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RFID RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
What is RFID? <ul><li>Radio-frequency identification  ( RFID ) is an automatic identification method using radio waves.  <...
There’s a chip
Implanted RFID tags in Humans
Applications <ul><li>Supply chain automation </li></ul><ul><li>Asset tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Medical applications </li>...
The RFID System <ul><li>Tag.   </li></ul><ul><li>Reader.   </li></ul><ul><li>Reader antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>Controller....
Tag <ul><li>An RFID  tag  is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contact less manner using radio wa...
Passive Tag <ul><li>No on-board power source (for example, a battery) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the power emitted from the re...
<ul><li>Smaller than an active or semi-active tag. It has a variety of read ranges starting with less than 1 inch to about...
Tag <ul><li>An RFID  tag  is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contactless manner using radio wav...
Active Tag <ul><li>Has on-board power source (for example, a battery; other sources of power, such as solar, are also poss...
<ul><li>A tag always communicates first, followed by the reader.  </li></ul><ul><li>Can broadcast its data to its surround...
Tag <ul><li>An RFID  tag  is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contactless manner using radio wav...
Semi-Active (Semi-Passive) Tags <ul><li>Have an on-board power source (for example, a battery)  </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the...
Another way to Classify Tags <ul><li>Read-only (RO) </li></ul><ul><li>Write once, read many (WORM) </li></ul><ul><li>Read-...
The RFID System <ul><li>Tag.   </li></ul><ul><li>Reader.   </li></ul><ul><li>Reader antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>Controller....
Reader???? <ul><li>An RFID reader can read from and write data to compatible RFID tags.  </li></ul><ul><li>A reader thus d...
<ul><li>A reader has the following main components: </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul...
Working <ul><li>A radio device called a  tag  is attached to the object that needs to be identified.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wh...
 
Backscatter modulation? <ul><li>A common way the communication between a tag and a reader  </li></ul><ul><li>Reader sends ...
Reader Tag Interaction
<ul><li>A  tag consist of a dipole antenna attached to an  interdigital transducer  (IDT) placed on a piezoelectric substr...
Software <ul><li>private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)  </li></ul><ul><li>{ rfid1 = new RFID(); rfid1.Attach...
Design
Software Contd. <ul><li>private void antennaCheckBox_CheckedChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)  </li></ul><ul><li>{ rfid1...
Software Contd. <ul><li>void rfid_Attach(object sender, AttachEventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ Phidgets.RFID phid = (Phidg...
Software Contd. <ul><li>void rfid_Tag(object sender, TagEventArgs e)  </li></ul><ul><li>{ txtTag.Text = e.Tag; </li></ul><...
After reading Tags.
Frequency <ul><li>LF band: 125 and 135 kHz--LF generally use passive tags  </li></ul><ul><li>HF band 3 MHz to 30 MH </li><...
Frequency Contd. <ul><li>UHF band:300 MHz to 1 GHz  </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Frequency :915 MHz--Uses both active and pas...
Technical Issues <ul><li>Tag Collision </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Collision </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Readability </li></ul><ul>...
Ethical Issues <ul><li>Passive RFID tags could conceivably used for surveillance of unsuspecting tag carriers </li></ul><u...
Advantages <ul><li>Contactless.  An RFID tag can be read without any physical contact between the tag and the reader. </li...
Advantages Contd. <ul><li>Variety of read ranges.   </li></ul><ul><li>Wide data-capacity range.   </li></ul><ul><li>Suppor...
Disadvantages <ul><li>Poor performance with RF-opaque and RF-absorbent objects.   </li></ul><ul><li>Impacted by environmen...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>RFID, is an emerging technology which can be used for a variety of applications.  </li></ul><ul><li>How...
Questions?????????
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RFID.ppt

