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Positive relationships

  1. 1. EV681Pedagogy, Principles and Practice in Early Childhood Session 10 Positive Relationships
  2. 2. 1. Working with families
  3. 3. Transitions
  4. 4. Transition into Reception or Nursery Class  What will this involve? Why is it important to get this right?  Home visiting   What are the benefits and logistics?  What will a home visit look like?
  5. 5. Why home visit? Building relationship with family  Family and child at ease  Family as first and most enduring educator  Emotional security  Shared understanding  Initiate communication 
  6. 6. What is a family? More than a half of British families feel under-represented by media, politicians and advertising  57% say marriage is not necessary a factor  77% feel single parents can be „a proper family‟  59% agree that same sex couples make a family 
  7. 7. Partnerships with families What are the gains from partnerships with families?  For whom?  What can be the barriers and challenges?  Who are the losers?  Allen report „Early Intervention‟ (Jan 2011): Field report „The Foundation Years‟ (Dec 2011):
  8. 8. Really, really important bit…. Children are often a parent‟s most precious belonging. Families trust teachers every day to look after their most treasured belonging. There is only one perfect child in the world, and every mother has it. Chinese Proverb
  9. 9. Parents are (usually) experts on their own children  Their skills complement professional skills  Parents can impart vital information and make informed observations  Parents have the right to be involved  Parents can be highly effective teachers of their own children  Parents should contribute to decision making  ip-parent-voice
  10. 10. EPPE Report from the Primary Phase: Pre-school and Family Influences on Children’s Development during KS2 (DCSF Report 061) The HLE has a greater influence on a child‟s intellectual and social development than parental occupation, education or income. What parents do is more important than who they are, and a home learning environment that is supportive of learning can counteract the effects of disadvantage in the early years
  11. 11. Factors used to measure the HLE: Reading to children  Playing with letters and numbers  Teaching number rhymes and songs What will you  Painting and drawing do to  Joining the library encourage these?  Taking children on visits  Arranging for children to play with peers at home 
  12. 12. „Establishing good home-school relations is not easy. The challenges include lack of time and the need for clarity . . . More fundamentally, mutual respect between home and school, though desirable, is not always present . . .‟ (Alexander, 2010, p79)
  13. 13. planned Consultations School gate Admin meetings School functions Volunteers formal informal Open-door Supermarket Incident Pub Street… un-planned
  14. 14. Communication In groups of three take the role of parent, teacher or observer  Consider or even act out your scenario  How does it feel to be the teacher/parent?  What observations can the observer offer? 
  15. 15. NUT -     Prepare for the parents' eveningby making sure that your notes on your pupils are in order and easy for you to refer to. Take a pen and paper to jot down any important points that parents may make. Wear clothes that will make you feel confidentabout the image you project. Make parents feel welcome, smile and shake hands.Remember that parents may be feeling nervous and intimidated. Try and be as positiveas possible about each pupil. Even when you have to say something negative, try to begin and end the discussion with a positive comment.
  16. 16.      Make sure you know to which parent of which child you are speaking. Be concise in your comments and avoid using jargon. You may wish to suggest one or two targets for the pupil and encourage the parents to discuss these with the child. Offer the opportunity for parents to make comments and to ask questions. Be polite, but firm,in saying goodbye to any parents who talk a great deal. Standing up and shaking hands is a good technique.
  17. 17. 2. Working with staff within school/nursery
  18. 18. Transition out Reporting, sharing info  Children‟s perspective  meta-cognition  self assessment and target setting 
  19. 19. Reflections Identify a particular interaction with a Teaching Assistant/Nursery Nurse  What happened?  Why was it challenging/interesting/ empowering?  What did you learn from it?  Did it or will it affect what you did or do subsequently?
