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Design of lighting systems for animal experiments

  1. Design of lighting systems animal experiments Case for chronobiological experiments for rodents and non-human primates Petteri Teikari, PhD Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI) Visual Neurosciences group Version “Thu 16 August 2018“
  2. Environment Housedanimalsorcellcultures 0_cat_id=1_Activmeter.php Developmentoftheacoustically evokedbehavioralresponsein zebrafshtopuretones DavidG.Zeddies, RichardR.Fay JournalofExperimental Biology 2005 208: 1363-1372;  doi: 10.1242/jeb.01534
  3. Specifcations RoughSetupDesign Inexpensive lighting systems that still alllows the research to program the light intensity and light spectrum, with many of-the-shelf options for light beam shaping (e.g. collimating optics and difusers) LEDs Secondary Optics FiltersLED Driver DifuserSoftware Framework OpenLighting Architecture Enttec DMXUSB Promk2 ISTLiDrive®QuattroCCL ConstantcurrentDALI & DMX/RDM LED driver 4highresolution16-bitchannels Yuji VTC COB 13.5x 13.5mm VioletLEDpumpedwhite lightgivesbroaderfull- spectrum “daylight”-like spectrumlikeSORAA,Nichia Optisolisor Seoul SunLike Zhaga standard giveyou plentyof manufacturers (e.g. LEDIL)with solder- freeLED, optics, heatsink manufacturing LEE Filters for inexpensivegel flters ‘Scientifccinterference fltersfromEdmund, Thorlabs,Newport, etc. Qualityholographic diffusersfromLuminit Inexpensive photographic diffusers from LEE Filters
  4. Detailedbackground Onsystemblocks
  5. SoftwareFramework OLA&DMX
  6. OLA&DMX withRaspberryPi Thistutorialdescribeshowtoget OLA  runningonthe RaspberryPi.The proceduredescribedhereisdesigned togetOLAupandrunning asfastas possible.Ifyoudoncttrusttheimages below,or wanttobuildeverything from scratch,youcaninstallanimagefrom the RaspberryPiSite andusethe genericinstructionsfor Installing OLA  onLinux. Thereisplentyofinformationatthe  RaspberryPiWiki.The  RaspberryPiForum isagoodplaceto ask forhelponRaspberryPispecifc issues.
  7. DALIorPWM fromArduinookayish Tridonic DALI USB cts/2622.asp Interface module from USB to a DALI system. For connecting Tridonic software tools Addressing, programming and parametrising DALI installations and Tridonic devices. Power supply via DALI line and USB interface he DALI-2standard,thelatestversionoftheIEC 62386standardfor DALItechnology,is administeredbytheDigitalIlluminationInterface Alliance(DiiA)  Helvarisproudtoannouncethatourfltered hybriddimmingDALILEDdriver LL1x80-CR-DA  isthefrst DALI-2certifedproduct intheworld. er-in-the-world/
  8. LEDs How manychannels, setbyyourLEDdriver You wanttohave RGBW(4-channelsystem) or tunable white(e.g. 2-channelmixtureof 2700Kand 6500K‘whitelightc)
  9. Custom Light Channels needed Atleastthese forhuman photoreceptionstudies Foragoodresearchtool(atleastthe“Pro”version)couldcontainone sensorpereachphotoreceptor: ● Rod sensitivity Vc(λ) ● S-cone sensitivity “blue cones” ● M-conesensitivity “green cones” ● L-conesensitivity “red cones” ● “Melanopic” sensitivity “blue cones” =5channels ● Photopic sensitivity V(λ) is a linear combination of M and L cone sensitivities ● Mesopic can be computed from Vc(λ) and V(λ), but it is a nonlinear function depending on the intensity CORNEAL RETINAL
  10. Custom Light Channels needed Mightaswell these Atleast as an option Formoreexoticsensitivities,youcouldleaveopen hardwaredesignso thatphotopigmentintermediatescouldbeadded ● MetarhodopsinII (~380nm) that could play rolewith BlueLight Hazard (Grimm et al. 2000, 2001), and in photoreversal (Hubbardand Kropf1958) ● M(476nm) and Estates(453nm) of melanopsin (in vitro mouse, Emanuel et al. 2016; purifed pigment, Matsuyama et al. 2012). R-stateat 471 nm. =3 channels
  11. Melanopsin E- state? Clinical signifcance? Zhuetal.(2007) Findingsofmelanopsin- mediation potentiation of PLR After “supersaturating” light stimulus (1 minute of 18 W/m2 , white light from an unspecifed halogen light source) the following 1 minute blue “probe” light (470 nm) pulse, either at half-saturating irradiance IR 50 or at 70%- saturating irradiance IR 70 , was shown to elicit a potentiated PLR rather than a depressed PLR. AnalogoustoMc photoproductoffy rhodopsin that buildsupatextremelight intensities Franceschinietal.(1981) Signaling E-state athighintensities?