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RFID.ppt

  1. 1. RFID RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
  2. 2. What is RFID? <ul><li>Radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) is an automatic identification method using radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID also began to see use in wildlife monitoring and research. RFID tags can be used to monitor animal movement without adversely affecting the animal, </li></ul>
  3. 3. There’s a chip
  4. 4. Implanted RFID tags in Humans
  5. 5. Applications <ul><li>Supply chain automation </li></ul><ul><li>Asset tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Medical applications </li></ul><ul><li>People tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul>
  6. 6. The RFID System <ul><li>Tag. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>Controller. </li></ul><ul><li>Host and software system. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication infrastructure. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tag <ul><li>An RFID tag is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contact less manner using radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags can be classified in three different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul>
  8. 8. Passive Tag <ul><li>No on-board power source (for example, a battery) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the power emitted from the reader to energize itself and transmit its stored data to the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Reader always communicates first, followed by the tag. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Smaller than an active or semi-active tag. It has a variety of read ranges starting with less than 1 inch to about 30 feet (9 meters approximately). </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper compared to an active or semi-active tag. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tag <ul><li>An RFID tag is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contactless manner using radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags can be classified in three different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul>
  11. 11. Active Tag <ul><li>Has on-board power source (for example, a battery; other sources of power, such as solar, are also possible) </li></ul><ul><li>Own on-board power supply to transmit its data to a reader. </li></ul><ul><li>No need for reader's emitted power for data transmission. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>A tag always communicates first, followed by the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Can broadcast its data to its surroundings even in the absence of a reader </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tag <ul><li>An RFID tag is a device that can store and transmit data to a reader in a contactless manner using radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags can be classified in three different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Active (Semi-Passive) Tags </li></ul>
  14. 14. Semi-Active (Semi-Passive) Tags <ul><li>Have an on-board power source (for example, a battery) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the reader's emitted power for transmitting its data </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a battery-assisted tag . </li></ul><ul><li>Reader always communicates first, followed by the tag. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Another way to Classify Tags <ul><li>Read-only (RO) </li></ul><ul><li>Write once, read many (WORM) </li></ul><ul><li>Read-write (RW) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The RFID System <ul><li>Tag. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>Controller. </li></ul><ul><li>Host and software system. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication infrastructure. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reader???? <ul><li>An RFID reader can read from and write data to compatible RFID tags. </li></ul><ul><li>A reader thus doubles up as a writer. The act of writing the tag data by a reader is called creating a tag. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>A reader has the following main components: </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Controller (which may reside as an external component) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication interface </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul>
  19. 19. Working <ul><li>A radio device called a tag is attached to the object that needs to be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>When this tagged object is presented in front of a suitable RFID reader, the tag transmits this data to the reader (via the reader antenna). </li></ul><ul><li>The reader then reads the data and has the capability to forward it over suitable communication channels. </li></ul><ul><li>This application can then use this unique data to identify the object presented to the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>It can then perform a variety of actions </li></ul>
  20. 21. Backscatter modulation? <ul><li>A common way the communication between a tag and a reader </li></ul><ul><li>Reader sends a signal (energy) to a tag, and the tag responds by reflecting a part of this energy back to the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>A charge device such as a capacitor contained in the tag makes this reflection possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacitor gets charged as it stores the energy received from the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>As the tag responds back, it uses this energy to send the signal back to the reader. The capacitor discharges in the process. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Reader Tag Interaction
  22. 23. <ul><li>A tag consist of a dipole antenna attached to an interdigital transducer (IDT) placed on a piezoelectric substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of well-placed individual electrodes acting as reflectors are positioned on the substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>The antenna applies an electrical impulse to the IDT when it receives the RF signal from a reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these waves are reflected back to the IDT by the reflectors; the rest are absorbed by the substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>The reflected waves form a unique pattern, determined by the reflector positions, representing the tag data. </li></ul><ul><li>These waves are converted back to the RF signal in the IDT and transmitted back to the RFID reader via the tag antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>The reader then decodes the received signal to extract the tag data. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Software <ul><li>private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ rfid1 = new RFID(); rfid1.Attach += new AttachEventHandler(rfid_Attach); rfid1.Detach += new DetachEventHandler(rfid_Detach); rfid1.RFIDTag += new TagEventHandler(rfid_Tag); rfid1.RFIDTagLost += new TagEventHandler(rfid_TagLost); rfid1.open(); } </li></ul>
  24. 25. Design
  25. 26. Software Contd. <ul><li>private void antennaCheckBox_CheckedChanged(object sender, EventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ rfid1.Antenna = cboxAntenna.Checked; } </li></ul>
  26. 27. Software Contd. <ul><li>void rfid_Attach(object sender, AttachEventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ Phidgets.RFID phid = (Phidgets.RFID)sender; lblAttached.Text = &quot; Attached: &quot; + phid.Name; lblSerial.Text = &quot; Serial: &quot; + phid.SerialNumber; lblVersion.Text = &quot; Version: &quot; + phid.Version; } </li></ul><ul><li>void rfid_Detach(object sender, DetachEventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ lblAttached.Text = &quot;Not Attached&quot;; } </li></ul>
  27. 28. Software Contd. <ul><li>void rfid_Tag(object sender, TagEventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ txtTag.Text = e.Tag; </li></ul><ul><li>lastRFIDTag = txtTag.Text; </li></ul><ul><li>rfid1.LED = true; // light on } </li></ul><ul><li>void rfid_TagLost(object sender, TagEventArgs e) </li></ul><ul><li>{ txtTag.Text = &quot;&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>rfid1.LED = false; // light off </li></ul><ul><li>lbPrevRFIDTags.Items.Insert(0, string.Format(&quot;Tag: {0} - {1}&quot;, ++TagCtr, lastRFIDTag)); } </li></ul>
  28. 29. After reading Tags.
  29. 30. Frequency <ul><li>LF band: 125 and 135 kHz--LF generally use passive tags </li></ul><ul><li>HF band 3 MHz to 30 MH </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Frequency: 13.56 MHz--HF system uses passive tags . </li></ul><ul><li>HF systems are also widely used, especially in hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>These frequency bands can be used freely worldwide. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Frequency Contd. <ul><li>UHF band:300 MHz to 1 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Frequency :915 MHz--Uses both active and passive tags </li></ul><ul><li>MW band>1 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Frequency: 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz—Uses Semi active and passive tags. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Technical Issues <ul><li>Tag Collision </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Collision </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Readability </li></ul><ul><li>Read Robustness </li></ul>
  32. 33. Ethical Issues <ul><li>Passive RFID tags could conceivably used for surveillance of unsuspecting tag carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding of RFID tags in humans: This has been proven to work, but should it be done? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Advantages <ul><li>Contactless. An RFID tag can be read without any physical contact between the tag and the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Writable data. The data of a read-write (RW) RFID tag can be rewritten a large number of times. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of line of sight. A line of sight is generally not required for an RFID reader to read an RFID tag. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Advantages Contd. <ul><li>Variety of read ranges. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide data-capacity range. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for multiple tag reads. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform smart tasks. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Disadvantages <ul><li>Poor performance with RF-opaque and RF-absorbent objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacted by environmental factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation on actual tag reads. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacted by hardware interference. </li></ul>
  36. 37. CONCLUSION <ul><li>RFID, is an emerging technology which can be used for a variety of applications. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the potential for abuse of this technology is vast and requires careful consideration to avoid. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Questions?????????

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