  20. 20. Desirable skills and personal attributes identified in each other by TAs and teachers Teaching Assistants Relationships Communication skills Ability to take initiative and be proactive Punctuality Open-mindedness Conscientiousness Good standard of writing and subject knowledge Ability to plan, manage time and manage behaviour Being alert and sensitive to the needs of the teacher Teachers Relationships Communication skills Effective delegation and enabling autonomy Reward and celebrate success Effective organisation and management Wilson and Bedford (2008)
  21. 21. 3. Working with staff beyond school/nursery
  22. 22.  “. . . it is essential that we work together effectively, understanding the different roles and responsibilities and how we can facilitate each other as well as support the child. It is when the professionals do not work together effectively that there is a gap in provision and support that children suffer, sometimes disastrously . . .“ (Johnston &Nahmad-Williams (2009) Early Childhood Studies, p394)
  23. 23. Multi-agency or inter-agency? Teache r Speech /lang therapi st Child and family Education al psychologi st School nurse Social worker
  24. 24. Interagency (transagency) Speech /lang therapi st Education al psychologi st Teache r Child and family School nurse Social worker
  25. 25. “Primary schools need stronger support in ensuring that the range of professionals working in schools . . . are working in a cohesive team . . . in order to improve outcomes for all and to narrow the achievement gap for more vulnerable children.” Alexander, 2010, p504
  26. 26. Key principles to success (i)       Differing perspectives are valued and respected Change comes from the bottom not the top Services need to be brought into the community – not the reverse Services need to be co-located to improve coordination Open access to training Highest priority should be given to areas of highest need
  27. 27. Key principles to success (ii)       Causes rather than effects need to be addressed Wider range of services such as advocacy for the vulnerable Building independence rather than dependency Emphasis on improving self-esteem and selfworth Increase in non-judgmental working High quality early years education and care should be prioritised with the employment of
  28. 28. Common Assessment Framework Aim: To identify at the earliest opportunity, a child‟s additional needs which are not being met by the universal services they are receiving; to provide timely and co-ordinated support to meet those needs The CAF is a standardised tool used to conduct an assessment of a child‟s additional needs [in the broadest sense] and help practitioners decide how those needs should be met (CWDC, 2008) strategy/integratedworking/caf/a0068957/the-caf-
  29. 29. Three main focus areas for CAF Development of the child  Parents and carers  Family and Environment 
  30. 30. Working together? Sarah Cowley Nov
  31. 31. Supporting tasks       Read Ch3 in Edmond and Price (Aspire). This explores leadership and interagency working You may like to look up Whalley, M. (2001/7) Involving Parents in their Children‟s Learning Field and Allen reports SBT1: how does the school/nursery work with families and colleagues in support of children‟s learning and wellbeing to promote Positive Relationships? Watch more of the clips ties

Notas del editor

  • What do we mean here?See Principle: Children learn to be strong and independent through PRWhy do we need to build PR?Who with?Who says? TS8(e) communicate effectively with parents regarding pupils’ achievements and wellbeingUltimately for the benefit of the child
  • Three categories:FamilyColleagues in school/settingColleagues beyond school/settingNote idealised version of ‘the family’! Link to good resource:
  • First involvement with familyVertical – change of phase/contextHorizontal – change of teacher, change within phaseThink of Evie’s day . . . Transfer – move from one school or phase to anotherTransition – move from one year group to another
  • Share experiences of what generally happens, e.g. new families to area visit the school, children’s pre-visits to class, meetings in school/nursery with family Any tricky bits here so far?Common practice of home visits – seen and researched as being as ‘good practice’Again share experiences As YR teacher should receive info from child-minders or pre-school as part of the WEYFS. No obligation for formal report though (but some will do this). Don’t forget info from 24-36month assessment (this might be in report form), and IEPs or Play Plans
  • Tricky things:Cost, staffing, choice of family, travelling, language, equality/equity, optionalForms/paperwork (what do you need to find out at this visit?), dates and times, role of two staff, play things from school, family learning packs, etc.Investment in to the on-going partnership with families that should ensure throughout educationMay reveal things you didn’t know about ‘a family’ . . .
  • 2008 Lewis, J et al. Males working full time and females part time most frequent pattern in UKNumbers of working mothers increased substantially: 1951, 1 in 6 mothers to 2008, 4 in 6 (Hansen, K et al 2008). . . . But mothers still undertake the majority of child care (Gray, A 2006)Heard this last week on news too!