  12. “Silent Substitution” LEDillumination Example of how to get amultispectral cameraby fltering theilluminants, or simply by selecting many different LEDs Fillin the wholevisual spectrum, optimized for photoreceptors. Custom LED modulewould allow easy use in animalresearch too. HyperCam costs approximately $800 and is based on a FL3-U3-13Y3M- C USB 3.0 camera from Point Grey with CMOS image sensor that is sensitive from 350-1080 nm with peak quantum efciency at 560 nm. The camera uses 17 diferent spectral bands that are created using narrow-band, off-the-shelf LEDs confgured in a ring arrangement. The wavelengths for these LEDs vary from 450 to 990 nm, and were selected to cover the camera's sensitivity range. ments/snapshots/december-snapshots.html
  13. LEDDrivers SMDICs
  14. LED Drivers? You need todrive the LEDssomehow i.e.todeterminethe currentthroughLEDs Sowhat isthe maxcurrent youneed,what sortof frequencyyou mayneed. The better the dynamic range, the shorter pulses you can generate, and/or higher modulation frequencies
  15. Example LED Drivers How aboutother features? One driverpercircular PCB, sothere should be enoughchannels? Dutycycle control with programmable forward current(If )? TheLEDs are 'chainable' byconnectingthe output ofone chip intothe inputof another -see the datasheetfor diagramsand pinouts. Toallow the entire chip tobe integrated intoa6-pin package, there isasingle dataline withaverytiming-specifc protocol. Sincethe protocol is very sensitive to timing, it requiresa real-time microconroller such asan AVR, Arduino, PIC, mbed, etc. It cannot beused with aLinux-based microcomputer or interpreted microcontroller such asthe netduinoor Basic Stamp. The LEDsbasicallyhave aWS2811 inside, but  fxed at the 800Hzz '8high speed'8setting.  Our wonderfully-written  Neopixel libraryfor Arduinosupportsthese pixels! Asit requires hand-tuned assemblyit isonly for AVRcoresbut othersmay have ported thischip driver code soplease google around. An 8MHz or faster processor isrequired. 544Matchesleft withthesamespeed(atleast 800 kzz) vZ1y9l30tZ1yydjbaSGT
  16. Example LED Drivers The high-powerRGB led hasmaximum forward currentat250 mA,andthe Cree one at100 mA. Highestforward voltage now is3.4V(need aboost converter ifyourbattery voltage isbelow this) Thisflteringleavesus with187 options (when trimmingbulkypackagesawayaswell) z0jilrSGT7zi53ZerbbZ1z0wbyxZ1yxbqmiSGT7zi53ZeravZ1y9l30tZ1yydjbaSGT&Ns=Pricing%7c0 EnablingMultiple channelsleavesusonly 17driversnow (MostlyTexasIntruments) N-7zi53?P=1z0z7ptZ1yzvta6Z1yzvta3Z1yzxao1Z1yx7p9yZ1yzvta4&Rl=7zi5 3ZerbyZ1z0xsyoZ1ya7ku2Z1z0y1pqZ1z0jilrSGT7zi53ZerbbZ1z0wbyxZ1yx bqmiSGT7zi53ZeravZ1y9l30tZ1yydjbaSGT&Ns=Pricing%7c0
  17. Example LED Drivers Texas Intruments l paqs&familyid=480#p2823=250;5000
  18. LEDDrivers DMXControl
  19. Useplug’n’playsystems tomakeyour lifeeasier DMXRGBLEDDriver &Controller6 ChannelsLED-CON6- R2SIRS-E
  20. ISTLiDrive®QuattroCCL 4x16-bitchannels(2x 8-bitDMX512) Constantcurrent DALI & DMX/RDMLEDdriver, Up to1.6A per channel
