Más contenido relacionado


Meet the Engineer 2015 Presentations

  1. Meet the Engineer 2015 Presentations from 10th June 2015 Event
  2. © Productiv Ltd 2015 Meet the Engineer 2015 Welcome & Context Richard Bruges
  3. © Productiv Ltd 2015 The Industry Challenge Cost and risk increases dramatically as programmes develop
  4. © Productiv Ltd 2015 The Investment Opportunity Prototype Technology & Manufacturing Development Proving Volume High Volume TRL 4 TRL 6 TRL 9 Value is generated as technologies are developed
  5. © Productiv Ltd 2015 The Market Failure Tier 1 suppliers don’t invest in low volume technology
  6. © Productiv Ltd 2015 The Productiv Offer
  7. The Proving Factory Model
  8. © Productiv Ltd 2015 Meet the Engineer 2015 Technology Pitches Session 1
  9. Nathan Bailey, Managing Director Advanced Innovative Engineering SPARCS & CREEV Technologies
  10. • UK based engineering company specialising in the development of innovative rotary engine technologies. • Combined team experience of over 80 years in rotary engine design. • AIE is located on the outskirts of Birmingham in the United Kingdom, an area recognised as the heart of British Engineering and Manufacturing.
  11. Background
  12. Background - Observations Aerospace • The air-cooled-rotor (ACR) type of Wankel engine is now well established for powering military unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). These engines have achieved over 2 million hours of in-service operation. • This generally high-rpm high-load UAV application exploits all the best characteristics of the rotary. The engines have extremely high power-to-weight ratio, low vibration, high reliability, and reasonably good specific fuel consumption (sfc). Automotive • One of the most promising types of future electric vehicle is the Series Hybrid which has a modest weight of batteries on board, offering a battery-only limited range. This meets the needs of 80% of typical daily car usage without use of any gasoline. The batteries are recharged overnight from the mains supply. • During longer journeys, as the batteries become partially depleted, an on-board engine-generator (genset) provides electrical power such that the vehicle has a normal range limited only by the capacity of the fuel tank. • In this duty the engine operates at high rpm and high load; or is switched off. All parameters which affect sfc are optimised without compromise for this single running condition. • Hence the sfc is much lower than the average sfc of conventional mechanical drive vehicles using engines which have to operate over the full load-speed spectrum. • For most journeys the genset is unused. (It is a dead weight) It is important therefore that its weight is very low. Also, because the change from “off” to high power may occur when the vehicle is moving quite slowly in almost total silence under battery power alone, it is essential that when the engine starts it is extremely quiet and free of vibration.
  13. Background - Opportunity • AIE believe the hybrid vehicle application is ideal for a single-rotor Wankel engine. Even more than in UAVs, it fully exploits the strengths of the rotary engine and avoids the engine ever having to operate in the difficult low load / low speed areas where rotary’s sfc is inferior to that of reciprocating engines. A high-speed rotary engine “genset” would weigh less than 40% of a unit using a reciprocating engine, which for NVH reasons must run at lower speed. • To utilise a Wankel rotary engine in an automotive application, though some of the less desirable characteristics of the engine need to be mitigated or eliminated: • Low Engine Life • High Oil Consumption • High Exhaust Energy and Emissions • Poor Thermal Stability • AIE has developed 2 key technologies that address these characteristics without removing the engines core advantages • SPARCS - Pressurised Gas Rotor Cooling System • CREEV - Exhaust Expander Unit
  14. Technology
  15. SPARCS Self-Pressurising Air Rotor Cooling System Utilises self pressuring blow by gases from the combustion process which have escaped into the interior of the rotor. Gas is drawn through the rotor circulated by an internal fan, absorbing heat before being forced though an integrated heat exchanger within the engine housing. Heat exchanger then rejects heat to the main liquid cooling system through the engine housing. The higher density of the pressurised gas mixture enables higher levels of heat removal from the engines rotor. CREEV Compound Rotary Engine for Electric Vehicles • Modified Wankel geometry exhaust expander unit, single lobed housing paired with a dual flanked rotor. • Extends engine expansion stroke and allows recovery of waste exhaust energy while reducing HC, heat and noise emissions. SPARCS Self-Pressurising Air Rotor Cooling System • Utilises self pressuring blow-by gases from the combustion process which have escaped into the interior of the rotor. • Gas is drawn through the rotor circulated by an internal fan, absorbing heat before being forced though an integrated heat exchanger within the engine housing. • Heat exchanger then rejects heat to the main liquid cooling system through the engine housing. • The higher density of the pressurised gas mixture enables higher levels of heat removal from the engines rotor. Technologies - Summary
  16. SPARCS Technologies
  17. Background – Rotor Cooling OCR vs ACR • The key difference in the design of rotary engines for UAV’s and all Wankel rotaries designed for automotive use, such as the NSU Ro 80 and the Mazda RX 7 / 8, relates to the method used for cooling the rotor. • The UAV type use air (designated ACR = air cooled rotor), the latter use oil (OCR). • The ACR system was originally conceived by NSU in the early 1960s. For many years it was considered to be only suitable for low-cost low-specific-power engines as satisfactory for some industrial applications. Many engineers working on the OCR Wankel considered the ACR type to be little more than a toy. • Nevertheless, NSU did demonstrate a lower SFC with their 215 cc ACR engine than with any of their OCR types (resulting from lower friction and heated induction air) • At the time, though, it was not known how to achieve a high bmep with the ACR type engine. (Indeed, it was considered that any significant increase would be impossible because of overheating of the rolling- element rotor bearing). • In the late 1960s, the power output of a typical 300cc ACR engine as manufactured by Fichtel & Sachs was about 20 bhp. (Note that a 300cc Wankel is equivalent to a 600cc 4-stroke engine) • During the period 1970 to 2000, this same size engine was progressively developed in the UK to give 60 bhp, with the sfc reduced by 30% relative to the F&S versions. • The application was initially as a power unit for motorcycles and then from 1985, for UAVs. • Specific power output and specific fuel consumption (sfc) of ACR engines are now superior to the OCR type.
