1. NOTES- ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- MODULE 1 & 2
Complied BY- DR Pradip Kumar Das.
Definition of Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior (OB) is a discipline that deals with the study and application of
knowledge about how people as individuals and as groups act within organizations. Fred Luthans
defines OB as "the understanding, prediction and management of human behavior in
organizations." OB seeks to explain the behavior of individuals and their performance at work,
both individually and in a group. The nature of social structures or organizations (comprising of
several work groups) and organizational design are also dealt in the study of OB. Apart from
these, it also attempts to explain the processes that contribute to individuals and groups adapting
their behavior in response to the changing environmental conditions to achieve organizational
goals. In this chapter, we will discuss the theoretical framework and would throw meaningful
insights on individual and group behavior offered by OB which can help managers deal with
complex situations at the workplace.
Challenges and opportunities of OB
Challenges and Opportunities for OB Typical employee is getting older More women and
minorities in the workplace Global competition is requiring employees to become more flexible
Historical loyalty-bonds that held many employees to their employers are being severed
Responding to Globalization: Responding to Globalization Increased Foreign Assignments
Working with People from Different Cultures Coping with Anti-Capitalism Backlash Overseeing
Movement of Jobs to Countries with Low-cost Labor
Managing Diversity: Managing Diversity Workforce diversity -organizations are becoming a
more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation
Diversity Implications: Diversity Implications Managers have to shift their philosophy from
treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in ways
that ensure employee retention and greater productivity.
Improving Quality and Productivity : Improving Quality and Productivity Quality
management Process reengineering
Quality Management: Quality Management Intense focus on the customer Concern for
continual improvement Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does Accurate
measurement Empowerment of employees
Process Reengineering: Process Reengineering Evaluating process in terms of contribution to
goals Inefficient processes thrown out and new systems introduced Redefines jobs and requires
most employees to undergo training.
2. Subject Matter of Organizational Behavior
Every organization have their own objectives to achieve the ultimate target. To achieve those
objectives the management should operate their employees in a proper way. In this lesson we
will try to understand what is organizational behavior means and what are the main goals of
Definition of Organizational Behavior
Keith Davis defined “Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about
how people as individual or as groups act within organizations.”
Again it can be said that OB is like a tool, by which the mgt. teams are understood or justified
the nature of employees and take an appropriate decision to lead the organization purport.
At last we can say that OB is valuable for examining the dynamics of relationships with the
small groups, both formal teams and informal groups.
Goals of Organizational Behavior
There are some goals of organizational behavior which are as follows:
Describe: The first goal is to describe, systematically how people behave under a variety of
conditions. Achieving this goal allows managers to communicate about human behavior at work
using a common language.
Understand: A second goal is to understand any people behave as they do. The managers would
be frustrated if they could talk about behavior of their employees, but not understand the reasons
behind those actions.
Predict: The managers would have capacity to predict which employees might be dedicated and
productive or which ones might have absent, cause problem. And thus the managers could take
Control: The final goal of OB is to control and develop some human activity at work. Since
managers are held responsible for performance outcome, they are vitally interested in being able
to make an impact on employee behavior, skill development, team effort, and productivity.
Managers need to be able to improve results through the actions they and their employees take,
and organizational behavior can aid them in their pursuit of this goal.
Forces or Elements of Organizational Behavior
Organizations operate their functional activities by some elements, which affect organizations.
3. People: People make up the internal social system in the organization. They consist of
individuals and groups. Groups may be large or small, formal and informal, official or unofficial.
Human organization changes every day. People are living, thinking and feeling beings that
created the organization and try to achieve the objectives and goals.
Structure: Structure defines the formal relationship and use of people in the organization.
Different people in an organization are given different roles and they have certain relationship
with others. Those people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be
Technology: The technology imparts the physical and economic conditions within which people
work. With their bear hands people can do nothing. So they are given assistance of building,
machines, tools, processes and resources. The nature of technology depends very much on the
nature of the organization, influences the work or working conditions.
Social System: Social system provide external environment within which organization operates.
A single organization can not exist alone. It is a part of the whole. A single organization can not
give everything and therefore there are many other organizations. All these organizations
influence each other.
Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior
In every field of social science, or even physical science, has a philosophical foundation of basic
concepts that guide its development. There are some certain philosophical concepts in
organizational behavior also. The concepts are-
Individual differences: Every individual in the world is different from others. This idea is
supported by science. Each person is different from all others, probably in million ways, just as
each persons DNA profile is different.
The idea of individual difference comes originally from psychology. From the day of birth, each
person is unique, and individual experiences after birth tend to make people even more different.
Perception: Peoples perceptions are also differ when they see an object. Two people can
differently present a same object. And this is occurring for their experiences. A person always
organizes and interprets what he sees according to his lifetime of experience and accumulated
Employees also see work differently for differ in their personalities, needs, demographics
factors, past experiences and social surrounding.
A whole person: An employee’s personal life is not detached from his working life. As an
example, A women who attend the office at 8:30 AM is always anxious for her children’s school
time (if her children able to attend the school or not). As a result, its impact falls on her
4. concentration that means her working life. For this reason, we cannot separate it. So manager
should treat an employee as a whole person.
Motivated behavior: An employee has so many needs inside him. So, they want to fulfill those
needs. That’s why; they had to perform well in the organization. Some motivations are needed to
enrich the quality of work. A path toward increased need fulfillment is the better way of enriches
the quality of work.
Desire for involvement: Every employee is actively seeking opportunities at work to involve in
decision-making problems. They hunger for the chance to share what they know and to learn
from the experience. So, organization should provide them a chance to express their opinions,
ideas and suggestion for decision-making problem. A meaningful involvement can bring mutual
benefit for both parties.
Value of the person: An employee wants to be treated separately from other factor of
production (land, capital, labor). They refuse to accept the old idea that they are simply treated as
economic tools because they are best creation of almighty Allah. For this reason, they want to be
treated with carrying respect, dignity and other things from their employers and society.
The nature of organization :There are two assumptions as to nature of organization.
Social Systems: Organizations are social systems and governed by social and psychological
laws. They have social roles and status. Their behavior influenced by their group’s individual
drives. Organization environment in a social system is dynamic. All parts of the system are
In order to develop the organization behavior mutually of interest organizations and people is
necessary. Organizations need people and people in tern need organizations. People satisfy their
needs through organization and organization accomplish their goal through people.
Ethics: In order to attract and retain valuable employees in an era in which good workers are
constantly required away, ethical treatment is necessary. To succeed, organization must treat
employees in an ethical fashion. Every Company is required to establish codes of ethics,
publicized statements of ethical values, provided ethics training, rewarded employees for notable
ethical behavior, publicized positive role models, and set up internal procedures to handle
Models of Organizational Behavior
Autocratic Model :The autocratic model depends on power. Those who are in command must
have the power to demand “you do this-or else,” meaning that an employee who does not follow
orders will be penalized.
5. In an autocratic environment the managerial orientation is formal, official authority. This
authority is delegated by right of command over the people to it applies.
Under autocratic environment the employee is obedience to a boss, not respect for a manager.
The psychological result for employees is dependence on their boss, whose power to hire, fire,
and “perspire” them is almost absolute.
The boss pays minimum wages because minimum performance is given by employees. They are
willing to give minimum performance-though sometimes reluctantly-because they must satisfy
subsistence needs for themselves and their families. Some employees give higher performance
because of internal achievement drives, because they personally like their boss, because the boss
is “a natural-born leader,” or because of some other factor; but most of them give only minimum
The Custodial Model :A successful custodial approach depends on economic resources.
The resulting managerial orientation is toward money to pay wages and benefits.
Since employees’ physical needs are already reasonably met, the employer looks to security
needs as a motivating force. If an organization does not have the wealth to provide pensions and
pay other benefits, it cannot follow a custodial approach.
The custodial approach leads to employee dependence on the organization. Rather than being
dependence on their boss for their weekly bread, employees now depend on organizations for
their security and welfare.
Employees working in a custodial environment become psychologically preoccupied with their
economic rewards and benefits.
As a result of their treatment, they are well maintained and contended. However, contentment
does not necessarily produce strong motivation; it may produce only passive cooperation. The
result tends to be those employees do not perform much more effectively than under the old
The Supportive Model :The supportive model depends on leadership instead of power or
money. Through leadership, management provides a climate to help employees grow and
accomplish in the interests of the organization the things of which they are capable.