  • Take views from students who are parents. Look at Parental Responsibility here – see hand out
  • Mustn’t forget
  • *look at clip to see if there is a key excerpt*and note that:Family influences have a much more powerful effect upon young children’s attitudes and achievements than either school or neighbourhood factors (Bronfenbrenner)Emphasise that:A successful home-school relationship can be a key element in making a school stronger and more effective. In particular, it can make a real difference for groups of underachieving pupils and their families.Research evidence and inspection data show that schools which have learned to work well with parents can expect significant, consistent and lasting benefitsSwanson (2011) teachers’ supporting families’ self-efficacy leads to them providing more natural learning situations in daily lifeLink to a children’s centre where they demonstrate the ways to involve and link with families; we had a Family ForumCould consider whether a successful home school relationship depends upon on a successful home - discuss
  • From Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2007) ‘Parenting and the different ways it can affect children’s lives: research evidence“There is no clear-cut, causal link between poverty and parenting. However, poverty can contribute to parental stress, depression and irritability leading to disrupted parenting and to poorer long-term outcomes for children” p2Lifting families out of poverty in itself does not lead to improved educational outcomes“limited engagement families” rather than hard-to-reach – changes round relationshipEPPE also found that a ‘good’ primary school could to some degree ameliorate for a disadvantaged start
  • Factors from EPPE Teacher couldRun workshopsFamily learning opportunitiesRole model when families in roomLink families to Children’s CentreUse Busy Bags or similar family/home based informal learning opportunities
  • See scenarios
  • Whizz through these
  • Why?Who benefits?Who do we mean?Who says?TS8b – develop effective professional relationships with colleagues….TS8c – deploy support staff effectively Highly likely to be a ‘leader’ (even if first job) in Foundation Stage.See today’s Aspire readingEdgington, M The Foundation Stage Teacher in Action (quite old but very wise!)Moyles, J Effective Leadership and Management in the EYJones & Pound Leadership and Management in the EYAlso Jillian Rodd
  • See reading (Fisher)Back to EYFSP again – linking up with the Yr1 teacherLook at clip. Continuing the Learning Journey – transitions in the EYFS. Section 2 Continuing the Journey. May be available in the OLC or Library (2005 training materials)What strategies do we see?Realistic?
  • Table chat and share
  • This is what teachers and TAs identified in each other as desirable skills and attributesWhat were your experiences of Teachers and TAs working together?What happens when any of these attributes are not sufficiently developed? Did you have experience of this? What did you do?Teacher’s Media link Check to see if you are signed up to Teachers Media to access this15 minute video identifying how TA role has changed and some of the challenges involved. Student responses?
  • Historical background – only really since 2000 that this has been seen as a priority initiated by some high profile child fatalities The benefits to children and families of multi-agency working and the integration of services have been confirmed by research. The Inter-Departmental Childcare Review found that ‘an integrated approach, that ensures the joining up of services and disciplines, is a key factor in determining good outcomes for children’ (DfES, 2002, pp.32–33).‘This means that the organisations involved with providing services to children - from hospitals and schools, to police and voluntary groups - will be teaming up in new ways, sharing information and working together, to protect children and young people from harm and help them achieve what they want in life.’Every Child Matters (from the Aims, 2003)
  • Despite ECM no longer being a ‘brand’ the content is still prevalentLink to the revised Working Together to Safeguard Children 2013. Includes sharing information too
  • Integrated processes ‘drive’ multi-agency working and support the delivery of integrated frontline services – throughInformation sharingCAFLead Professional – ‘Boundary Spanner’ (Sewell, J. 2007) person who literally spans the boundaries between different professions – often a teacher (!) as we see the children most
  • But what are the issues in working this way?What can help or hinder this joined up process?
  • One aspect is the need for support/training to de-mystify each others’ rolesFrom the Alexander’s conclusions and recommendations
  • From Gasper (2010) in Kate Wall’s (really good) book Special Needs in the EY
  • CWDC Children’s Workforce Development Council – one of the ‘quangos’ to go, but again its principles still endureNFER study report (April 2011) The CAF Leads to better outcomes for child/young person, especially where multi-agency interventions involvedMost common initiating trigger = behaviourIs cost effective; investment “The CAF process is an enhancement to capacity for early intervention and not a costly bureaucratic overhead”
  • 1.Development of the childHealth, behaviour emotional and social developmentspeech, language and communicationidentity and self esteem, aspirationsfamily and social relationshipsself care and independencelearningprogress and achievementparticipation in learning2.Parents and carersbasic care; ensuring safety and protectionemotional warmth and stabilityguidance, boundaries and stimulation3. Family and Environmentfamily history, functioning and well-beinghousing, financial and employment considerationssocial and community factors including education
  • ?What will you do?!
  • New link (25-11-13) to the National Priorities site including all things SEND