At the end of the chapter the learner should have:
Analyzed various economic, social, political and
cultural changes that occurred in the 19th century.
described the critical role played by the Chinese
mestizos and their status in the Philippine society
understood Jose Rizal in the context of his times.
5. “ Man is partly the product of his time. His life and
his messages are affected by his environment and the
event that take place in the world he lives in.”
19th century was the era of challenges and
It is the period of major challenges that affect
man and society.
Age of Enlightenment.
6. Jose Rizal was born in the 19th
During this time, Spain’s glory
and rule as a colonial power was
The natives of the Philippines
were slowly realizing the need to
awaken their national
This was sparked by movements
against the oppression of the
7. It was Jose Rizal who first used the
word Filipino to refer to the inhabitants
of the country, whether they are of
Spanish or Filipino blood.
Indios- native inhabitants
Filipinos- inhabitants with Spanish
blood (peninsulares, insulares,
He realized that the people
residing in the Philippines should be
called one name Filipino.
Before the Spanish occupation our
Forefathers have already been trading with the
Chinese, the Japanese, the inhabitants of Siam,
the Indians, Cambodians and with the natives of
Borneo and Mollucas. When the Spaniards
arrived the Spanish government carried on the
existing trade relationships with this countries
for a period.
9. Galleon Trade
(Manila- Acapulco Trade)
Connected the Philippines with
Mexico for 250 years.
It was a government monopoly of
two trading ships, one navigated
from Acapulco in Mexico to Manila
for 120 days with some 500,000
pesos worth of merchandise and the
other sailed from Manila to
Acapulco for 90 days with some
250,000 pesos worth of goods.
Philippines sent mangoes,
tamarinds, rice, carabao, Chinese tea
textiles, tuba (coconut wine) to
Mexico while guava, avocado,
papaya, pineapple and etc. was sent
by Mexico to Philippines.
10. This economic transaction was ended on September 14, 1815 when Mexico
gained its independence from Spain and it was abolished because of the efforts
of Valentin Delos Santos our representative in Spanish Cortes (1810-1813).
11. Suez Canal
It was an artificial way that connects
the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea in
On November 17, 1869 afforded the
Philippines and Spain a relatively
effortless maritime route for Spanish
Started off as an agreement between
Ferdinand de Lesseps, Cairo’s former
French diplomat and the Ottoman
governor of Egypt in 1854 for the
former to construct a 100-mile canal
across the Isthmus of Suez.
The construction commenced in April
1859 with forced laborers digging by
hand with picks and shovels.
European workers though with
dredgers and steam shovels later
It decreased the travel time of
Philippines to Spain from 3 months to
12. Suez Canal was the first infrastructure that paved the way for the
importation of books, magazines and newspaper with liberal ideas
from Europe and America. This was instrumental to the political
awakening of Rizal because he was able to expand his perspective,
therefore shaping his nationalist sensibilities.
Jose V. Basco who became the first Governer-General to the
Philippines under the Bourbon reign arrived in the country in 1778
when the Galleon Trade was a failing venture.
The European industrialization and other countries in the West
brought an increased demand for raw materials which meant that the
Philippines can take advantage of its agricultural potential towards
Basco’s economic program of developing and promoting agriculture in
the country in order to Transform the Philippines into a financially
1815-1830 -the last Galleon arrived in (Manila to
1834- Manila officially opened to the world commerce.
The rise of Haciendas and the “cash-crop economy.”
Expansion of export products in Europe to Suez Canal
The Philippines became a major exporter (sugar, tobacco,
coffee and abaca) and became well known in other parts
of the world.
1834-1873- Different Ports were opened; Sual
(Pangasinan), Iloilo, Zamboanga, Cebu and Legazpi.
Economic History: Opening the Philippines to the
1. Filipino’s life prosper due to the vigorous economic
activity in the colony.
2. Modern methods of agriculture were introduced.
3. The means of transportation and communication
4. Emergence of the Middle-Class.
5. More Filipinos able to study in Europe;and
6. Acquired material, wealth and improved social life.
Effects to the Economy of the
Five (5) Social Classes in the Philippines
Peninsulares ( Spaniards born in Spain)
Insulares (Spaniards born in the Philippines) = Filipino
Middle Class (Spanish Mestizos or Mestizos de Español;
the principalia and the Chinese mestizos or mestizos de
Chinese- (people from china migrated in the Philippines.)
Indio- Malayan inhabitant in the archipelago)=Filipino
Social Development: Birth of the
16. Peninsulares They are the highest
class in the Philippines,
entrusted with the offices
of high rank.