The leader assumes that workers are not by nature passive and resistant to organizational needs,
but that they are made so by an inadequately supportive climate at work. They will take
responsibility, develop a drive to contribute, and improve themselves if management will give
them a chance. Management orientation, therefore, is to support the employee’s job performance
rather than to simply support employee benefit payments as in the custodial approach.
6. Since management supports employees in their work, the psychological result is a feeling of
participation and task involvement in the organization. Employee may say “we” instead of
“they” when referring to their organization.
Employees are more strongly motivated than by earlier models because of their status and
recognition needs are better met. Thus they have awakened drives for work.
The Collegial Model :A useful extension of the supportive model is the collegial model. The
term “collegial” relates to a body of people working together cooperatively.
The collegial model depends on management’s building a feeling of partnership with employees.
The result is that employees feel needed and useful. They feel that managers are contributing
also, so it is easy to accept and respect their roles in their organization. Managers are seen as
joint contributors rather than as bosses.
The managerial orientation is toward teamwork. Management is the coach that builds a better
The employee’s response to this situation is responsibility. For example employees produce
quality work not because management tells them to do so or because the inspector will catch
them if they do not, but because they feel inside themselves an obligation to provide others with
high quality. They also feel an obligation to uphold quality standards that will bring credit to
their jobs and company.
The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is self-discipline. Feeling
responsible, employees discipline themselves for performance on the team in the same way that
the members of a football team discipline themselves to training standards and the rules of the
In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment, worthwhile
contribution, and self-actualization, even though the amount may be modest in some situation.
This self-actualization will lead to moderate enthusiasm in performance.
The System Model :An emerging model of organization behavior is the system model. It is the
result of a strong search for higher meaning at work by many of today’s employees; they want
more than just a paycheck and job security from their jobs. Since they are being asked to spend
many hours of their day at work, they want a work context there that is ethical, infused with
integrity and trust, and provides an opportunity to experience a growing sense of community
To accomplish this, managers must increasingly demonstrate a sense of caring and compassion,
being sensitive to the needs of a diverse workforce with rapidly changing needs and complex
personal and family needs.
7. In response, many employees embrace the goal of organizational effectiveness, and reorganize
the mutuality of company-employee obligations in a system viewpoint. They experience a sense
of psychological ownership for the organization and its product and services.
They go beyond the self-discipline of the collegial approach until they reach a state of self-
motivation, in which they take responsibility for their own goals and actions.
As a result, the employee needs that are met are wide-ranging but often include the highest-order
needs (e.g., social, status, esteem, autonomy, and self actualization).
Because it provides employees an opportunity to meet these needs through their work as their
work as well as understand the organization’s perspectives, this new model can engender
employees’ passion and commitment to organizational goals. They are inspired; they feel
important; they believe in the usefulness and viability of their system for the common good
The Hawthorne effect is a form of reactivity whereby subjects improve or modify an aspect of
their behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they are being
studied, not in response to any particular experimental manipulation.
The term was coined in 1950 by Henry A. Landsberger when analyzing older experiments from
1924-1932 at the Hawthorne Works (a Western Electric factory outside Chicago). Hawthorne
Works had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higher
or lower levels of light. The workers' productivity seemed to improve when changes were made
and slumped when the study was concluded. It was suggested that the productivity gain was due
to the motivational effect of the interest being shown in them. Although illumination research of
workplace lighting formed the basis of the Hawthorne effect, other changes such as maintaining
clean work stations, clearing floors of obstacles, and even relocating workstations resulted in
increased productivity for short periods. Thus the term is used to identify any type of short-lived
increase in productivity.
History:The term gets its name from a factory called the Hawthorne Works, where a series of
experiments on factory workers was carried out between 1924 and 1932.
This effect was observed for minute increases in illumination.
Evaluation of the Hawthorne effect continues in the present day.
Most industrial/occupational psychology and organizational behavior textbooks refer to the
illumination studies. Only occasionally are the rest of the studies mentioned. In the lighting
studies, light intensity was altered to examine its effect on worker productivity.