  18. Background – Rotor Cooling OCR vs ACR • OCR type engines generally require twin axially-spring-loaded oil scraper rings to be fitted in each side of the rotor in order to prevent oil leakage into the working chambers. The springs typically have a high axial load of around 50kg. Hence there is considerable mechanical friction loss as these sealing rings orbit and rotate relative to the engine side plates. • There is also some further energy loss due to the “cocktail shaker” effect of oil in the partially filled rotor. • The sealing rings also require radial space between the OD of the rotor ring gear and the inside edge of the rotor side gas seals. Hence, for a given size of rotor, the PCD of the rotor gear has to be smaller; and as a result the shaft eccentricity, “e”, (= “throw” of the shaft) which, from the basic geometry, has the precise value of 1/6 the PCD of the rotor ring gear, is also limited to a smaller value. • The swept volume (V) of the engine is directly proportional to e, via the formula: • V = 3√3 e R B where R = rotor radius, and B = rotor axial width. • The overall result is that the OCR type engine, for a given swept volume, is physically bigger and heavier than the ACR type. • The important R/e value (designated “K ratio” ) of an OCR rotary engine is limited to a minimum value of about 6.7 / 7.0. • The ACR engine, which has no oil scraper rings, can use a K ratio of 6.0 .
  19. Background – General ACR Advantages (summary) The ACR type has the following advantages relative to the “conventional” Wankel engine with OCR : • Much lower friction losses : • More compact combustion chamber (lower S/V ratio , lower heat loss): • Increased forced air movement around TDC / faster combustion • lower weight ( via smaller diameter rotor and main housings) • Fewer components and hence lower cost • Larger diameter and more rigid eccentric shaft as allowed by the larger diameter stationary gear (an important advantage for mounting a bearing-less cantilevered generator rotor) • Lower stressed stationary gear • Lower cranking torque when starting, particularly at low temps (ACR has all rolling element bearings) • More precise balancing (it is difficult for the OCR to have a consistent volume of oil inside the rotor under all conditions); allowing the ACR to generally use hard mounting which can save space and weight Historically, of course, the rotor cooling quality of the ACR was not as good as the OCR which has always been the main reason for the latter to receive so much more attention.
  20. SPARCS – Concept The SPARCS system introduces a new and improved approach to the cooling of an air-cooled rotor engine. • As in all internal combustion engines there is a degree of blow-by past the combustion seals. In a piston engine it is combustion gas that enters the crankcase before being discharged through a crankcase ventilation system. It is desirable to keep pressure in the crankcase low since it acts on the bottom of the piston, and reduces engine BMEP. • In the rotary engine, crankcase pressure acts on all of the internal faces of the rotor and therefore does not affect engine BMEP. SPARCS takes advantage of this by sealing the crankcase and allowing pressure to build. • The high pressure results in densification of the rotor air and this, in turn, improves the heat transfer properties of the air, Cp. • The heat transfer coefficient is increased in proportion to the density of the medium, so that if pressure is increased by a factor of three, then Cp goes up by a factor of 3^0.8, or 2.4 . • SPARCS uses a closed circuit rotor cooling system which includes an integrated cooling heat exchanger and an air circulating fan. • The air within the circuit is heated by the rotor, and then circulated through the internal heat exchanger by the circulating fan. The rotor air is then cooled within the heat exchanger before being returned to the rotor where it is heated again, continuing the circuit. The application of the SPARCS is unique to the Wankel engine. In a reciprocating engine the pressurized crankcase would impart a force on the back side of the piston and any pressure would directly subtract from the engine BMEP, with the attendant loss in performance. In the Wankel engine this force is balanced about the center of the rotor, and does not affect engine BMEP
  21. SPARCS - Self-Pressurising Air Rotor Cooling System • SPARCS system showing coolant gas flow
  22. SPARCS - Major Advantages 1. Lower Temperature / Longer Life • The pressurisation of the cooling gas will enable the rotor temperature to be very considerably lowered; and then be similar to that in the OCR type rotary engine. Larger-capacity engines will now be able to use the advantageous ACR system. And turbocharged or supercharged engines will be practical for high altitude UAVs and light aircraft without rotor overheating. Reducing the temperature also increases engine bearing life and therefore the overall life of the engine. 2. Better Lubrication / Lower Oil Consumption • The metered oil will be recirculated many times inside the rotor. Lubrication of all the rotor internal components will be excellent and oil usage low (comparable to a 4-stroke, but without any oil changes / servicing being required) The oil can eventually only escape past the side gas seals of the engine (in opposite direction to the pressurising gas) where it will migrate over the side plate surfaces to the trochoid surface and then lubricate the apex seals before being consumed in the exhaust. The supply of oil into the working chamber via the side seal and corner bolt leakage paths makes a positive contribution to the gas sealing quality and is ideal for the Wankel engine; and superior to any previous arrangement. 3. Automatic Rotor Temperature Regulation / Better Thermal Stability • There will be automatic regulation of the rotor temperature. At lower bmep, when heat rejection is lower, the cooling fluid pressurisation is lowered and reduced cooling will then occur. (Note that high rotor flank temperatures are advantageous for SFC particularly at light load).
  23. CREEV Technologies
  24. Background – Challenge • The reciprocating engine industry has been searching for 125 years for a compact and mechanically-efficient way to extend the expansion stroke of the Otto cycle to a value much higher than the compression stroke in order to recover energy that otherwise goes to waste. • The diagram below illustrates the amount of energy that potentially can be recovered. P-V diagram without and with additional expansion
  25. CREEV - Concept • The new concept for the rotary engine to recover some of this wasted expansion energy uses exactly the same principle as was used in compound steam engines. • A separate “cylinder” is added, this item being specifically designed to handle larger volumes of gas at a lower pressure than the main cylinder. • There are six primary requirements for this additional expansion “cylinder”:- • it must have extremely low mechanical friction losses • it must be compact despite having a large swept volume • it must be capable of being mounted very close to the main cylinder • the phasing and duration of its expansion stroke must meet certain requirements • the clearance volume at its “TDC” (start of gas transfer) must be very small • its drive shaft should go the same speed as the main engine (no gears are wanted) • The device that meets all the listed requirements is the little-known 1-2 type trochoidal machine, also from the Wankel family. • The 1-2 designation means a one-lobed housing with a two-cornered rotor; it is also the ratio of the diameter of stationary gear to rotor gear. (The engine is known as a 2-3 type)
  26. CREEV – Transfer between Rotors • 294cc engine • 800cc expander • Expansion ratio 22.3 to 1
  27. CREEV - Major Advantages 1. Increase in power output and in thermal efficiency • If the expander unit had an adiabatic expansion efficiency of 100%, then the power output of the compound assembly would be increased by about 30% - - and the sfc reduced accordingly. In practice, the expander does have some mechanical friction and heat losses ; and there is some small energy loss (due to unrestricted expansion and flow pressure loss) in the gas transfer between the two chambers. Therefore, net power gain will be about 20%. 2. Reduction of Noise and heat • The exhaust noise of a single-rotor, peripherally-ported Wankel engine at high rpm is extremely high, due to the sudden opening of the exhaust port and the abrupt release of high pressure gas. With the additional expander unit, the exhaust gasses will be expanded down to atmospheric pressure (or very near) before the port opens. Gas temperature will have been reduced from 950 C to 600 C or thereabouts. 3. Reduction of Emissions • At low RPM and part-throttle, the basic rotary engine has higher emissions of HC than a reciprocating engine; whereas CO emissions are similar, and NOx are lower. However, when operated at high load and high rpm and with excess air, the HC emissions are not particularly high. The addition of the separate expander unit can be expected to give a further significant reduction in HC emissions. The hot exhaust gasses (around 950◦C) from the engine will transfer to the expander unit in a turbulent manner with unconsumed oxygen present. The expander chamber will then act as an exhaust reactor.