  21. LEDsSMDs(SurfaceMountedDevices)
  22. LED Package types For SMD/T SurfaceMounted Device/Technology mt-component-sizes-and-metric-imperial-co nfusion/ 0.65mm x0.35mm x 0.2mm TOP-EMITTINGSMALLEST
  23. Side-emitting LEDs Sothateverythinglays fatonPCBwithoutno lightpipes e.g, Tesla40032in1(Dimension: L80mm*W16mm*H0.80mm) 500lm@12Vin350mA → ds/surfacemount
  24. Side-emitting LEDs Checkavailabilityfrom bb1?P=1yp37ea&Keyword=101510740&Ns=Orientation%7c1&FS=True&Ntk=P_MarCom
  25. Side-emitting LEDs MaxIF =30mA Intensitiesrange from 3mcdto 2800mcd bb1?P=1yp37ea&Keyword=101510740&Ns=Orientation%7c1&FS=True&Ntk=P_MarCom
  26. Candelato Lux
  27. Limitingto Blueand CoolWhite Kingbright APA1606VRBXF/A-5MAV 1.6mmx0.6mmx 1.2mm; 120mcd;110deg,5mA,Blue,3V OSRAM LWY1SG-BFCF-GKJM-1-Z LWY1SG-BFCF-EKFM-1-Z Datasheet 15,818pcsInStock CutTape,unitprice 1:$1.11 10: $0.865 25: $0.72 50:$0.674 100:View 2,000::$0.375 8200K,1600mcd, 20mA,3.3V 2.55mmx 0.9mmx1.3 mm
  28. Side-emitting LEDs Branded comeswith allthenicefles [June2013]OsramMicroSideled3806, 3.8×1×0.6mm,150lm/W 2190715/ guage=en
  29. TOP-emitting LEDs Moreoptionsthan for theside-emitting GoforBigNames?!/?query=*&sortFiel d=&sortOrder=&start=0&flters=color,Blue%20(470%20nm)&flters=c olor,Deep%20blue%20(460%20nm)&flters=color,White -leds/ Catalogue2017_02_09.pdf
  30. Exotic non- conforming shapes
  31. RGB(W/A) Easiertoassemble withall the 3/4 color dies onthesame chip CreeCLQ6A-TKW-C1L1R1H1QBB7935AA3 Wavelength/ColourTemperature:624nm,535nm,475nm,5700 K LuminousFlux/RadiantFlux:14 lm,30lm,8.2lm,25lm Package/Case:PLCC-8 Unitprice$0.942/100pcs Dimensions:5.2mmx5x1.1mm 1QBB7935AA3?qs=BZBei1rCqCCs2mRhgHvO8g%3d%3d
  32. RGBLEDs 7 matches found with the higher outputs htps:// ?P=1y962ekZ1y962e7Z1y961e7Z1z0z7ptZ1y9fnu7Z1yyjzvjZ1y95alhZ1yzrdo 0 CREE CLQ6A-TKW- C1L1R1H1QBB7935AA3 htps:// il/Cree-Inc/CLQ6A-TKW-C1L1R1H 1QBB7935AA3?qs=sGAEpiMZZMtK o6xK7%252bVI1jd2MmfBQ0tQ9nz 6Da7%252b9xH%252b%252bB9Z8 3G0Qw%3d%3d Luminous Intensity: 3000 mcd, 7030 mcd, 1824 mcd, 5860 mcd 624 nm, 535 nm, 475 nm, 5700 K htp:// ed-components/media/ documents/ds-CLQ6A- TKW.pdf If - Forward Current: 100 mA Vf - Forward Voltage: 2.1 V, 3 V, 3.1 V, 2.9 V
  33. RGBLEDs HighPower Expensive formassproduction but ifyou make yourPCB rings the samesize,easytodo plugcncplayreplacement ifhigh intensities neededinresearch settings Optek/TTElectronicsOVSPRGBCR4 LuminousIntensity:9000 mcd (9x),14000 mcd (7x), 3550 mcd (3.5x) Wavelength/Colour Temperature:625 nm, 525nm, 465 nm LuminousFlux/Radiant Flux:14lm, 27 lm,57lm Vf -ForwardVoltage:2.3 V,3.4V,3.4V If -ForwardCurrent:250 mA LED Size:6 mm x 6 mm x 1.5 mm Optek-TT-Electronics/OVSPRGBCR4?qs =VzdrSJkwcuYnu6VZIPrX7Q%3d%3d
  34. ‘Standardize’ PCBareafor theLEDmodule Plugcncplaymodel foreasy change ofexperimental lights. You can populate the same PCB withdifferent LEDwavelengthsfor differentpurposes (thumb)-screw or probably some other quick-snapon connector mechanism?