Relay assembly experiments:In one of the studies, experimenters chose two women as test
subjects and asked them to choose four other workers to join the test group. Together the women
8. worked in a separate room over the course of five years (1927–1932) assembling telephone
Output was measured mechanically by counting how many finished relays each dropped down a
chute. This measuring began in secret two weeks before moving the women to an experiment
room and continued throughout the study. In the experiment room, they had a supervisor who
discussed changes with them and at times used their suggestions. Then the researchers spent five
years measuring how different variables impacted the group's and individuals' productivity.
Some of the variables were:
• Giving two 5-minute breaks (after a discussion with them on the best length of time), and
then changing to two 10-minute breaks (not their preference). Productivity increased, but
when they received six 5-minute rests, they disliked it and reduced output.
• providing food during the breaks
• Shortening the day by 30 minutes (output went up); shortening it more (output per hour
went up, but overall output decreased); returning to the first condition (where output
Changing a variable usually increased productivity, even if the variable was just a change back to
the original condition. However it is said that this is the natural process of the human being to
adapt to the environment without knowing the objective of the experiment occurring.
Researchers concluded that the workers worked harder because they thought that they were
being monitored individually.
Researchers hypothesized that choosing one's own coworkers, working as a group, being treated
as special (as evidenced by working in a separate room), and having a sympathetic supervisor
were the real reasons for the productivity increase. One interpretation, mainly due to Elton
Mayo, was that "the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and
spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment." (There was a second relay assembly test room
study whose results were not as significant as the first experiment.)
Bank wiring room experiments:The purpose of the next study was to find out how payment
incentives would affect productivity. The surprising result was that productivity actually
decreased. Workers apparently had become suspicious that their productivity may have been
boosted to justify firing some of the workers later on. The study was conducted by Mayo and W.
Lloyd Warner between 1931 and 1932 on a group of fourteen men who put together telephone
switching equipment. The researchers found that although the workers were paid according to
individual productivity, productivity decreased because the men were afraid that the company
would lower the base rate. Detailed observation between the men revealed the existence of
informal groups or "cliques" within the formal groups. These cliques developed informal rules of
behavior as well as mechanisms to enforce them. The cliques served to control group members
and to manage bosses; when bosses asked questions, clique members gave the same responses,
even if they were untrue. These results show that workers were more responsive to the social
force of their peer groups than to the control and incentives of management.
9. Interpretation and criticism:H. McIlvaine Parsons (1974) argues that in the studies where
subjects received feedback on their work rates, the results should be considered biased by the
feedback compared to the manipulation studies. He also argues that the rest periods involved
possible learning effects, and the fear that the workers had about the intent of the studies may
have biased the results.
Parsons defines the Hawthorne effect as "the confounding that occurs if experimenters fail to
realise how the consequences of subjects' performance affect what subjects do" [i.e. learning
effects, both permanent skill improvement and feedback-enabled adjustments to suit current
goals]. His key argument is that in the studies where workers dropped their finished goods down
chutes, the "girls" had access to the counters of their work rate.
It is possible that the illumination experiments were explained by a longitudinal learning effect.
It is notable however that Parsons refuses to analyse the illumination experiments, on the
grounds that they have not been properly published and so he cannot get at details, whereas he
had extensive personal communication with Roethlisberger and Dickson.
But Mayo says it is to do with the fact that the workers felt better in the situation, because of the
sympathy and interest of the observers. He does say that this experiment is about testing overall
effect, not testing factors separately. He also discusses it not really as an experimenter effect but
as a management effect: how management can make workers perform differently because they
feel differently. A lot to do with feeling free, not feeling supervised but more in control as a
group. The experimental manipulations were important in convincing the workers to feel this
way: that conditions were really different. The experiment was repeated with similar effects on
mica splitting workers.
Richard E. Clark and Timothy F. Sugrue (1991, p. 333) in a review of educational research say
that uncontrolled novelty effects cause on average 30% of a standard deviation (SD) rise (i.e.