  28. Test Data
  29. SPARCS & CREEV – Testing SPARCS • 100s of hours of testing completed in AIE’s development test rigs • Thermal stability achieved at high engine powers • Engine rotor temperature 50% of that normally seen in a ACR engine • 80% reduction in oil consumption CREEV • Initial prototype Expander Unit test completed in AIE’s test cells • 20% increase in power • 20% reduction in sfc • Greatly reduced engine noise and exhaust gas temperature
  30. Technology Readiness Level
  31. SPARCS & CREEV – TRL Levels TRL Achievements SPARCS CREEV 1 Basic Principles have been observed and reported. Scientific research undertaken. Scientific research is beginning to be translated into applied research and development. Paper studies and scientific experiments have taken place. Performance has been predicted. 2 Speculative applications have been identified. Exploration into key principles is ongoing. Application specific simulations or experiments have been undertaken. Performance predictions have been refined. 3 Analytical and experimental assessments have identified critical functionality and/or characteristics. Analytical and laboratory studies have physically validated predictions of separate elements of the technology or components that are not yet integrated or representative. Performance investigation using analytical experimentation and/or simulations is underway. TRL Achievements SPARCS CREEV 4 The technology component and/or basic subsystem have been validated in the laboratory or test house environment. The basic concept has been observed in other industry sectors (e.g. Space, Aerospace). Requirements and interactions with relevant vehicle systems have been determined. 5 The technology component and/or basic subsystem have been validated in relevant environment, potentially through a mule or adapted current production vehicle. Basic technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so that the technology can be tested with equipment that can simulate and validate all system specifications within a laboratory, test house or test track setting with integrated components Design rules have been established. Performance results demonstrate the viability of the technology and confidence to select it for new vehicle programme consideration. 6 A model or prototype of the technology system or subsystem has been demonstrated as part of a vehicle that can simulate and validate all system specifications within a test house, test track or similar operational environment. Performance results validate the technology’s viability for a specific vehicle class.
  32. Production
  33. SPARCS & CREEV – Productionisation • SPARCS • Initial engine (225CS) now in 2nd generation of productionisation process • Major components sand cast and engine is designed with volume manufacturing in mind • Cost reduction exercise currently being undertaken • CREEV • Still in development prototype • As outlined the expander unit is in effect a simplified version of the engine so can follow the same manufacturing development process • Both SPARCS and CREEV are currently working through stage 2 of the APC TDAP programme. • AIE are currently in discussions with several niche OEM’s to develop concept vehicles utilising the SPARCS enabled engine with a CREEV expander unit installed.
  34. Commercial
  35. Commercialisation – Overview Intellectual Property • 3 Patents secured (SPARCS, Compact SPARCS and CREEV) Commercial Model • AIE are looking to produce engines in low volume for niche markets (UAV’s) but then also license the technology for use in larger markets (Automotive). Business Funding • AIE is currently funded through shareholder equity investment and loans (over £2m invested to date). Commercial engine sales have now been achieved within the UAV market and AIE’s business model predicts break-even in 2016. Technology / Business Risks • Risks mitigated at all stages through parallel technology and market development activities, and the existence of a solid core market for rotary engine power units.
  36. Thank You For Listening Email: Tel: 01543 420700
  38. Overview • About Ambixtra • Part 1 : Emmission Legislation • Part 2 : Engine Design Direction • Part 3 : Current Ignition Problems • Part 3 : Ambixtra Solution • Part 4 : Technology Status • Part 5 : Business Model • Contact Details
  39. About Ambixtra • Technology development company • Automotive focused • Development center in South Africa • Business development office in Paris • Patented electronic & spark ignition technologies – "Variable Spark Ignition” – "Advanced Plasma Ignition” • Solves ignition challenges with new gasoline engine designs
  40. Emmission Legislation Vehicle manufacturers (OEM’s) response ? • New engine designs to meet targets
  41. OEM Strategies New Engine Designs • Downsizing • Boosting (High pressure) • Leaner air/fuel ratios • Higher EGR % • Stratified combustion • Alternate fuels (gas, ethanol) Problem • Ignition is the central theme to combustion
  42. Ignition Challenges Current ignition becoming a handicap • Operation problems under high pressure • Operation problems with higher EGR % • Operation problems with leaner A/F ratios • Operation problems in stratified conditions Adverse effects include • Cyclic Variation Ignition challenge significant • IAV GmbH “Global Ignition Congress”
  43. Industry Response Products • High energy coils • Multi-spark coils • Plasma and laser R&D Problem • Industry manipulates existing technology • Systems big and bulky • Complex and expensive • Multi-spark affects spark plug wear • Plasma systems not controllable (burn valves) • Not “plug & play”
  44. Solution Invented at NW University at the “Unit for Space Physics” Fast-switching MOSFET technique (Factor 10 faster) Advantage • Switches high voltages and high currents at a high frequency with low loss • Technique is basis for ignition solution
  45. Ambixtra Ignition Solution Variable Spark Ignition (VSI) • Spark duration precisely controlled • Energy levels precisely controlled • Continuous spark with variable spark duration and energy. • Control according to combustion conditions. – Higher energy & longer spark duration in lean and high pressure conditions. – Lower energy & shorter spark duration in rich and low pressure conditions. • Combustion sensing and spark intelligence
  46. VSI Benifits • Reduced CO2 emissions • Leaner A/F ratios • Higher EGR % • Reduced cyclic variations • Extended knock limits • Cold start improved • Plug & play on existing engines
  47. Patents ‘x5 patents underpin the ignition solution’
  48. Technology Status (VSI) • Testing at IAV GmbH – 4 cylinder engine testing in Chemnitz – Pressure chamber and turbulence testing in Giffhorn – Single cylinder and 4 cylinder engine testing in Berlin • On engine testing AVL GmbH in Austria – AVL demonstrator car (Test track in Graz) • Apogee in France – Motorcycle engine testing • On engine testing at Fiat CRF in Turin. – 4 cylinder MultiAir Engine • Following TRL process with Peugeot-Citroen in Paris for a EURO 7 engine. • IDIADA Spain gas engine
  49. Testing Chamber at IAV
  50. Technology Outlook Variable Spark Ignition (VSI) Spark plug Corona plug Corona plug Advanced Plasma Ignition (API) Phase 1 Phase 2 VSI • Various engine tests • TRL 5/6 API • Demonstrators • Pressure chamber tests performed • See SIA Versailles Conference May 2015
  51. Business Model • OEM’s are reducing supplier base • Ambixtra will not manufacture VSI • Licensing model • Discussions with Tier 1’s in progress
  52. Deon Smit (CEO) 148 Rue de l'Université, 75007 Paris, France. Telephone : +33 6 67 02 18 78 Mr. James Mackenzie (Chief Technical Officer) Wedgefield Office Park, 17 Muswell Road South, Bryanston , Johannesburg, 2021. Telephone : +27 83 461 6868