Spaniards born from
Spain and sent to Spanish
colonies to govern.
17. Insulares They are rank below
The insulares or
criollos are of European
descent but born in the
colonies of Spain.
A son or daughter of
a Spanish couple is an
insulare. Eventually, they
may have been inter-
marrying with Filipinos or
other races here in the
country, thus producing
18. Mestizo de Español
They are offsprings of
Spanish people interbreeding
Mestizo is a term given to
individuals inheriting foreign
They may or may not have
European or other racial
features despite popular belief.
Originally, the term was used
in Latin America but was later
adopted here in the country to
children of racial inter-
19. Mestizo de Sangley
Not all mestizo are indexed or
are coming from Europeans
A person of Filipino or any
racial descent marrying a Chinese,
the result is children that will be
called mestizo de sangley.
They developed the
commercial agriculture and owned
several haciendas of sugar, coffee
Later, they became the
education and finance leaders
because of non- existence of
Spanish Mestizos ascended to
position of power in Philippine
Inquilinos – (Central Luzon ) Pacto
de retro (pawn the land or sanglang
Is an old Spanish
term for a person of
mixed ancestry from
Spanish, Filipino and
Political Situation in Spain
during the 19th century
There was a struggle
between Liberals and
Spain lost most, if not all of
its colonies in South
America in the 19th century.
How did this affect the
Constant practice of
Generals (41 in span of 45
Dumping ground for
Failure to make or achieve
There was political
22. By and large, there was
rampant graft and
corruption typified by:
• Failure to provide for the
basic needs like public
works, schools and peace
• Taxes were never fully
• Limited participation of
Filipinos in government.
The colonial government resolved the latter with more improved
surveillance mechanism and regulatory procedures.
Governor-General Narciso Claveria’s 1849 decree mandating
people to take on surnames, undergo registration and be in
possession of cedula indicating one’s name and residence as well
as the employment of guardia civil that assumed a facilitative
function of carrying out the colonial government policies.
Additionally, since the economy required an educated labor force
to handle trading, the Spanish colonial government was obliged
to issue an order in 1836 that ensured literacy through primary
schools in towns.
This ultimately brought about, after centuries of Spanish
occupation, the enactment of a decree in 1863 which mandated
free access to modern public education for all Filipinos, which
rendered the teaching of Spanish compulsory and which
afforded the country a complete educational system comprised of
primary, secondary and tertiary education. This resulted from the
changes in the Philippines education policy prompted by the
economic development of the 19th century.
The Ilustrados, otherwise known as the “enlightened
ones”, were the educated class in the Philippines
society during the Spanish occupation.
They were instrumental in paving the way for the
creation of the Propaganda Movement.
The rapid spread of higher education among middle
and lower-middle class Filipinos accelerated Filipino
26. Role of the Jesuits:
The Jesuits were responsible for the
creation of the Escuela Normal de
Maestros or superior Normal
school (1865) and Ateneo de
They instilled among Filipino
students a sense of nationalism
through their humanistic form of
They inculcated in the minds of
students the principles of human
justice and equality of all men.
The Jesuits were unlike other friars , who were
educators but did not do too much to educate the
Instead of being proud of the excellent performance
of their Filipino students, most of the friars felt quite
suspicious with their success and invariably sought
to pull them down.
This was one of the reasons why Rizal left in the
28. Experience of Filipino
Students in Spain
How did the experience of Filipino
students in Spain accelerate Filipino
* After experiencing the
liberties in Spain and noticing how it
was different compared to the
* They saw the
backwardness of Spain compared to
other European nations and saw how
Spain cannot manage their own
1. It was the age of enlightenment and the era of challenges.
2. He was the one who first used the word Filipino to refer the
inhabitants of the Philippines.
3. Connected the Philippines with Mexico for 250 years.
4. When was the economic transaction ended?
5. An artificial way that connects the Red Sea and Meditteranean Sea
6. When was the Suez Canal afforded the Philippines and Spain a
relatively effortless maritime route for Spanish trading?
7. He was the first Governor- General to the Philippines under the
Direction: Give the correct answer to the following
9. They are the highest class in the Philippines.
10. Is a term given to individuals inheriting foreign ancestry.
11. Is an old Spanish term for a person of mixed ancestry from
Spanish, Filipino and Chinese.
12. They are known as the “enlightened ones.”
13. They were responsible for the creation of the Escuela Normal de
Maestros or Superior Normal School in 1865.
14. They are rank below the Peninsulares.
15. What do you called the son or daughter of a Spanish couple?
8. What was the major product exported by the Philippines in
other parts of the world? Give atleast 2.