  35. Standardize LED sizes? Need toonly doonce the PCBdesigns with places for theSMD LEDs, and then they can bepopulated with desired colors. Or docouple of versions at mostwith different package sizes KingbrightAPG0603PBC-TT-5MAV 467nm0201 0.6x0.3mmSMDLED Notthebrightest Only115optionsfor 0201-0402packages PLCC-4 has302optionswith23RGBLEDs with21BLUELEDs(464-475nm) PLCC-6has70options PLCC-4 /
  36. Goingtoo Small? Harderandmore expensive then to manufacture. But ifyou standardize only connectorson PCB,easy touse different layouts mating-assembly-cost In2017,0402iscompletely standard and no contract manufacturerwillblink aneye,whetherinprototype or mass production quantities. 04/is-0603-vs-0402-assembly-mass-production-cost- optimization-still-relevant https://www.embedde ping-and-developmen t/4429499/Applying-D esign-for-Manufacturi ng--DFM--to-PCB-de velopment-
  37. LEDsCOBs(ChipsonBoard)
  38. Easiertoassemble thanSMDs
  39. Easyassembly withZhagastandard Mechatronix COOLCONNECT® HOLDER2X2MX-02LED holderfor2x2MXplatform withCOB 13.5x13.5mmPre- wired200mm https://www.led-heatsink.c om/ Chip-On-Board (COB)LEDzolders er&channel=products%20
  40. LEDsModifycommercialfxtures
  41. Whybuildoptomechanics fromscratch 1000WLEDzighMastLampLED stadiumlightingLED food light 1000Wwith138,000lm US$715.00/piece 10xPCBswith3030SMD LEDs eachPCB=100W(13,800lm) e.g. Cree J Series 3x3x0.5 mm white LED , 350 mA,1W, 156 lm (4000K, 70 CRI) / 139 lm (3000 K, 80 CRI) Thusone PCBcouldforexample contain100LEDs Smd3030LedOpticalStreetLightLens OpticalLEDLensArray/56WSMD3030LED PCBs and optics standardized parts in China Askto customize?