  53. Air-Bearing Technology Bladon Jets (UK) Ltd.
  54. Who are we? 55
  55. Air-bearings 56
  56. Benefits 57 0 5 10 15 Air Bearing oil Viscosityinmm2/s Viscosity at 40 C
  57. Our application 58 Clearance profile Temperature Profile
  58. Turbochargers 59
  59. The knowledge gap 60
  60. The ‘why’ 61 2019 £0.5 billion £1210% 47%
  61. IP Operation Installation and running Manufacturing 62
  62. Business model 63 Bladon Jets Development partner Production release
  63. Partnerships 64 ?
  64. THANK YOU 65
  65. Powertrain Technologies
  66. CAD
  67. CAE
  68. CNC
  69. CMM
  70. Test Cell Configured as Motoring Dyno
  71. Engine Test Extremes 250cc to 9.6lts
  72. Oil Sampling in Progress during Dyno Test. Ptech unique system to extract oil from the piston ring region Engine Test Technology
  73. Instrumented vehicle with intelligent lubrication system Prototype Vehicles
  74. 3 Cyl Gasoline
  75. 2-Stroke Engine
  76. 2-Stroke Engine
  77. 2-Stroke Engine
  78. 2-Stroke Prototype
  79. Twin Cylinder Engine Reversible cylinder head Any installation angle Primary and secondary balance
  80. Electric CVT Low cost belt drive electric CVT Hybrid drive option
  81. New Technology Development
  82. Ptech Research Engine with Variable Compression and Capacity System Variable Compression & Capacity
  83. Hybrid Generator Unit Bus Hybrid Generator Unit with Ancillary Drive System
  84. Hybrid Power Pack Complete Bus Hybrid Engine and Generator Unit
  85. Air Hybrid – Energy Recovery • Collaborative Research Project • Commercial Vehicle Energy Recovery • Technology Created by Brunel University • Who are coming up next………
  86. Ultra-fast engine emissions measurement Mark Peckham
  87. Introduction – Company summary • Engineering services division • Emissions calibration • Engine and after-treatment systems evaluation • Using dyno simulation of vehicle drive cycles, and vehicle chassis rolls • Products division • Develop, manufacture and support specialised fast response analyzers and other emissions-related equipment • Gaseous pollutants (HC, NOx, COx) • Particulates • DPF testing system
  88. Cambustion products Fast HC, NOx, CO&CO2 DPG – DPF Testing System Smoking Cycle Simulator Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyser DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer
  89. HFR500 fast FID
  90. PFI gasoline cold start Transient HC measurement 0 - 105 seconds of FTP 75 drive-cycle 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time since start (seconds) [HC]asppmpropane -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Vehiclespeed(mph) Fast FID Engine Out Fast FID Tailpipe Slow FID Engine Out Desired Speed (mph) Maximum HC occurs during Cold-Start. Fast FID accurately resolves magnitude of initial transients in real time Individual cylinder exhaust events visible in engine out HC Conventional bench analyzer
  91. Exhaust port [HC] PFI cold start
  92. Cold start lambda using fast NDIR
  93. Exhaust port sampling from PFI engine Calibration fitting Flexible heated sample line Remote sample head
  94. Cycle-by-cycle HC, CO&CO2 from a cold start gasoline engine 0 20 40 60 HC(ppmC3/1000) 0 5 10 15 CO,CO2(%volume) CylinderPressure(bar) •Fast gas analysers able to distinguish each exhaust event •Late Burn stroke 1, High CO2+very low CO suggest lean burn •Misfires Strokes 3,6 shown by high HC, reducing CO+CO2 and cyl pressure
