and is accessed over a network.“Testers CONCERN Checklist” while conducting Web-based TestingS.No. Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified 1 Browser Should validate consistent application performance on Compatibility a variety of browser types and configurations. 2 Functional Should validate that the application functions Correctness correctly. This includes validating links, calculations, displays of information, and navigation. 3 Integration Should validate the integration between browsers and servers, applications and data, and hardware and software. 4 Usability Should validate the overall usability of a web page or a web application, including appearance, clarity, and navigation 5 Security Should validate the adequacy and correctness of security controls, including access control and authorizations. 6 Performance Should validate the performance of the web application under load. 7 Verification Should validate that the code used in building the web of code application (HTML, Java, and so on ) has been used in a
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications correct manner. For example, no nonstandard coding practices should be used that would cause an application to function incorrectly in some environments.WORKBENCH - for WEB-BASED TESTINGFollowing are the Steps-:Step-1 INPUTStep-2 Task-1 Web based RisksStep-3 Task-2 Web based TestsStep-4 Task-3 Web based Test ToolsStep-5 Test Web based SystemsStep-6 OUTPUT
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based ApplicationsStep-1 INPUT-: is the hardware / software that will be incorporated in the web-based system tobe tested.Input to this test process is the description of web based technology used in the systems being tested.Following list shows how web based systems differ from other technologies S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Uncontrolled Web-browsers-: a web page must be functional on user-interfaces those browsers that you expect to be used in (browsers) accessing your web applications. Furthermore, as new releases of browsers emerge, your web applications will need to keep up with compatibility issues. BROWSER-: http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/articles/latest- browser-versions.php2 Complex In addition to being complex and distributed, web- distributed based applications are also remotely accessed, which systems adds even more concerns to the testing effort. While some applications may be less complex than others, it is safe to say that the trend in web applications is to become more complex rather than less.3 Security issues Protection is needed from unauthorized access that can corrupt applications and/or data. Another security risk is that of access to confidential information.4 Multiple layers These layers of architecture include application in architecture. servers, web servers, back-end processing, data warehouses, and secure servers for electronic commerce5 New Just as in making the transition to client/server, new terminology skills are needed to develop, test, and use web-based and skill sets. technology effectively.6 Object- Object-oriented languages such as Java are the oriented. mainstay of web development.STEP-2 Task 1: Select Web-Based Risks to Include in the Test PlanRisks are important to understand because they reveal what to test. Each risk points to an entire areaof potential tests. In addition, the degree of testing should be based on risk.The risks are briefly listed here, followed by a more detailed description of the concerns associated
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applicationswith each risk 1. Risk -1 SECURITY- One of the major risks of Internet applications is security. It is very important to validate that the application and data are protected from outside intrusion or unauthorized access.Security ConcernsFollowing are some of the detailed security risks that need to be addressed in an Internetapplication test plan-: S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 External Protecting the system from external intrusion - include intrusion intrusion from a) people who are trying to gain access to sensitive information, b) people who are trying to intentionally sabotage information2 Protection Protecting transactions over the Internet- Especially true of secured in dealing with e-commerce transactions. transactions Many consumers are reluctant to give credit card information over the Internet for fear that information will be intercepted and used for fraudulent purposes3 Viruses The Internet has become a vehicle for propagating tens of thousands of new viruses. These viruses are contained in downloaded files that can be distributed from web sites and e-mail.4 Access Access control means that only authorized users have control security access to a particular application or portion of an application. This access is typically granted with a user ID and password.5 Authorizatio Ability of the application to restrict certain transactions n levels only to those users who have a certain level of authorization 2. Risk-2 PERFORMANCE-: An Internet application with poor performance will be judged hard to use. Web sites that are slow in response will not retain the visitors they attract and will be frustrating to the people who try to use them.Performance Concerns-: System performance can make or break an Internet application.