  42. Existing COB-basedfxtures 1000WattOutdoor WaterproofLEDFloodLightforLEDGolfCourseLight/LED FilmShootingLight 000-Watt-Outdoor-Waterproof-LED-Flood-Light-for-LED-Golf-Course-Light-L ED-Film-Shooting-Light.html YujiVTC5WLEDEmitter 13.5mmx13.5mmx 1.0mm b-led-135xl-pack-5-pcs?variant=45423693395
  43. Alotof growlights tooexist Repurpose those aquaponic/ hydrophonic/ aeroponicLEDfxtures VIPARSPECTRATimerControlSeries TC12001200WLED GrowLight- DimmableVeg/BloomChannels12- BandFullSpectrum for IndoorPlants 432USD Dimgogo2000wTriple ChipsLEDGrowLight USD AdvancedPlatinum SeriesP9-XML2 855w 12- bandLEDGrowLight+ CREE10w XM-L2 999 USD
  44. Aswellasoutdoor wallwashers 1000W LED City Color Light96PCS*10W RGBW 4in1 LEDsfor Outdoor Decoration DMXWireless US$400-600/Piece or-Light-96PCS-10W-RGBW-4in1-LEDs-for-Outdoor-Decoration-DMX-Wireless.html RGBLED FloodLight /DMXLED FloodLight GNz-FL-12V- COB-10W-z0I ct/RGB-LED-Flood-Light-DMX-RG B-LED-Flood-Light.html
  45. Whatif notLEDs: thenlaser,metalhalide or xenon light-lighting CAME-TV1200W HMI(Hydrargyrummedium-arc iodide)FresnelKitwith DimmableElectronic BallastandCase 0hmi_1200w_hmi_fresnel_kit.html
  46. SecondaryOptics BeamShaping
  47. 13.5x13.5mmCOBstandardsize 9 TheTypeZ35LEDholdersenablequickandeasyLEDassemblythroughtape-in LED retention andprovideeasyattachmentofsecondary optics.TEcsLUMAWISE LED Holders are Zhagabook11 inspired. / Mechanical Connections, e.g. from Zhaga standard
  48. MechanicalFixtureSourcing Depends what you can and want to manufacture Sheet of Metal Holeson cornerstofx on a“coathanger”orwhatever Screw holes Have16oftheseheatsinksscrewedonasheet ofmetal. onlycustomthingtodoistoorderthesheetswiththeholes?
  49. 13.5x13.5mmCOBstandardsize Same for optics, plenty of off-the-shelf optics / kes-book-3-public-the-frst-of-seven-interface-specifcations-for-led-light-engines
  50. 13.5x13.5mmCOBstandardsize LATESTFROMLEDiL Q3/2017 -Q4/2017 e.g. see LEDIL’s optics
  51. Withbig boylike Creeyou havea lotofLED OPTICS optionsalsofor SMDs https://www.led-profes d-optics -the-growing-needs-of-the-led-lighting-industry-by-dow-corning
  52. Ifyoudo custom optics Software licenses are expensive Dependingonyourdesign workfow,youprobablywant interoperabilitybetween optical designandoptomechanicalCAD software Open-source BEAMIVusedbydeMeloin hisM.Sc.Thesisfor mobilefunduscamera (2017). Zemax used by Samaneigoetal.(2012) forA Portable,ScalableRetinalImagingSystem Wuetal.(2017)used bothZemax andLightToolstodesign the opticalsystemoftheirbinocularfunduscamera
  53. Mechanicaldesign jointly with opticaldesign Zemaxdefactostandardfor imagingoptical designwith optomechanical integration (LensMechanix), withLightTools offeringthe CAD integration (Solidworks), whichisusedmore withnon- imagingopticsdesign x
  54. Filters forspectraltuning
  55. YujiCOB5W 4x4grid80W→ Book 11 has 35 mm diameter → 140 x 140 mm surface. Need to collimate for the interference filter to avoid spectral sidebands Yuji COB 13.5x13.5mm Zhaga 35mmOptics Holderfor4x4grid Includingheatsinks Optics“X” Forcollimation through Interferenceflter Interference flter group_id=1860 25mm
  56. Illuminant Filters Interferenceflters For sometasksthe LED spectrummightbe toobroad.In order to“monochromatize” your light,youneedabandpass interference flterthat canbe abit priceyforlow-cost devices. 488nm Interferenceflter fromEdmund opticswould beoptimalformelanopic orcornealmelanopsin sensitivity PCB-levelholders forof-the-shelf flters? Schott Advanced Optics| Optical Interference Filters
  57. Rememberto collimate Traditionally, as the incident angle imposed by the lensc feld of view increases,a fltercs passband shifts, allowing shorter wavelength light to pass, commonly referred to as blue shifting or short shifting. In contrast, some absorptive flter glass designs provide lower wavelength blocking, which signifcantly minimizes the effects of blueshifting.CourtesyofMidwestOpticalSystems.
  58. Custom Filters Thinflmseverywhere Getsome photosensor (many of them) and create desired flter spectrum togive you desired photoreceptor spectral sensitivity optical-sensors notes/optics/an-introduction-to-optical-coatings/
  59. MAX44009 ForMelanopicand Scotopic measurements Through“analytic eyeballing”thedesired fltersseems reasonabletoachieve?
