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Philosophical Foundations for a Services Systems Approach

Florie Bugeaud's presentation in Sorbonne, "Philosophy of the Web" seminar, June 9 2012.

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Philosophical Foundations for a Services Systems Approach

  1. 1. Philosophical fundations for a Services Systems Approach Paris – June 2012, 9th Florie Bugeaud Extracted from PhD thesis (defended in July 2011):« iSamsara : for a Services Systems Engineering thanks to a Mereological and Hypergraph approach »
  3. 3. Initial topic :Creation of a business processes repository for business customers in the service sector.Context :« Opportunities research » step within a telecom operator design process : « innovators » try toimagine and conceive adapted solutions for customers (case studies : diabetics telemonitoring,videoconf. in a family) (Bugeaud, 2011)
  4. 4. Main issues for the telecom operator: Better understanding of the service situations that are experienced by customers Maximizing the number of ideas / opportunities Reducing the risks of a non-market adjustment Positioning themselves in relation to the Services ScienceAddressed problems and proposed solutions: Complexity of the notion of « service » (= scientific lock) Redefinition and formalization of the concept of service Lack of understanding between the various actors of the innovation process and belated interest for the customer experience (= operational lock) Creation of a methodological framework for the opportunities research step Difficult understanding of a « virtual reality » (services situations as they are experienced by customers, in various dimensions: economic, cognitive, emotional, technologic, material etc.)
  5. 5. An overused and not well positioned concept: Product Process FunctionalitySector Service Collaboration Relation Innovation Activity
  6. 6. A simplified definition based on the customers’ role: (Bun, 2008)
  7. 7. An « self-centered » vision within enterprises:
  8. 8. Towards a Services Engineering problematic at an abstract level and relationalperspective: - (re) specification of the service? - model to account for its heterogeneity and dynamicity? - methods and tools to support the actors’ cooperation and creativity?Re-conceptualization of the service, modeling and simulation to promote cooperation and creativity upstream of the services design process of a telecom operator
  10. 10. Observation and locks:Service as a social relation, as a set of characteristics, as (Gadrey, 2003)a good, as a functionality, etc. (Bugeaud, 2011)Polysemy, complexity, various kinds of questioning, little recognition of use/usage, structured drivingof the innovation, difficult cooperation, few working environments ...Even if perspectives are differents, we always define the service through its contents / its substancewithout considering its dynamic nature, its various interactions…
  11. 11. Emergence of the notion of « service system » - SSME : « a value-coproduction configuration of people, technology, other internal and external service systems, and shared information » (Spohrer et al., 2007) Systemic view: neither a commodity nor a functionality Key characteristics: heterogeneity, dynamicity and value creation Positioning: “Intermediary object" (Vinck) to build the service and support the actors’ coordination “Operational object" to describe the services’ interactions and underlying transactions, and to consider the implementation of e-services Questions: How to represent it? Calculate it? Simulate it?
  12. 12. Focus of the notion of « service relation » : Particular form of the producer-consumer relation (Bensahel,et al., 2001) New mode of coordination between actors / agents : Generalization as the predominant social relation Confusion of the commercial, social, public/private areas Key component of the definition and design of products / servicesBirth of dynamic and performative phenomenon: Relation of circulation DYNAMIC Distributed activity Sensory experience Adapté de (Tixier, 2001)
  13. 13. Back to the minimal service phenomenology: Awareness that there is a lack / a need Separation of the client / user and a "piece" of himself Request for help and getting in touch with a supplier Transfer of the "object to fix the client to the supplier Application of skills by the supplier and co-production with the customer Transformation of the “service object" and quasi-simultaneous consumption Reappropriation by the customer
  15. 15. Multidisciplinary background: Phenomenology (Hegel, Husserl, etc.) : • Perception of the objects / of the reality as heterogeneous phenomena • Primacy of the human activity and experience rather than the substance • Importance of relations of dependency and relation of fundation