  95. Real time GDI particle size & number Peug 308
  96. Direct tailpipe on-board sampling 109 Important user note: avoid sampling water from muffler!
  97. Instrumentation photos 110 Sample head with long probe Small cabinet Inverte r 70Ah 12V battery 1m3/hr carbon vane pump with silencer
  98. Fast [NO] on Ford Galaxy
  99. Fast CO2 from Diesel Ford Galaxy
  100. For more information: Dr. Mark Peckham Cambustion Ltd., J6 The Paddocks 347 Cherry Hinton Road Cambridge CB1 8DH Tel: (01223) 210250 Fax: (01223) 210190 E-mail: http://
  101. Cella Energy Safe, low cost hydrogen energy Meet the Engineer 10th June 2015 Stephen Bennington Aerospace, Defense, Transportation, Portable Energy 114
  102. Solid State Hydrogen Energy • Patented • Plastic-like material • 1 litre H² per gram • Low toxicity • Heated above 120⁰C the hydrogen is released in 1 - 2 minutes • Safe: no high pressures or cryogenic temperatures • Stable at temperatures below 50⁰C • Can be chemically regenerated • Works at low pressures Cella Material 115
  103. • Spun out of the prestigious Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire in the UK in 2011 • Headquartered near the Rutherford Appleton • US operations based at Kennedy Space Centre in Florida • 20 employees with world leading expertise in chemistry, materials physics, engineering and project management • Lead investors: Persephone Capital and Space Florida The Company Cella Energy • Won many prestigious awards including: − Shell Spring Board 2011 − Energy Storage Challenge 2011 – sponsored by ONR • Proven track record of winning and delivering government projects • Exclusive arrangement with the French Aerospace Company Safran to develop hydrogen energy technology for aerospace Business Achievements to Date 116
  104. Merits now Long term Cella material vs. Li-ion - 3 times higher Specific Energy - Flexible form factor - Safe and stable - Diesel cost competitive - Stable Cella material vs. compressed hydrogen - Safe and stable - Same size and weight - Significantly less infrastructure investment - Diesel cost competitive - Stable Applications By Power Segment Small Energy < 6kW UAV Soldier portable e-Scooters Medium Energy < 20kW Aircraft (RAT, APU, galley) Large Energy > 20kW Diesel abatement/ EV Range Extender Zero Emission Vehicle Emergency Power Forklift Zero Emission Bus Markets and Applications 117
  105. Business Model • Near term revenue comes from partnering with industry leaders to engineer energy solutions and develop product • Cella is engaged with leading aerospace, defense, automotive companies Short Term Longer term Small systems • Cella will make (or have made) the equipment and sell Automotive and Aerospace • Will partner with large OEM and sell material and license IP New markets become accessible as the price of the material reduces Material Price • Bulk production drives the price reduction • Regeneration of the material brings the price in-line with diesel costs 118
  106. Military Security Agriculture Fisheries Coast guard Infrastructural surveys (oil rigs, pipelines, transmission lines) First responder Deliveries (medical, emergency, military, etc. ) Environmental audits • The Federal Aviation Authority expected deregulate in 2015 / 16 • The economic impact is predicted to be $82 billion between 2015 to 2025 in the US alone A Deutsche Post (DHL) delivery of Pharmaceuticals in Bonn Unmanned Systems UAV applications 119
  107. Competitive Advantages Unmanned Systems • Three times lighter than li-polymer batteries • Three times the range or flight time • No moving parts and no liquids • Unlike batteries does not catch fire if containment is breached • Stable indefinitely at temperatures below 50⁰C • Provides stealth for large UAV’s • Flying third prototype in July / August • Signed up a major UAV manufacturer Cella’s 450 Wh power supply 120
  108. • Prototype system has been built and tested • 25mm diameter cartridges are stored in a magazine and move to a hot-cell for initiation by pistons and a revolver • System is capable of 1kW-2kW • Used to provide power to a van on the MIRA rolling road Automotive Prototype • TSB funded project • Partnered with MIRA, Unipart and Productiv • Completed May 2014 121
  109. Other Markets Emergency or back-up applications: • Electric vehicle range extenders • System resilience • Remote power for sensors Using the hydrogen: • Cleaning up particulates from diesel engines • Remote weather balloons Cella’s Range extender design Aerospace Other Applications Filter Box H2 Foam unit for insulation and containment • Exclusive arrangement with Safran (one of the world’s 10 largest aerospace companies) • Safety compliance for high pressures and liquid hydrogen difficult for aerospace • Multiple potential applications • Willing to invest in new technology Cella’s Aerospace test system 122
  110. Pumping pellets 1) Batch of beads are pumped into the hot-cell 2) The beads are heated and the hydrogen driven out 3) The beads are pumped back into the top of the store 4) The hydrogen is stored is an buffer before being used in the fuel cell Larger systems: Automotive and Aerospace • Cella is developing a fluid version of the material • This uses small beads of Cella material that can be pumped like a fluid • A liquid like fuel is simple to transport and refuel • Uses cheap pumps similar to vacuum cleaner technology 123 Fuel store Pellet pump Hot-Cell Hydrogen buffer Fuel cell
  111. Material Ready Commercial Prototypes Field Trials Early 2014 Early 2016Spring 2013 Proof of concept devices Summer 2015 TRL levels UAV power system 6 Emergency power system 4 Range Extender 4 Technology Information 124
  112. Financial and Fundraising • Cella is planning to raise additional capital during FY2016 including potentially strategic investors. • Capital raise will be used to accelerate growth, working capital needs and additions to the team including hiring of engineers and scientists. • The company was acquired in 2014 by a group of investors led by Persephone Capital • For the fiscal year ending March 2016 forecasted receipts from customers and grants is forecasted at approximately $3.0 million, and operating expenses of $3.8 million excluding facilities expansion and relocation costs FundraisingFinancial projection 125
  113. Alex Sorokin (CEO) T: +1 203 216 9756 E: W: Paul Prince (Automotive Project Lead) T: 01235 447752 E: W: Contacts Stephen Bennington (Managing Director) T: 01235 447505 E: W: Kevin Brundish (Chief Operating Officer) T: 01235 447750 E: W: 126
  114. contents CMCL Innovations Software products Innovation partner Commercial Software | Consulting | Training Contents
  115. Computational Modelling Cambridge Ltd. Software | Consulting | Training - Powertrains & fuels - Energy & chemicals Simulation and design software supplier to industry and academia >10 years in innovative R&D and advanced engineering Organically growing with an experienced team Recent innovation awards CMCL Innovations: an overview
  116. Commercial • CMCL Innovations: Organic business growth since inception. 100% equity retained in the company • Business model: software | consulting | training • Software toolkits: • Software distributors: India, Japan, Korea, Turkey, middle east, etc. • Customers: • Vehicle and Machine OEMs • Energy/fuel companies • Chemical/materials industry • Academia • Next steps: Software sales revenue growth and exports
  117. Thank you www.cmclinnovations. com CMCL Innovations @cmclinnovations Dr Amit Bhave <e>:
  118. Meet the Engineer 10th June 2015
  119. Private and Confidential Dearman Engine: does & does not 135
  120. Private and Confidential Dearman Engine: the development 136 TRL 6- >7 MR L 3- >5 CRL 4->5 TDA P
  121. Private and Confidential Dearman Engine: how it works?
  122. Private and Confidential Dearman Engine 1st application: TRU 138 1 2 3 4
  123. Private and Confidential Dearman Engine in a TRU for real VIDEO ON 139
  124. Private and Confidential TRU Business case: clean & sustainable cold chain 140
  125. Private and Confidential TRU Business case: bigger & more cost effective cold chain 141 DEARMAN TRU Vs Diesel Vs Evaporativ e £   CO2 now CO2 2030     0 1 2 3 4 5 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… Millions TRU ANNUAL MARKET SIZEUNEP Global 9b.
