An enabling environment is a place
individual needs are met and all are included
learning is through play and exploration.
independent learning and autonomy are fostered
opportunities for children to learn indoors and outdoors are
children feel emotionally and physically safe.
Children have a voice
• a holistic approach to learning is promoted .
Gammage, P. and Meighan, J. (1993) (eds)
ctive – assumes hands-on involvement of child
ersonally meaningful – develops children’s interests
xperiential – plans for doing, talking, experimenting
xploratory – invites possibilities, delights in curiosity
evelopmentally appropriate – suited to the ages (stages of children)
ro-social – invites appropriate interaction and stresses co-operation
rather than competition
reative – encourages children to be imaginative and inventive
The environment consists of
hat does your placement ‘say’ to you/parents/children/visitors?
ntrances how are parents/carers, children, visitors and staff
welcomed into your setting?
isplays - Who are they for?
ictures that inspire discussion and reflection, motivates,
ictures/artefacts which stimulate senses
eflect diversity and equality
urniture – size appropriate
pace for free movement/access
oes the arrangement support children’s play?
oes the arrangement create barriers to communication?
ll settings are now required to provide children with access to the
iscuss in your groups
hy this is important
ow does your placement provide access to the outdoors
ross motor skills – indoor activities on a larger scale- indoors outside?
atural environment- stimulation of senses (Piaget)- Froebel bringing
the outdoors in
isk taking? Physical?
The Emotional Environment
ove and security enables
hrive emotionally in an
atmosphere of warmth
eel self worth through praise
stablish a locus of control –
allowed to make choices
The Emotional Environment
hat are the key factors in developing
and sustaining an environment which
promotes children’s emotional well-
iscuss in groups.
The Emotional Environment
ey features include:
elationships of trust
redictability through daily routines
he rules democratically and consistently applied
•Adult - key Person role – transitions,
attachment, home-learning (EPPE) - self
•Peers – how are children supported with
communication with and empathy for
llows prolonged periods of uninterrupted play?
hildren choose their playmates?
re children able to bring resources from outside in?
s there room for children to negotiate changes to
re children allowed to initiate play?- autonomy,
ncludes time for children to meet in groups and
share news etc?
ncludes time to allow parents/carers to talk
with staff when picking up and dropping off?
llows staff to reflect, evaluate and plan?
llows time for staff to update children’s
Children who experience high quality early years provision are well
placed to achieve better outcomes in schools and beyond and
develop better social, emotional and cognitive abilities necessary
for life-long learning. Poor quality provision, however, adds no
value in the long term.”
DCSF EYQISP p.6)
A contentious term
ot all practitioners are comfortable with the processes and
services which accompany the idea of quality (Jones, 2010)
term that needs to be critically discussed (Dahlberg et al
o you believe it to be necessary?
hat may be the problems associated with it?
ccording to Dahlberg et al (1999) is a term embedded in
easurement is possible through, scientific study, objective
value-neutral truths are attainable and enable predictions to
be made about the world
ntervention impacts on outcomes – pupil premium?
ducation Endowment Foundation?/Dyson
op down model (Walsh and Gardner 1999)
rovides a standardised tool with which to compare provision
re all settings same? Addressing the same issues? Values?
Communities? (Alexander 2010)
ome cultures value social and emotional and spiritual above
cognitive, some value cognition and adopt the behaviourist
model of instruction (formal).
oral and spiritual/ Steiner
Quality’ has become synonymous with ‘effective’
herefore current means of measuring e.g. Ofsted are
all stakeholders need to be involved (Index)
ow desirable/possible would this be?
itchell et al (1997) reminds us to reflect upon the power
different groups may have in order to voice their opinions.
Who has the power?
The Effective Provision of Pre-school Education
Investigated effects of pre-school education
for 3 and 4 yr olds
Collected information on more than 3000
children, their parents, their home
environments and the pre-school setting they
Drawn from 141 settings: LA day nurseries,
combined centres, playgroups, private day
nurseries, maintained nursery schools and
maintained nursery classes. (included a sample
of ‘home’ children
Pre-school experience, compared to none, enhances all-round
development in children.
Duration of attendance (in months) is important; an earlier start
(under age 3 years) is related to better intellectual development.
( cortisol levels of fulltime day care?)
