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DNA strcture and function
DNA strcture and function
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DNA
history
structure
X-Ray diffraction image of DNA
base pairing principle
base pairs
bonding patterns of DNA
base stacking different conformations of DNA
different forms of DNA
function of DNA
replication
encoding information
mutation/recombination
gene expression
Application of DNA

DNA
history
structure
X-Ray diffraction image of DNA
base pairing principle
base pairs
bonding patterns of DNA
base stacking different conformations of DNA
different forms of DNA
function of DNA
replication
encoding information
mutation/recombination
gene expression
Application of DNA

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Dna

  1. 1. DNA
  2. 2. DNA  DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a genetic material that transfer the genetic information from one organism to their off spring.  Located in nucleus and mitochondria  The information in DNA is stored as code (made up of A,G,C,T).  99% of base are same . The order of bases determines the individuality.
  3. 3. HISTORY  1866-Gregor Mendel finds how parents pass on discrete inheritance traits  1928-Fredrick Griffith proved that bacteria could change their character by transformation  1949-Edwin Chargaff discovers that in DNA molecule A=T and G=C
  4. 4.  1952-Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase confirmed that DNA is a genetic material  1952-Maurice Wilkins & Rosalind Franklin found that DNA was at least a double helical shape.  1953-Games Watson & Francis Crick found that DNA is made up of 2 polynucleotide
  5. 5. STRUCTURE  DNA is a long chain polymer of nucleotides  Consist of:  Deoxyribose=5 pentose sugar  Phosphate group  Organic bases  Adenine ,Guanine (purines)  Cytosine ,thymine (pyrimidines)  DNA is a double helix with 2 strands which gives ladder like shape with base pairs
  6. 6. X-ray diffraction image of DNA  Total length of DNA in human genome is 1.8 meters  Rosalind Franklin used X- ray diffraction to understand the physical structure of DNA  X-rays are diffracted resulting in over lapping circles  Diffracted waves interferes one another
  7. 7. BASE PAIRING PRINCIPLE  Base pairing is an application of hydrogen bonding principle  Adenine= Thymine pair interacts through 2 hydrogen bonds  Guanine= Cytosine pair interacts through 3 hydrogen bonds  The diameter of the double helix is 20 Angstroms
  8. 8. BONDING PATTERNS OF DNA  The nitrogenous base are single or double ring structure that are attached to the 1st carbon atom  The base is attached to the sugar by N-glycosidic bond  Nucleoside is converted into nucleotide by attachment of a phosphate group.  The linkage between the nucleotides in a polynucleotide is a phosphodiester bond  The 5’ carbon atoms has not participated in phosphodiester bond and called 5’ end  The molecule which are un reacted called as 3’ hydroxyl group or 3’ end
  9. 9.  Hydrogen bonds gives stability  It occurs between neucleobases& is internal to DNA  HB also influence on replication BASE STACKING:  It is a non-covalent interaction  Depend on vanderwaal’s dispersive forces  Electrostatic effects influence stability  Purines stacks strongly than pyrimidines  It influence replication
  10. 10. DIFFERENT CONFORMATION OF DNA FEATURE B DNA A DNA Z DNA TYPE OF HELIX RIGHT-HANDED RIGHT-HANDED LEFT-HANDED NO.OF. BP PER TURN 10 10 12 DISTANCE BETWEEN BP(nm) 0.34 0.29 0.37 DISTANCE COMPLETE PER TURN(nm) 3.4 3.2 4.5 DIAMETER(nm) 2.37 2.55 1.84 MAJOR GROOVE WIDE,DEEP NARROW,DEEP FLAT MINOR GROOVE NARROW,SHALLO W WIDE,SHALLOW NARROW,DEEP
  11. 11. DIFFERENT FORMS OF DNA
  12. 12. FUNCTION OF DNA  REPLICATION  ENCODING INFORMATION  MUTATION/RECOMBINATION  GENE EXPRESSION
  13. 13.  REPLICATION  Double helix unwinds and act as a template and forms double helix with the aid of DNA polymerase  ENCODING INFORMATION  A codon specifies a particular amino acid that which produce a particular protein  MUTATION/RECOMBINATION DNA plays a role in evolution of a species  DNA can repair itself through recombination and mutation occurs due to illegal base pairing  Both mutation and recombination either beneficial or create genetic diseases
  14. 14.  GENE EXPRESSION  Cells from different tissues & organ, look & behave differently  DNA can respond to produce a particular protein by express a particular protein through transcription and translation  Transcription-making RNA  Translation-making protein
  15. 15.  APPLICATION OF DNA  DNA FINGER PRINTING  DNA SEGUENCING  DNA VACCINES  RECOMBINANT TECHNOLOGY

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