  60. Cosine Filtering Diffusinginput Filtersfor each sensor or one for all? ads/Light-defnition-of-cosine-correction.pdf mentation/05.html
  61. Difusersforfnalhomogenizationoflight
  62. Difusers Probablysome applicationsare happierwithlower transmissions andsmallerhomogeneityoflight frominexpensiveflters,when somemight want topayfor the topquality? Thinkhow tomake the diffusers easilychangeabletoo? Cheapest probablytokeepslots in theenclosureforsome rigid diffusertothrow in,rather thana thread-basedflter? ers/optical-diffusers/Holographic-Diffusers/ From $135 s windows-diffusers/optical-diffusers/Whit e-Diffusing-Glass/ / Malaysia
  63. Spread withbatwingor Fresnel Interference flter 25mm BatwingOptics Todistributeagain the lighttothe“massive” chicken box ceiling l l
  64. Sizeandcostlimitations Focallengthof 32”(80 cm) isnot reallyfeasibleasthebox constructwould getreallyhigh 7 Tooexpensive custom microlensarray forcollimating the light emitters? Commercial options? s Seealso the Singapore suppliers https://www.photonics .com/BGSearch.aspx ?Type=COM&Country =SGP
  65. CeilingDifuser g-Diffuser-Films/0000001W0H l com/watch?v=e1UD kV_9EYQ Higher quality Luminit or just some photographic diffuser (Lee, etc.
  66. Inpractice basicallyawarehouse-typeshelf? Optimally 1000x 1000mm (withsomemargins) ~800mm focallength “Batwing distance” Limitedby room and doorheight And as the chicken setup is not that fxed and might need to be moved quite often, this cannot be too cumbersome to move?
  67. DIY orfancier?Whatisthecost MushroomCompostingRack SlottedAngleIronRacks Freestanding Shelving Units 42UServer Racks Wiremeshplatformcart StaticLoad4000kgs HeavyDutyRack ShelvingStorageSystems Industrialshelving withwiredividers Rack-PalletRacksStorage
  68. LightSensing Spectrumandintensitysensingforfeedback andmonitoring
  69. Light Sensing Customvisiblerange sensors Foragoodresearchtool(atleastthe“Pro”version)couldcontainone sensorpereachphotoreceptor: ● Rod sensitivity Vc(λ) ● S-cone sensitivity “blue cones” ● M-conesensitivity “green cones” ● L-conesensitivity “red cones” ● “Melanopic” sensitivity “blue cones” =5channels ● Photopic sensitivity V(λ) is a linear combination of M and L cone sensitivities ● Mesopic can be computed from Vc(λ) and V(λ), but it is a nonlinear function depending on the intensity CORNEAL RETINAL
  70. Light Sensing Customvisiblerange sensors Formoreexoticsensitivities,youcouldleaveopen hardwaredesignso thatphotopigmentintermediatescouldbeadded ● MetarhodopsinII (~380nm) that could play rolewith BlueLight Hazard (Grimm et al. 2000, 2001), and in photoreversal (Hubbardand Kropf1958) ● M(476nm) and Estates(453nm) of melanopsin (in vitro mouse, Emanuel et al. 2016; purifed pigment, Matsuyama et al. 2012). R-stateat 471 nm. =3 channels
  71. Light Sensing Customvisiblerange sensors Ifthis camewith electronically controlledlensdensity flter (electrochromic glass) with ageas aparameter, it would bequitenice :) Or somebroadband MEMS flter. Images ofelectrochromic glassdevices and optical transmittance spectrum:(a) electrochromic glass withtransparent characteristics in a bleached state, (b)electrochromic glass with blue translucent characteristic in adyed state, and (c)the glass has transparencyof 82% and 21.1% in bleached and dyed states. - Chien Chon Chen (2013) mart-window-applications?SSO=1
  72. Light Sensing Auxiliarysensors UV(A/B) UVSensingforoutdoordetectionanderythremaquantifcation? Does UV play a rolein myopia? D-vitamin synthesis from sunlight? Action Spectrum Figure 7.Approximatedepthfor penetration ofopticalradiationinfair Caucasian skin.  Action spectrafor erythema in humanskin according toCIE [162] and Anders etal [166], for SCC in mouseskin according SCUP[172] and for CMMinfshaccording Setlow et al [176].  The solar spectrum from extreme UV to far infrared. The illustration shows the spectrum of solar radiation from 10 to 100 000 nm (dark blue), its variability between solar maximum and solar minimum (green) and the relative transparency of Earthcs atmosphere at sea level (light blue). The red dashed line is a blackbody ft to the solar spectrum. At wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, there is a relatively large variation in the Suncs extreme UV and x-ray output (greater than 1%), but the Earthcs atmosphere is nearly opaque at those wavelengths (courtesy Judith Lean).