  16. 16. Multidisciplinary background: Dynamic structuralism (Piaget, Greimas, etc.) : • Definition of the structure as a dynamic system / a system of transformations (entity with internal dependences) • Rules on the composition, association, dissociation, transformation • Characteristics of: totality, transformations et auto-régulation
  17. 17. Multidisciplinary background: Process philosophy (Whitehead, Rescher, etc.) : • Opposition to the traditional paradigm of the substance • Perception of the reality and the human experience as a set of movements / events / developments and their alternatives • Horizontally interconnected processes and vertically composed of micro- processes
  18. 18. Multidisciplinary background: Holism (Husserl, Whitehead, Leśniewski) : • Definition of the theory of the collective class instead of distributive class • Perception of the reality as clusters / assemblages / heaps of micro elements • Definition of the mereological sum and product (as well as key operations) • Sometimes combined with the “topology” (Varzi, Casati) with the notions of neighborhood and frontiers/borders
  19. 19. Multidisciplinary background... Phenomenology Dynamic structuralism Process philosophy Holism ...for a new definition of the concept of service: Dynamic phenomenon emerging from the coordination or linking of heterogeneous entitiesAgencement / arrangement of autonomous objects which existence is conditioned by the alliances or relationships they form between them, by constantly changing their shape during chains of possible “products-resources conversions”
  20. 20. Implications : objects / things categories + transcendental / a priori logic (Aristote, Kant) flow / process that are nested and interconnected + immanent logic semantic structuralism dynamic structuralism (Petitot, 1999) hierarchies / structured and homogeneous totalities relational “part-whole”, connectivity system, heterogeneity (the elements arrive, transform themselves, connect themselves, dissociate, etc. within a more macro entity) Critique of the traditional metaphysics
  21. 21. Questioning the existing models of service conceptual models = static view behavioral models = rigid and operational approach absence of certain dimensions It resonates among the concepts and formalizations of "action networks": narrative course of Greimas, rhizome of Deleuze, actor-network of Latour (see the PhD thesis of Delalonde C.), etc.Multi-Agents Systems : interesting characterization of agents as autonomous and interactive agents but agents are ≠ from active entities that are not anthropomorphic beings (decision unit featuringperformances, etc.) and whose unique purpose is to connect itself with other (shape change through mediation) Technical environments are not adapted
  22. 22. Proposition of a new model: the « SERVICIAL AGENCEMENT » constructed thanks to the mathematical approach of the SIMPLICIAL COMPLEXESbased on the notion of HYPERGRAPHE and the characteristics of multidimensionality, adjacency and symmetry relationships between elements Close to the idea of « configuration of heterogeneous elements » advocated by SSME (« specific arrangements of people and technologies take actions that provide value for others » (Spohrer, 2008)) and the notion of « arrangement of parts » advocated by Simons (Richard et al., 2010) Observation and modeling of the movements behind the forces that change the « spectrum of the phenomenon »: network as a means to make visible the dynamicBuilding of the proof of concept of a “servicial agencements” modeling and simulation environment : iSamsara
  24. 24. Entités actives vides et autonomes ConnexionDesigners Connexions Clara habite à Marseille, elle simpliciales contacte ses parents et son frère pour planifier la prochaine réunion familiale. Son frère est dans sa chambre, Sélection devant son ordinateur. Dès que le ser Annotation Extraction et interconnexion Calcul Importation structure Entités actives CalculsDocuments trajectoires Ontologies Conversions (Bugeaud, 2011)
  25. 25. Complex node Structural holePoint of articulation Isthme (Bugeaud, 2011)
  26. 26. studie:Case studie:– Telepresence– Steps: (Bugeaud, 2011)
  27. 27. – Extract from the results: (Bugeaud, 2011)
  28. 28. BENEFITS
  29. 29. Benefits for the telecom operator: A reference model and a new approach that have to be integrated within the actors’ practices of innovation in order to support their thinking face to services situations Around twenty published papers (conferences, workshops and journals) during the thesisExpected scientific / theoretical benefit : Des perspectives d’approfondissement A formalization of the concept of "Service System" through the relationship, activity and experience (interest of the community SSME and knowledge engineers) A new type of heterogeneity and dynamicity oriented model: “agencements” (here servicial) A lot of perspectives
  30. 30.