  126. Private and Confidential Dearman TRU: field trials 142
  127. Private and Confidential Dearman Engine: other applications 143
  128. Private and Confidential Dearman: the company behind 144 5 0 £1 M 4 0 30 20
  129. Private and Confidential Organisations working with Dearman 145
  130. Private and Confidential Dearman engine production 146
  131. Private and Confidential IP is captured in patents and team know-how 147
  132. Private and Confidential Business model & Funding 148
  133. Private and Confidential Dearman: networking opportunities 149
  134. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Low Cost Efficient Permanent Magnet Generators Targeted Markets: Automotive, Aerospace, Marine Wind power generation, Decentralized Power Systems Dr Nabeel Shirazee 10th June 2015
  135. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Driving Cost & CO2 Down  Developing low-cost high-performance advanced motors and generators  Cost and performance are key enablers to meeting the US Department of Energy 2020 technical targets for the electric drive systems
  136. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Technical Targets for Traction Systems 2010 2015 2020 ? Cost, USD $/kW < 19 < 12 < 8 Specific power, kW/kg > 1.06 > 1.2 > 1.4 Power density, kW/l > 2.6 > 3.5 > 4.0 Efficiency (10%-100% speed at 20% rated torque) > 90% > 93% > 94% Financial Targets: Achieving Low Cost High Performance Department Of Energy Targets (USA)
  137. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Identify innovative motor/generator topologies, advanced materials and novel cooling. Apply concepts for further development to design non- rare earth motors and generators. The Solution: Low Cost High Performance
  138. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS  High-Performance Motors & Generators with Non-Rare Earth Materials  High efficiency over a wide speed and load ranges  High power density and high coolant inlet temperature  Low cost targets based on 100k to 500k units/year  Cost USD $/kW < 4.7 …eventually … true cost? may be… We Want… The Solution: Low Cost High Performance
  139. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS • Very good thermal management is needed to reduce size and improve performance of electric motors and generators. • Improve power capability within cost and efficiency constraints. Novel Technologies: Pushing Boundaries
  140. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Novel Technologies: Pushing Boundaries 2 3 1
  141. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Optimization of Stator Laminations Current weight = 16.8kg Improved design = 13.3kg Weight Reduction = 21% Novel Technologies: Pushing Boundaries
  142. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS mode 2 mode 3 mode 7mode 6 mode 1 mode 5 mode 4 Novel Technologies: Pushing Boundaries
  143. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Understanding & Improving Heat Losses Technical Targets: Achieving Low Cost High Performance
  144. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Prototype Manufacture & Build Optimized stator rotor and ancillaries
  145. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Prototype Manufacture & Build Special Slot Liners
  146. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Prototype Manufacture & Build Non Rare-Earth Rotor
  147. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Cooling jacket and stator assembly Prototype Manufacture & Build
  148. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Assembly and test of 50kW Generator Prototype Manufacture & Build
  149. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Simulated Results Actual Results Results: 50kW Generator
  150. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 92.5 93 93.5 94 94.5 95 95.5 Input Power Output Power Input and Output Power Efficiency Plots. PowerinkW Efficiency % Results: 50kW Generator
  151. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS  Generator type: 3-Phase bridge rectified output  Power Output: 50kW  Weight : 45kg  Output Voltage: 380Vdc to 415Vdc  Efficiency: 96% peak  Current: 125A Basic Specifications: Low Cost High Performance Generators
  152. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Where are We Today ? 1. Technology Readiness Level 3 moving on to TRL 4 2. Patents pending 3. Production via The Proving Factory in low volumes 4. Licencing of technology an option
  153. CARBON EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS Future Technologies: Pushing Boundaries Next Generation Designs !
  155. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved Chris Taylor MD Axon Automotive June 2015 Meet the Engineer
  156. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Vehicle Structures and Components • Lightweight – up to 70% savings compared to steel • Can be applied to complete structures and components • Can be applied cost effectively • Combination of carbon fibre with a range of materials e.g. aluminium, steel, glass fibre
  157. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Technology Background – Why Axontex™ Axontex™ patented beam technology is designed for structural components in automotive applications: − The patented process produces a carbon fibre beam that fails progressively in crash to absorb very large amounts of energy per kg of Axontex™ − Designed specifically for space-frame structures − Provides maximum design scope from one frame (multiple engine and body options easily accommodated) − Simple manufacturing process keeps costs under control
  158. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Building Up Data Coupon Testing •Establish Material Properties Beam testing •Establish properties of Axontex™ beams Initial model building •Model basic structures and assemblies Testing of crash structures •Validate the model Model full vehicles •Demonstrate crash performance in a model
  159. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Static Stability • Coupons behave in a brittle manner • Design in structural stability
  160. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Axontex™ beams are tough 50% - 80% strength retention post failure
  161. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Axontex™ absorbs energy we can tailor the mechanical properties for each application
  162. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Production • In house facilities for prototyping and low volume production • Initial programmes with OEM for design and manufacture of test structures • Route to production − Low volume – in house manufacture − Medium volume – investment or work with existing Tier 1 − High volume – work with existing Tier 1
  163. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 17 Commercial • Patented technology • Similar costs to aluminium structures • Company funded through commercial contracts & R&D funding • Initial sales income for low volume components
  164. © Far-UK 2015 All rights reserved 18 Next Steps • Work with additional Tier 1 for production • Develop routes to production with OEM’s • Additional funding / investment into Axon for growth • Implement weight saving technology