Full time attendance led to no better gains for children than part-
Disadvantaged children benefit significantly from good quality
pre-school experiences, especially where they are with a mixture
of children from different social backgrounds.
Good quality can be found across all types of early years settings;
however quality was higher overall in settings integrating care
and education and in nursery schools.
Importance of quality home learning environment (HLE)
What quality looks like
Settings – what are the key elements of high quality provision?
challenging & play-
staff : children
leading practice, setting
vision, leading learning
for group care
& basis for
for staff to gain
PCS Analysis (Thompson, 2003)
• Discrimination and oppression
operate at different levels
• These levels are interrelated
• Some elements are overt and
visible – other features of
oppression can be more invisible
• Effective action to promote
equality and diversity relies on
thinking and action at all levels
Teachers’ Standard 5
dapt teaching to respond to the strengths and needs of all pupils
•know when and how to differentiate appropriately, using approaches which
enable pupils to be taught effectively
•have a secure understanding of how a range of factors can inhibit pupils’
ability to learn, and how best to overcome these
•demonstrate an awareness of the physical, social and intellectual
development of children, and know how to adapt teaching to support pupils’
education at different stages of development
• have a clear understanding of the needs of all pupils, including those with
special educational needs; those of high ability; those with English as an
additional language; those with disabilities; and be able to use and evaluate
distinctive teaching approaches to engage and support them.
New National Curriculum Inclusion statement
etting suitable challenges
.1 Teachers should set high expectations for every pupil. They
should plan stretching work for pupils whose attainment is
significantly above the expected standard. They have an even
greater obligation to plan lessons for pupils who have low levels of
prior attainment or come from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Teachers should use appropriate assessment to set targets
which are deliberately ambitious.
esponding to pupils’ needs and overcoming potential barriers for
individuals and groups of pupils
.2 Teachers should take account of their duties under equal
opportunities legislation that covers race, disability, sex, religion or
belief, sexual orientation, pregnancy and maternity, and gender
Early Years Foundation Stage (2012)
“Children have a right, spelled out in the United Nations Convention
on the Rights of the Child, to provision which enables them to
develop their personalities, talents and abilities irrespective of
ethnicity, culture or religion, home language, family background,
learning difficulties, disabilities or gender.”
(Development Matters, 2012, p1)
Creating an Enabling Environment
earning objective – what do we
want the child to learn?
ccess – how is the child going to
access this learning? (child’s next steps)
eaching style – how can I adapt my
ompensatory or complementary
wo underpinning principles:
• grounded in the child’s skills and aptitudes, not ability
• the learning process, not the product is the teaching focus
types (in Eaude, 2011, p148)
rovide a map of attainment below level 1 in the National
rovide a way of assessing pupils’ achievement below level 1 of the
sed once or twice a year to decide on a pupil’s next steps in
SEN Code of Practice
School Action Plus
School Action Plus is the next stage in the SEN support and assessment
process, when external services are involved. At this stage, the school SENCo
will become more involved, arranging meetings, external involvement and
assessment, and will write the IEP
•If you as teacher identify a child with SEN, and you have to provide intervention
additional to or different from those provided as part of the school's usual
differentiated curriculum then the child should move to School Action. Provision will
include the writing of an IEP (Individual Education Plan) for the pupil.
The new Education and Health Care Plan
• replaces the statement It looks like it will be more
of an education plan as there is a question mark
over the statutory responsibility of health
professionals to be involved.
• No time frame for when the EHCP should be
completed as there was with the statement.
• Applies only to children with SEN not to children
• What is stated in the EHCP is not legally binding!
• There will be no equivalent of School Action or
School Action Plus
Chapter 8 Alexander reading
hat does Alexander mean by the “incompatibility” of fairness,
inclusion and effectiveness? (p110)
hat are your thoughts on statistics being like a mirror reflecting the
level of inclusiveness in society? (p117)
differences are never neutral”; does ‘different’ have to mean
ammage, P. & Meighan, J. (Eds) (1993) Early Childhood education:
undred Languages of Children, edited by C. Edwards, L. Gandini, and G.