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based ApplicationsSeveral types of performance testing can be performed to validate an application’s performancelevels.Performance testing is a very precise kind of testing and requires the use of automated tools fortesting to be accomplished with any level of accuracy and efficiency.Unfortunately, manual approaches to performance testing fall short of the accuracy needed tocorrectly gauge an application’s performance and may lead to a false level of confidence in the test.Typically, the most common kind of performance testing for Internet applications is LOAD TESTING.Load testing seeks to determine how the application performs under expected and greater-than-expected levels of activity.Application load can be assessed in a variety of ways: S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Concurrency Concurrency testing seeks to validate the performance of an application with a given number of concurrent interactive users2 Stress Stress testing seeks to validate the performance of an application when certain aspects of the application are stretched to their maximum limits. This can include maximum number of users, and can also include maximizing table values and data values.3 Throughput Throughput testing seeks to validate the number of transactions to be processed by an application during a given period of time. For example, one type of throughput test might be to attempt to process 100,000 transactions in one hour 3. Risk-3 CORRECTNESS-: Correctness is a very important area of risk. It is essential that the functionality and information obtained from web-based applications are correctCorrectness ConcernsAn important areas of concern is that the application functions correctly. This can include not only thefunctionality of buttons and “behind the scenes” instructions but also calculations and navigation ofthe application. S.N Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A o Verified1 Functionality Functional correctness means that the application performs its intended tasks as defined by a stated set of specifications. The specifications of an application are
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications the benchmark of what the application should do. Functional correctness is determined by performing a functional test. A functional test is performed in a cause-effect manner. In other words, if a particular action is taken, a particular result should be seen.2 Calculations Many web-based applications include calculations. These calculations must be tested to ensure correctness and to find defects.3 Navigation Navigation correctness can include testing links ,buttons, and general navigation through a web site or web-based application.4. Risk -4 COMPATIBILITY (Configuration)-: A web-based application must be able to workcorrectly on a wide variety of system configurations including browsers, operating systems, andhardware systems.Compatibility ConcernsCompatibility is the capability of the application to perform correctly in a variety of expectedenvironments.Two of the major variables that affect web-based applications are operating systems and browsers.Currently, operating systems (or platforms) and how they support the browser of your choice willaffect the appearance and functionality of a web application. This requires that test the web-basedapplications as accessed on a variety of common platforms and browsers.Browser ConfigurationEach browser has configuration options that affect how it displays information. These options varyfrom browser to browser and are too diverse to address in this text. The most reasonable testingstrategy is to define optimal configurations on the most standard kinds of browsers and test basedon those configurations.Some of the main things to consider from a hardware compatibility standpoint are the following:S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Monitors, If you have a web site that requires a video cards, high standard of video capability, some users will not and video be able to view your site, or will not have a positive RAM experience at your site2 Audio, video, Once again, you need to verify that and a web application is designed to provide a level of multimedia multimedia support that a typical end-user will need to
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications support be able to access your site. If software plug-ins are required, you should provide links on your page to facilitate the user in downloading the plug-in.3 Memory RAM is very important for increasing (RAM) and the performance of a browser on a particular platform. hard drive Browsers also make heavy use of caching, which is how space a browser stores graphics and other information on a user’s hard drive. This helps speed the display of web pages the next time the user visits a web site.4 Bandwidth Many corporate users have high-speed Internet access access based on T-1 or T-3 networks, or ISDN telephone lines. Browser differences can make a web application appear differently to different people. These differences may appear in any of the following areas (this is not intended to be an exhaustive list; these are merely the more common areas of browser differences)5 Print To make printing faster and easier, some pages add a handling link or button to print a browser-friendly version of the page being viewed.6 Reload Some browser configurations will not automatically display updated pages if a version of the page still exists in the cache. Some pages indicate if the user should reload the page7 Navigation Browsers vary in the ease of navigation, especially when it comes to visiting pages previously visited during a session. A web application devel- oper may need to add navigational aids to the web pages to facilitate ease of navigation8 Graphics Browsers may handle images differently, depending on filters the graphic filters supported by the browser. In fact, some browsers may not show an image at all. By standardizing on JPG and GIF images you should be able to eliminate this concern.9 Caching How the cache is configured (size, etc.) will have an impact on the performance of a browser to view information.10 Dynamic This includes how a user receives information from page pages that change based on input. Examples of generation dynamic page generation include: 1) Shopping cart applications
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications 2) Data search applications 3) Calculation forms11 File Movement of data from remote data storage for user downloads processing12 E-mail Because e-mail activities can consume excessive functions processing time, guidelines should be developed. Each browser has its own interface and functionality for e-mail. Many people use separate e-mail applications outside of a browser, but for those who don’t, this can be a concern for users when it comes to compatibility. 5. Risk-5 RELIABILITY-: An Internet application must have a high level of availability and the information provided from the application must be consistent and reliable to the user.Reliability ConcernsBecause of the continuous uptime requirements for most Internet applications, reliability is a keyconcern.Reliability can be considered in more than system availability it can also be expressed in terms of thereliability of the information obtained from the application:1. Consistently correct results 2. Server and system availability6. Risk-6 DATA INTEGRITY-: The data entered into an Internet application must be validated toensure its correctness. In addition, measures must be taken to ensure the data stays correct after it isentered into the applicationData Integrity ConcernsNot only must the data be validated when it is entered into the web application, but it must also besafeguarded to ensure the data stays correct: S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Ensuring only This can be achieved by validating the data at the page correct data level when it is entered by a user. is accepted2 Ensuring data This can be achieved by procedures to back up data stays in a and ensure that controlled methods are used to correct state update data.