  73. Light Sensing Auxiliarysensors Infrared Forspectralidentifcationorsomecorrection? Spectralidentifcationoflightingtypeandcharacter.-NCBI byCDElvidge-2010-Citedby120 “Ourconclusionisthatitisfeasibletoidentifylightingtypeandmakereasonable estimatesofLuminousEfcacyof Radiation(LER)andCorrelatedColor Temperature(CCT)using fouror morespectral bandsfownonthe Landsat ThematicMapper (TM)with minimal spectral overlap spanning the400to 1000 nmregion.” 
  74. Light Sensors Lessindustrialdemand forUVsensors (ambientlightsensors typicallyusedinmobile phones highvolume→ manufactured) eikariPhD/arduinobased-circadian-li ght-logger High-LevelIntegrationinMAX44005 7Sensorsina2mm x 2mm x 0.6mm Package (usedbyusinUS,nowdeprecatedthoughandreplacedby MAX44009
  75. RGB Light Sensors MAX44008 /MAX44006 Notavailableanymore s/sensors-and-sensor-interface/MAX44008. html
  76. RGB Light Sensors Intersil’s ISL29125? onics/ambient-light-sensors/light-to-digital-sens ors/ISL29125.html 3.02SGD/piecefor100units ntersil/ISL29125IROZ-T7?qs=8EBwJ8mibj2u1sv ZyuG5jQ%3d%3d Can be used together with MAX44009 6Ld ODFN (1.65x1.65x0.7mm) package Twoopticalsensitivityranges Range0=5.7mluxto375lux Range1=0.152luxto10,000lux
  77. RGB Light Sensors MAZET AMS TCS3430 RGB (XYZ) +2Infrared bands Size: 2.41 x 1.75 x 1.00mm sors/Color-Sensors/TCS3430
  78. RGB Light Sensors zAMAMATSU S13683-02WT Supersmall 1.75x0.23x0.45mm 53/S13683-021WT/index.html
  79. Light Sensors AmbientLightsensor Only “photopic lux” measured MAX44009 Can beusedfor melanopic andscotopicmeasurements with custom flters DrawnbyPetteri alreadyin EagleCAD if needto beusedinadesign daysiduino.lbr The MAX44009 ambient light sensor features an I²C digital output that is ideal for a number of portable applications such as smartphones, notebooks, and industrialsensors.Atlessthan1µAoperating current,itis the lowest power ambient light sensor in the industry and features an ultra-wide 22-bit dynamic range from 0.045 lux to 188,000 lux. s-and-sensor-interface/MAX44009.html ensor-interface/MAX44009.html DeviceAddressOptions1001010xand1001011x→ We can only have 2 sensors per MCU
  80. Light Sensors Multichannel onesbeyond RGBs MazetMMCS6CS FOR MONKEY and CHICK cages? nt
  81. Light Sensors Digitalambientlight sensors withUVaswell BothUVA andUVB in a small package. 2.0 x 1.25 x 1.0 mm Arduinolibrary:,$2.73unit price/10pcs ster/VEML6075.h
  82. SpatialLightSensing Checkthatspatialdistribution isdesired
  83. Camera Options Variouslow-costdevicedesigns have beenbuilt ontopofthe RaspberryPianditscamera module. Youcouldmake thecameraunit alsomodularsothat youcould popin another cameramodule withahigherframe rateand/or higherspatial resolutionfor example PCB ~25x25mm Camera 8x8x8 mm 3 A PracticalDeviceforMeasuringthe LuminanceDistribution ThijsKruisselbrink , MyriamAries, Alexander Rosemann (2017) “Raspberry Pi 2 model B, was used to control the camera, carry out the computations and communicate the results using a Wi-Fi dongle. The camera functionality was accounted for by the Raspberry Pi Camera Board version 1.3 with a CMOS sensor (3.60 mm, f/2.9) with a maximum resolution of 2592 x 1944 pixels, comparable to cameras in smartphones. A miniature equisolid-angle fsheye lens, suitable for the Raspberry Pi Camera Board, with a measured angle of view of187°(3mm, f/0.4)wasused on top ofthe camera sensortoprovideahemisphericalimage.” A lotof phone cameralenskits have alow-costandlow- qualityfsheyelens forquickproof-of- conceptprototyping forexample.