Forman, Ablex Publishing Corporation, London, 1998
ruce ,T, (1987) Early childhood education, London: Hodder Stoughton
odkinson, A. (2010) ‘Inclusive and special education in the English
educational system’ in British Journal of Special education Vol. 37,
Notas del editor
After each point ask students to think pair share about how they feel this is met in their setting
class discussion – how might we achieve this in settings? Score each one out of 10 as to the extent you feel this takes place in your setting – this is not for you to share but to identify an area you would like to develop
Depending on location of the sink, decide where the wet and dry regions will be.
You will probably want the quiet zone furthest from the entry door.
Now you are ready to consider where to locate each activity area.
Templates of your furniture can be arranged and rearranged until you are satisfied.
Keep your grid for future reference, so that when it’s time to change the room, you can do it on paper first.
Who may this be? Childminders are not happy about focus on education they want to care for children – previous govt brought care and education together arguing they were inseparable likewise Steiner schools do not adhere to the same values around what constitues quality care and education
From your knowledge of other disciplines what do you feel these definitions mean
Longer term interventions which address whole class and whole school cultures and approaches ‘proven’ to have more longer lasting impact, short term interventions work in the immediate but long term lose their effectiveness.
Funding staffing health, risk etc
This is one model we explore on this module to develop an understanding of discrimination and oppression – structural inequality – cultural and personal
Have to remember Power and inequality throughout this model –
Draw this on a piece of paper and annotate with thoughts as we speak.
Definition of these on paper. What does that mean to you?
In our heads (what we write and say) in our hands what we do and in our hearts our attitudes values and beliefs. Would these be the ame for youth settings?
Inclusion is also a term that is used with regard to learners so linked with attainment. This includes children with SEND
What question does this raise for you regarding inclusion?
What do you think are the key messages coming from the clip?
From the NC (1999) Inclusion Statement
Reflected in POLICY - We have a new NATIONAL CURRICULUM INCLUSION STATEMENT - reflecting expectations.
GOVERNMENT - high up on the government agenda - for instance including children with SEND and EAL are National priorities in teacher training.
Good to see high expectations…
Unfortunately, there are other areas signalled by the government , such as improving standards and academic achievement (i.e. like setting) which can directly conflict with promoting inclusive practices.
Possible challenges - Individual needs versus whole class needs.
Educational versus social inclusion.
Non-discrimination (Article 2): The Convention applies to all children, whatever their race, religion or abilities; whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from. It doesn’t matter where children live, what language they speak, what their parents do, whether they are boys or girls, what their culture is, whether they have a disability or whether they are rich or poor. No child should be treated unfairly on any basis.
Explain that the P scales are just like national curriculum levels, except that they are for pupils working towards level 1 of the National Curriculum. They are designed to assess pupils with SEN who are working significantly below the expected attainment for their age. Emphasise that they are not designed to assess pupils who have English as an additional language (EAL) and who are attaining below level 1 of the National Curriculum, unless they also have SEN.
Explain about the P scales:
There are P scales for all national curriculum subjects.
They are eight-level, best-fit assessment criteria.
They run from level P1, at the very early stages of development, to level P8 for those nearing level 1 of the National Curriculum (or ‘entry level’ for students taking qualifications at key stage 4).
Judgements are made at the end of long periods of time, e.g. a year or a key stage.
P scales should not be used as a curriculum because they capture only some aspects of the programmes of study and account for progress made by many but not all pupils with SEN who are working at this level. Teaching to the assessment criteria in this way would lead to a very narrow curriculum that would ignore many other areas that pupils with SEN and/or disabilities need to develop.
P scale assessment criteria should be used to assess some aspects of a wider curriculum that is planned around pupils’ strengths, motivation and needs.
Because P scales are assessment criteria to be used over a whole key stage, or annually for pupils making very rapid progress, they are not suitable for setting short- or medium-term targets for pupils. They are also not very helpful for teachers in giving feedback to pupils.
New SEND system (The Children’s and Families Bill) and new National Curriculum Inclusion Statement
The legislation will draw on lessons learnt from the pathfinders. Building on the reforms to the health services and drawing on the recommendations of the Children and Young People’s Health Outcomes Forum;
It will include provision to ensure that services for disabled children and young people and those with special educational needs are planned and commissioned jointly and that there are clear duties on all of the agencies involved;
Lessons learned from the pathfinders and the evaluation will inform how the reforms are implemented, subject of course to legislation securing Parliamentary approval.