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications 7. Risk – 7 USABILITY-: Application must be easy to use. This includes things like navigation, clarity, and understandability of the information provided by the application.Usability ConcernsIf users or customers find an Internet application hard to use, they will likely go to a competitor’s site.Usability can be validated and usually involves the followingS.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Easy to use Ensuring the application is easy to use and understand2 To use Ensuring that users know how to interpret and use the information delivered from the application3 Navigation Ensuring that navigation is clear and correct 8. Risk -8 RECOVERABILITY-: In the event of an outage, the system must be recoverable. This includes recovering lost transactions, recovering from loss of communications, and ensuring that proper backups are made as a part of regular systems maintenance.Recoverability ConcernsInternet applications are more prone to outages than systems that are more centralized or located onreliable, controlled networks. The remote accessibility of Internet applications makes the followingrecoverability concerns important:S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Lost No Connections connections2 Timeouts Time Outs3 Dropped lines Ensuring that navigation is clear and correct4 Client system Client system crashes crashes5 Server system Server system crashes or other application problems crashes or other application problems
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based ApplicationsSTEP-3 Task 2: Select Web-Based TestsOnce Risks has been addressed in the web-based applications,time to examine the types and phasesof testing needed to validate them.S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Unit or This includes testing at the object, component, page, Component or applet level. Unit testing is the lowest level of testing in terms of detail. During unit testing, the structure of languages, such as HTML and Java, can be verified. Edits and calculations can also be tested at the unit level.2 Integration Integration is the passing of data and/or control between units or components, which includes testing navigation (i.e., the paths the test data will follow). In web-based applications, this includes testing links, data exchanges, and flow of control in an application.3 System System testing examines the web application as a whole and with other systems. The classic definition of system testing is that it validates that a computing system functions according to written requirements and specifications. This is also true in web- based applications. The differences apply in how the system is defined. System testing typically includes hardware, software, data, procedures, and people. In corporate web-based applications, a system might interface with Internet webpages, data warehouses, back-end processing systems, and reporting systems.4 User This includes testing that the web application Acceptance supports business needs and processes. Main idea in user acceptance testing (or business process validation) is to ensure that the end product supports the users’ needs. For business applications, this means testing that the system allows the user to conduct business correctly and efficiently. For personal applications, this means that users are able to get the information or service they need from a web site efficiently. In a corporate web page, the end-user testers may be from end-user groups, management, or an independent test team that takes the role of end users. In public web applications, the end-user testers
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based Applications may be beta testers, who receive a prototype or early release of the new web application, or independent testers who take the role of public web users.5 Performance This includes testing that the system will perform as specified at predetermined levels, including wait times, static processes, dynamic processes, and transaction processes. Performance is also tested at the client/browser and server levels.6 Load/Stress This type of testing checks to see that the server performs as specified at peak concurrent loads or transaction throughput. It includes stressing servers, networks, and databases.7 Regression Regression testing checks that unchanged parts of the application work correctly after a change has been made. Many people mistakenly believe that regression testing means testing everything you ever tested in an application every time you perform a test. However, depending upon the relative risk of the application you are testing, regression testing may not need to be that intense. The main idea is to test a set of specified critical test cases each time you perform the test. Regression testing is an ideal candidate for test automation because of its repetitive nature.8 Usability This type of testing assesses the ease of use of an application. Usability testing may be accomplished in a variety of ways, including direct observation of people using web-applications, usability surveys, and beta tests. Main objective of usability testing is to ensure that an application is easy to understand and navigate.9 Compatibility Compatibility testing ensures that the application functions correctly on multiple browsers and system configurations. Compatibility testing may be performed in a test lab that contains a variety of platforms, or may be performed by beta testers. The downside with beta testing is the increased risk of bad publicity, the lack of control, and the lack of good data coming back from the beta testers
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based ApplicationsSTEP-4 Task 3: Select Web-Based Test ToolsEffective web-based testing necessitates the use of web-based testing tools. A brief description ofcategories of the more common web-based test tools follows: S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 HTML tools Although many web development packages include an HTML checker, there are ways to perform a verification of HTML if you do not use/ have such a feature.2 Site validation Site validation tools check your web applications to tools identify inconsistencies and errors, such as moved or orphaned pages and broken links.3 Load/stress Load/stress tools evaluate web-based systems when testing tools subjected to large volumes of data or transactions4 Test case Test case generators create transactions for use in generators testing. This tool can tell you what to test, as well as create test cases that can be used in other test tools.STEP-5 Task 4: Test Web-Based SystemsThe tests to be performed for web-based testing will be the types of testing. S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Organizing Organizing for testing2 Test Plan Developing the test plan3 Verification To perform Verification Testing testing4 Validation To perform Validation Testing testing5 Test Reports Analyzing and reporting test results6 Acceptance Acceptance and operational testing7 Post Post Implementation Analysis Implementati on Analysis
Risk-Oriented Testing of Web-Based ApplicationsSTEP-6 OUTPUT-: Output is to report what works and what does not work, as well as any concernsover the use of web technology.The only output from this test process is a report on the web-based system. At a minimum, this reportshould contain the following: S.No Parameter Description Verified Not- N/A Verified1 Brief description A brief description of the web-based system2 Risks Risks addressed and not addressed by the web-based test team3 Types of Testing Types of testing performed, and types of testing not performed4 Tools Tools used or not5 Performed Well Web-based functionality and structure tested that performed correctly6 Not Performed well Web-based Structure and functionality tested that did not perform correctly7 Testers opinion Testers opinion regarding the adequacy of the web-based system to be placed into a production statusGuidelineSuccessful web-based testing necessitates a portfolio of web-based testing tools. It is important thatthese test tools are used effectively.