  84. Raspberry Moduleas aScientifc Camera RaspberryPi3v2camera modulegood inexpensive option for homemonitoring,remote care in thecommunity, etc. Laying the foundation touse Raspberry Pi3 V2 camera module imagery for scientifc andengineeringpurposes Mary A.Pagnutti; RobertE.Ryan; GeorgeJ.Cazenavette; MaxwellJ.Gold; RyanHarlan; EdwardLeggett; JamesF. Pagnutti ; InnovativeImaging&ResearchCorp.(UnitedStates) J.ofElectronicImaging,26(1),013014 (2017).doi:10.1117/1.JEI.26.1.013014 The Raspberry Pi credit-card-sized computer supports several accessories, including a camera module containing the Sony IMX219 sensor. This computer and camera confguration is of particular interest since it can provide raw-data format imagery that can be used for a multitude of applications, including computer vision, biophotonics, medical testing, patient-centric healthcare with IoT, remote sensing, astronomy, improved image quality, high dynamic range (HDR) imaging, and security monitoring. This paper evaluates the characteristics of the Raspberry Pi V2.1 camera based on the Sony IMX219 sensor and the radiometric performance of its raw- data format imagery, so the system can be effectively used for scientifc imagingandengineering purposes. Turning the camera on and taking images can cause changes in output due to sensor warming. The plots show that after approximately a 200 frame warm-up period, data values reach steadystate. RaspberryPi camera mean-variancecurves forISO 100,200, and 400. DN = digital number (asinpixel intensity) Raspberry Pi CameraV2 spectral response.
  85. EnvironmentSensing forensuringgoodqualitysense
  86. EnvironmentSensing use forexample serverroommonitoringhardware or DIYsomething withArduino 25SGDfor monitoring thetemperature/humidityof the animalfacility. Youcan connect 4IPCamerasandyouhavealsoadditional2digital inputsand4analoginputs,andonerelayport A variety ofoptionalplug-and-play sensorsareavailableforusewith theWatchdog100includingbutnotlimitedto,temperature, humidity, airfow,waterandsmokedetection sensors,doorposition,power failureandmore.Oneoftheuniquefeaturesof theWatchdog100isits relay contactportusedtoenergizeorde-energizean externaldevice forautomation. AnOpen-SourceEnvironmentalMonitoringPlatformconsistingofarduino-compatible hardware,datavisualizationwebAPI,andmobileapp.
  87. Systemintegration makesurethatothermeasurementsintegrate nicelyto lightingwithsharedtimestamps
  88. Maybeyouwanttomeasurebehavior with camera, Arduino,Raspberry Piand Kinect? Open-Source,LowCost,Free-Behavior Monitoring,andRewardSystemforNeuroscience ResearchinNon-humanPrimate Front.Neurosci.,16May2017| Tyler LibeyandEberhardE.Fetz Amultimodalsensorsystemforautomated marmosetbehavioralanalysis 2016IEEE13thInternationalConferenceonWearableandImplantable BodySensor Networks(BSN) LauraJ. Brattain; Rogier Landman; KerryA. Johnson ;Patrick Chwalek ; Julia Hyman; Jitendra Sharma ; CharlesJennings; RobertDesimone; Guoping Feng ; ThomasF. Quatieri