50%-63% score rise), which decays to small level after 8 weeks. In more detail: 50% of a SD for
up to 4 weeks; 30% of SD for 5–8 weeks; and 20% of SD for > 8 weeks, (which is < 1% of the
A psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Dr. Richard Nisbett, calls the Hawthorne
effect 'a glorified anecdote.' 'Once you have got the anecdote,' he said, 'you can throw away the
Harry Braverman points out in Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the
Twentieth Century that the Hawthorne tests were based on industrial psychology and were
investigating whether workers' performance could be predicted by pre-hire testing. The
Hawthorne study showed "that the performance of workers had little relation to ability and in
fact often bore an inverse relation to test scores...” Braverman argues that the studies really
showed that the workplace was not "a system of bureaucratic formal organisation on the
Weberian model, nor a system of informal group relations, as in the interpretation of Mayo and
his followers but rather a system of power, of class antagonisms". This discovery was a blow to
those hoping to apply the behavioral sciences to manipulate workers in the interest of
10. The Hawthorne effect has been well established in the empirical literature beyond the original
studies. The output ("dependent") variables were human work, and the educational effects can be
expected to be similar (but it is not so obvious that medical effects would be). The experiments
stand as a warning about simple experiments on human participants viewed as if they were only
material systems. There is less certainty about the nature of the surprise factor, other than it
certainly depended on the mental states of the participants: their knowledge, beliefs, etc.
Research on the demand effect also suggests that people might take on pleasing the experimenter
as a goal, at least if it does not conflict with any other motive, but also, improving their
performance by improving their skill will be dependent on getting feedback on their
performance, and an experiment may give them this for the first time. So you often will not see
any Hawthorne effect—only when it turns out that with the attention came either usable feedback
or a change in motivation.
Adair (1984): warns of gross factual inaccuracy in most secondary publications on Hawthorne
effect and that many studies failed to find it. He argues that it should be viewed as a variant of
Orne's (1973) experimental demand effect. So for Adair, the issue is that an experimental effect
depends on the participants' interpretation of the situation; that this is why manipulation checks
are important in social sciences experiments. So he thinks it is not awareness per se, or special
attention per se, but participants' interpretation must be investigated in order to discover if/how
the experimental conditions interact with the participants' goals. This can affect whether
participants believe something, if they act on it or do not see it as in their interest, etc.
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1992) ch.11 also reviews and discusses the Hawthorne effect. In a 2011
paper, economists Steven Levitt and John A. List claim that in the illumination experiments the
variance in productivity is partly accounted for by other factors such as the weekly cycle of work
or the seasonal temperature, and so the original conclusions were overstated.[ If so, this confirms
the analysis of SRG Jones's 1992 article examining the relay experiments
Foundations of Individual Behaviour: Age :
Effect of age on turnover: - older you get, less likely to quit
Reasons: fewer job opportunities, higher benefits
Effect of age on absenteeism: older employees, lower rates on unavoidable absence
Effect of age on productivity: unrelated
Reason: some decay due to age, offset by gains due to experience
Effect of age on satisfaction: tends to increase among professionals, tends to decrease among
nonprofessionals during middle age and rises in later years
11. Gender :No consistent male-female differences in problem- solving ability, analytical skills,
competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability
Women are more willing to conform to authority
Men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success
Women with pre-school children prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and
telecommuting to accommodate family responsibilities
Issue on absenteeism, no significant difference
• - Most recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job
• - tenure (work experience) appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity
• - In terms of both frequencies of absence and total days lost at work, tenure is the single
most important explanatory variable.
• - potent (strong) variable in explaining turnover
• - longer a person in a job, less likely to quit
• - past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior
• - tenure and job satisfaction are positively related
• - stable predictor of job satisfaction than chronological age
ABILITY :- Refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
- Types of ability
• Intellectual abilities – the capacity to do mental activities - thinking, reasoning, and
• Physical abilities – the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and
s Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Salesperson : remembering the names of customers
Ability to retain and recall past experiences Memory Interior decorator : redecorating an office
Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position is space were changed Spatial
visualization Supervisor : choosing between two different suggestions offered by employees
12. Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument Deductive reasoning Market
researcher : forecasting demand for a product in the next time period Ability to identify a logical
sequence in a problem and then solve the problem Inductive reasoning Fire investigator :
identifying clues to support a charge of arson Ability to identify visual similarities and
differences quickly and accurately Perceptual speed Plant manager : following corporate policies
on hiring Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other
Verbal comprehension Accountant : computing the sales tax on a set of items Ability to do
speedy and accurate arithmetic Number aptitude Job Example Description Dimension .
Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time. Stamina Ability to
maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance
Balance Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body
Body coordination Other Factors Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements
Dynamic flexibility Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible
Extent flexibility- Flexibility Factors Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series
of explosive acts 4. Explosive strength Ability to exert force against external objects
Static strength Ability to exert muscle strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles
Trunk strength Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time
Dynamic strength- Strength Factors Nine Basic Physical Abilities
The ability-job fit
• jobs make differing demands on people and that people differ in their abilities
• employee performance in enhanced when there is high ability-job fit
• poor ability-job fit, employees will likely to fail
There are many different definitions (e.g., Allport; Fishbein & Ajzen).
"Attitudes are associations between attitude objects (virtually any aspect of the social world) and
evaluations of those objects"
"Attitudes are lasting evaluations of various aspects of the social world--evaluations that are
stored in memory"
"An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organised through experience exerting a
directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with
which it is related."
"A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with
respect to a given object."
13. Meaning of Cognitive dissonance- Cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort that arises
when a person's behavior clashes with the person's beliefs or when a person's beliefs are
inconsistent. First developed by Leon Festinger in 1957, the concept of cognitive dissonance
explains why people behave as they do in the face of contradictory beliefs and/or behavior.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, people seek to ease or eradicate the discomfort of
inconsistent beliefs and/or behavior by changing their beliefs, changing their behavior, or
rationalizing to explain the inconsistency. For example, someone who believes that eating meat
is wrong but occasionally eats chicken might come to reject the belief that eating meat is wrong,
rationalize that eating meat is sometimes okay, or stop eating chicken.
Employee Attitude and Their Effects: E Attitude can be characterized in three ways:
• First, they tend to persist unless something is done to change them.
• Second, attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very
• Third, attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has
feelings( sometimes called “affect”) and beliefs.
Three Components of Attitude : Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning
objects, people, or events.
1. Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component
The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude . Behavioral Component An intention to
behave in a certain way toward someone or something . Evaluation Feelings Action
me. My supervisor is unfair. Affective = feeling I dislike my supervisor! Behavioral = action I’m
looking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen.
Negative attitude toward supervisor ATTITUDES
N Functions of Attitude (According to Katz) 1. The Adjustment Function . Attitudes often help
people to adjust to their work environment. 2. Ego-Defensive Function . Attitudes help people to
retain their dignity and self- image. 3. The Value-Expressive Function . Attitudes provide
individuals with a basis for expressing their values. 4. The Knowledge Function . Attitudes
provide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand and perceive the world
a Changing Attitudes : Employees’ attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best
interests of managements to try to do so. For example, if employees believe that their employer
does not look after their welfare, the management should try to change their attitude and help
develop a more positive attitude in them. However, the process of changing the attitude is not
a Changing Attitudes Some of the possible ways of changing attitudes :
• Providing New Information.
• Use of Fear
14. • Resolving Discrepancies
• Influence of friends and peer
C Important Attitudes Related to Organizations
• Job Satisfaction
o - Is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees
view their work.
• Job Involvement
- The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates
in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.
• Organizational Commitment
• - The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals
and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
a Job Satisfaction
• A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her
A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and
Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used
Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee
j A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences
• An employee’s cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her job
J JOB SATISFACTION Specific Components Satisfaction with Pay Satisfaction with
Promotion Satisfaction with Work Satisfaction with Supervision Satisfaction with Co-workers
O How Are Employee Attitudes Measured?
15. The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude
surveys. Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback on
how employees perceive their working conditions. Managers present the employee with set
statements or questions to obtain specific information. Individual Responses are then combined
a Causes of Job Satisfaction
Most people prefer work that is challenging and stimulating.
Jobs with good compensation have average job satisfaction levels. Money
may be a motivator, but may not stimulate job satisfaction.
There is a link between a person’s personality and job satisfaction.
Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs.
N The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance
• Satisfaction and Productivity
o Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more
o Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
Satisfaction and Absenteeism :Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.
Satisfaction and Turnover:Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction :Satisfied workers provide better customer service.
S Job satisfaction & organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
o Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization
are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of
Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: They are more friendly, upbeat, and
They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships.
16. “ Pleasure in the Job puts perfection in the work” - Aristotle “ The best way to appreciate
your job is to imagine yourself without one.” - Oscar Wilde