3. Why Tracking bees ?
Bees are the only insect in the world that make food
that people can eat.
Bees gives honey and honey contain all of the
substances including enzymes , minerals and vitamin.
4. Radar & its component
Radar is an electromagnetic system for the
detection and location of objects.
Radar is used to extend the capability of one’s
senses for observing the environment.
10. Isolation Radar Technique
It is similar to harmonic radar.
For high accuracy and high sensitivity an isolation
radar technique is used.
In this technique a pseudorandom technique (PRN) is
used to improve the accuracy and sensitivity.
11. Isolation Radar
Isolation between transmitter and receiver are the
isolation required depends on transmitter power,
transmitter noise and sensitivity of the receiver.
If the lack of isolation is there between transmitter
and receiver , receiver burn out and masking of
wanted signals by transmitter noise .
13. Why High Tx-Rx power?
High tx – rx power is used for microwave signals .
Microwave frequencies are high.
It is used radio frequency signal
Frequency range of R.F.signal
Band Frequency range Wavelength
< 3 KHz >100 Km
Very low frequency 3 – 30 Hz 10 – 100 Km
Low frequency 30 – 300 KHz 1 – 10 Km
Medium frequency 300 KHz – 3 MHz 100 m – 1 km
High frequency 3 – 30 MHz 10 - 100 m
Very high frequency 30 – 300 MHz 1 – 10 m
Ultra high frequency 300 MHz – 3 GHz 10 cm – 1 m
Super high frequency 3 – 30 GHz 1 – 10 cm
30 – 300 GHz 1 mm -1 cm
15. PRN code
PRN code is a mathematical technique.
PRN code is a radar technique to estimate the time
delays between the transmit and receive signal.the
distance between the target and transceiver can be
Sensitivity in a receiver is normally defined as the
minimum input signal required to produce a specified
signal-to-noise S/N ratio at the output port of the
receiver and is defined as the mean noise power at the
input port of the receiver times the minimum required
signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the receiver
How bumblebees quickly find the shortest route to
feed from numerous flowers.
How it could help farmers identify the best ways to
grow crops to ensure faster pollination.
J. L. Osbome et al.” A landscape-scale study of humble
bee foraging range and constancy using harmonic
radar ” J. Appl. Ecol. Vol. 36 no.4 pp. 519-533 1999 .
Z.-M. Tsai et al. “ A high range resolution 9.4/18.8 GHz
harmonic radar for bees searching “ in IEEE MTT-S int
. Microw . Symp. Dig. Montreal QC Canada jun. 2012
pp. 1-3 .
Z. M. Tsai et al.” A high-range-accuracy and high-
senstivity harmonic radar using pulse pseudorandom
code for bee searching “ IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory
Techn. Vol. 61 no. 1 pp. 666 – 675 Jan. 2013.
M.-L. Hsu et al. “ Portable 9.4/18.8 GHz harmonic
radar system using pulse pseudorandom code
principle “ in Proc. Eur. Microw. Conf. Paris France
Sep. 2015 pp.885 -888