  165. © Productiv Ltd 2015 Meet the Engineer 2015 Government & Industry Support Richard Adlington
  166. Advanced Propulsion Centre UK Limited “Turning low carbon propulsion technologies into products developed in the UK” Government & Industry support. Presentation to Meet the Engineer 10th June 2015
  167. Advanced Propulsion Centre UK Limited APC Overview – Innovation Eco-system
  168. Advanced Propulsion Centre UK Limited APC Focus 10 projects - £174M APC 4 open, but hurry… June 26th latest registration July 2nd latest submission APC5 targeted for
  169. Advanced Propulsion Centre UK Limited A few other sources of funding… topics/funding-support/ Innovate UK Open Competitions for Funding SMMT Funding Guide
  170. © Productiv Ltd 2015 Meet the Engineer 2015 Technology Pitches Session 2
  171. MAGSPLIT - a magnetic CVT Dave Latimer - Magnomatics © 2015 Magnomatics
  172. ® 188Confidential Who are we? Company • Spin out from University of Sheffield formed 2006 • Private venture capital backed company (£2.0m raise Nov 2014) • Regional Growth Fund, European and UK Grants winner • ISO9001 accreditation 2012/Proving Factory • First magnetic gear in production for oil and gas application Team • 28 full time staff – 24 graduate engineers (7 PhD.) • Scientific Advisor Professor Kais Atallah (inventor, IP Pipeline) • Chairman - Mike Lloyd (ex President of GT Operations, Rolls- Royce) • Consulting support – Bob Allsopp (ex CEO Ricardo Engineering) • Track record in commercialising new technology Assets • 18 patent families • 2 Sites in Sheffield • Main office + Production + 55kW dynamometer system • Satellite site with 300kW and 2x150kW dynamometer test facilities
  173. ® 189Confidential
  174. ® 190Confidential Direct Kinetic ElectricDirect ElectricIn -Direct
  175. ® 191Confidential Fuel Consumption Payback • Base Vehicle (Urban delivery) = 100 n/a • Parallel Hybrid(1) = 83 6 years(3) • MAGSPLIT Hybrid(2) = 63 3 years(3) 1. Measured data 2. Measured efficiency map modelled drive cycle 3. OEM figures MAGSPLIT® Fuel Benefits
  176. ® 192Confidential NVH Test Engine Emulator
  177. ® 193Confidential Progress to date • Completed three Innovate UK funded projects (to TRL5/MRL4) • MAGSPLIT has been broadly and successfully rig tested up to 800Nm • We have live OEM funded development contracts (non-grant) • We have strong interest from other OEMs to develop vehicle demos
  178. ® 194Confidential What do we want? • We are looking for further engagements to TRL8/MRL6 an beyond • OEMs • Tier ones • Other demonstration vehicle opportunities
  179. Magnomatics Limited Park House Bernard Road Sheffield S2 5BQ UK Tel: (+44) 114 241 2570 Email: Questions? Contact me Dave Latimer
  180. High efficiency- low cost-engine Oaktec...who are we? Paul Andrews
  181. Pulse-R is..  A 4-stroke piston engine Reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions Increased power and torque at low to medium engine speeds
  182. Minimum technological risk Off-the-shelf components Existing component technology Innovative
  183. What is Pulse-R ? • A 4 stroke piston engine with a novel cylinder head design • Uses valve design and gas dynamics for excellent volumetric efficiency • Design enables very high Compression Ratio • Has lower pumping and mechanical losses • Has an ideal combustion chamber • Is very simple, reliable, durable and low cost It is a proven practical working engine
  184. Single cylinder 400cc R&D engine 10.5 BHP at 2200 RPM
  185. What are its advantages ? • Proven to be more efficient than market leading small engines • BSFC 215 g/kW hr on propane... target is sub 200g/kW hr • Has better power and torque ....over 35% gain on benchmarked diesel and 15 – 20% compared to other gas engines • So far developed for 1200-3600 rpm range
  186. What we’ve learned from testing  Pulse-R is very tolerant of:  Fuel quality  Fuelling and ignition settings  Valve timing  Best power with low ignition advance  Low exhaust gas temperature at full load
  187. Fuels  Works well with any fuel  Advantages with gas fuels over conventional engines  Gas engines like high CR, good volumetric efficiency, and a good combustion chamber  Tested with petrol, propane, butane, methane, and simulated bio-gas with high CO2 content
  188. • Gas and bio-gas is on every Global future fuel roadmap • New legislation restricting emissions from small engines • Gas engines can be very clean • Energy security • Bio-gas Generators....45 million small AD plants in China There is no current small engine optimised for gas fuels....current engines are converted petrol or diesels
  189. Hybrid Range Extenders
  190. A bio-gas range extended hybrid bus????
  191. Power generation?
  192. aircraft garden machines marine Tuk-Tuk: 0.5m CNG taxis pa in AD bio-gas
  193. Pulse-R .... where we are now..... Current support from • Industry experienced R&D team • Batch of test engines under development • TRL 5/6 • MRL 4/5
  194. I. P.  Oaktec has just filed an international patent under the PCT to cover the core invention  ‘Pulse-R’ has been filed as an international trademark  Oaktec will consider licence agreements on the Pulse-R design IP with suitable partners
  195. • Manufacture engines in the UK for early adopters • Partner with large organisations to commercialise globally • Licence IP to global engine manufacturers • Develop the Pulse-R for a wide range of applications and markets • Development has been on small engines but Pulse-R is scalable Paul Andrews
  196. The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle Dapo Ogunmuyiwa M.Sc VDI Chairman / CEO Tel: (+49) 162 / 961 04 50 E-mail: Ogunmuyiwa Motorentechnik GmbH Technologie- und Gruenderzentrum (TGZ) Am Römerturm 2 D-56759 Kaisersesch Germany
  197. Planetary Reciprocating Piston Engine Description 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 213 1. Housing 2. Rotor 3. Cylinder 4. Piston 5. Connecting Rod 6. Crankshaft 7. Planet Gear 8. Sun Gear 9. Intake Port 10. Exhaust Port
  198. Planetary Reciprocating Piston Engine Description 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 214 1. Housing 2. Rotor 3. Cylinder 4. Piston 5. Connecting Rod 6. Crankshaft 7. Planet Gear 8. Sun Gear 9. Intake Port 10. Exhaust Port 11. Combustion Chamber 12. Link to Central Crankshaft 13. Central Crankshaft 14. Fuel Injector
  199. Planetary Reciprocating Piston Engine Description 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 215 1. Housing 2. Rotor 3. Cylinder 4. Piston 5. Connecting Rod 6. Crankshaft 7. Planet Gear 8. Sun Gear 9. Intake Port 10. Exhaust Port 11. Combustion Chamber 12. Link to Central Crankshaft 13. Central Crankshaft 14. Fuel Injector
  200. Conventional Reciprocating Piston Engine Analysis 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 216 𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 = 𝐹𝑡. 𝑅 𝑐𝑟 𝑅 𝑐𝑟 𝐹𝑡 𝐹𝑟 𝐹𝑛 𝐹𝑞 𝐹𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛
  201. Planetary Reciprocating Piston Engine Analysis 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 217 𝑅 𝑐𝑟 𝐹𝑡 𝐹𝑟 𝐹𝑛 𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 = 𝐹𝑡. 𝑅𝑡 + 𝐹𝑛. 𝑅 𝑛 + 𝐹𝑞. 𝐻 𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑅 𝑅𝑡 𝑅 𝑛 𝐹𝑞 𝐻 𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝐹𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 𝐹𝑡. 𝑅 𝑐𝑟 + 𝑅. 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃 + 𝐹𝑛. 𝑅 𝑛 + 𝐹𝑞. 𝐻 𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛
  202. The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 218
  203. The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 219 P V
  204. 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 220 • 4-Stroke Normal Aspirated Engine: • Bore:................................................... 7.512500 cm • Stroke:.................................................7.493264 cm • Number of Cylinders:......................... 6 • Engine Capacity:........................... 1993 cc • Engine Output Shaft Speed:..…….. 7500 rpm • SFC:................................................... 96.400852 g/kWh • Indicated Thermal Efficiency:…………. 83.787454 % Engine Simulation Example
  205. Joint Development Plan with a Vehicle OEM 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 221
  206. Requirements of Customer Vehicle OEMs • Development contract up till <SC> Gateway including such technical requirements as: • Application vehicle package data; • Power, torque, NVH, durability, safety requirements, …. etc.; • Testing signoff requirements; • Milestones & timing. • Production sourcing contract from <SC> gateway including: • Start of Production Date; • Annual Volumes; • Lifetime Volumes; • Commercial agreements such as piece price, tooling, capex, ….etc. 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 222
  207. Industrialisation Plan • Current development status: TRL 3 • Privately developed since 1984; • Patented with simulation proof of concept; • Production costs will be similar to those for current engine manufacture. • TRL 4, 5 & 6: To be jointly developed with an OEM up till <SC> Gateway; • TRL 7 & 8: To be jointly developed with an OEM up till <DV Signoff> Gateway; • TRL 9: To be jointly developed with an OEM up till <PV Signoff> Gateway; • Production Approval to be achieved at <PV Signoff> Gateway. 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 223
  208. Commercial Strategy • IP Status: • 1 Patent Granted • PCT Patent Application progressing • Know-How to be kept in-house • Manufacturing to be in-house • User Licenses to be granted • Engines to be produced as a Tier-1 Supplier 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 224
  209. Commercial Strategy • Vehicle OEM development contract to fund demonstration prototypes; • Vehicle OEM sourcing contract lifetime volumes to determine: • Production requirements; • Facilities requirements; • Staffing requirements; • Development budget; • Investment plan; • NPV & EV calculations. 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 225
  210. Next Steps • Continue to develop contacts with vehicle OEMs; • Collaborations sought for 2020 SOP timeframe; • Continue marketing the innovation; • Engine Expo 2015; • 2015 Cenex LCV; • Progress the Patent applications. 10.06.2015 The Ogunmuyiwa Engine Cycle 226
  211. Opposed Stepped Piston Engine (OSPE) Most Cost Effective Engine for Multiple Applications
  212. OSPE 228 OSPE Features & USPs • 1, 2 & 4 cylinder 2-stroke stepped pistons, SI & CI versions • Double diameter piston or under piston does pumping • ~ 20-30% cost saving vs same power, fuel economy & emission 4-stroke. • ~ 10-15% weight saving vs same power, fuel economy & emission 4-stroke. • Improved NVH: ~90% Reduced shaking forces vs L4 4-stroke
  213. OSPE 229 Background: Opposed Piston Engine Renaissance • 2-stroke Opposed Piston Engines (OPE) are re-emerging due to their cost/benefit, simplicity vs the 4-stroke and lower emission capability using 4-stroke aftertreatment systems. • Recent development examples have shown leading edge emission, fuel economy, package, power density & oil consumption capability. • NA SI OPs also have potential for >36% brake efficiency at the tightest emission levels due to inherent features of reduced heat loss, high rate of expansion, and lower friction versus 4- stroke. • Current OP investigations cover 2 wheelers, automotive, outboard marine, medium speed, military and aviation
  214. OSPE 230 Rationale for 2-stroke “Re-think” • 4-stroke in-cylinder and after-treatment emission technologies applicable to 2-stroke e.g. Port injection FIE, 3 – way catalyst. • Solutions available for either cylinder bore oil control or zero oil to bore , e.g. stepped piston, and/or labyrinth sealing for constant speed/load operation. • OP has ability for 1:1 scavenging/swept volume with good performance, bsfc and λ =1 exhaust. • Rectilinear Drive System enables non-contacting piston & labyrinth sealing.
  215. 231 Side view of Volt Powertrain, used as example for OSP packaging in Series hybrid; similar principles for Parallel hybrid Packaging Views
  216. Baseline: 1.5L (74x86.6), I4, 4-Stroke Range Extender Engine with Front Wheel Electric Drive 232 Engine (vertically Placed)Inverter Differential Drive Unit (Traction Motor, Generator/motor, Clutches, Inverter and differential combined) Battery
  217. 233 1.1L (70x70), I2, OSP FWD Range Extender Same Drive Unit OSP Engine ; 264mm lower than baseline
  218. OSPE 234 OSP Engine USPs • Performance & cost – Leading power/weight in naturally aspirated (NA) segment – Leading power/bulk volume in NA multicylinder segment – Lowest £/kW unit cost multicylinder power unit on same material basis – Lowest investment cost for NA multicylinder power rating – Lowest vibration levels of any reciprocating configuration – Same architecture for CI and SI • Applications – Industrial, marine, CHP and automotive, single base architecture – Pressure & turbo charging suitability without independent scavenge pump – best suited of any reciprocating engine for multi-fuel applications, eg gasoline, kersosene, diesel, low cetanes, bio fuels, NG
  219. Visionary Design. Practical Solution. Visionary Design. Practical Solution. Protean Electric In-wheel Electric Motors Dr Chris Hilton, CTO June 2015
  220. 236 The Proving Factory – 10/06/2015 Detroit, USA – 1 Employee o Business Development The Company Shanghai, China – 15 Employees – Supply China Management – Component Engineering – Rotor Manufacturing – Applications Engineering – Business Development – Marketing Farnham, UK – 45 Employees – Research – Product Engineering and Test – Prototype Stator, final assembly and build management – Vehicle and Applications Engineering – Business Development – Finance and IT Developing in-wheel electric motors for automotive applications since 2009
  221. 237 The Proving Factory – 10/06/2015 Motor, power electronics, control and brake in a single package Conventional Wheel PD18 – Packaged for standard 18” wheel The Product
  222. 238 The Proving Factory – 10/06/2015 The Applications Pure electric Hybrid, P4 FWD, RWD, 4WD Easy hybridisation of existing platforms
  223. 239 The Proving Factory – 10/06/2015 The Vehicles C-segment up to SUV’s and LCV’s 23 vehicle platforms equipped so far with PD18 motor
  224. 240 The Proving Factory – 10/06/2015 The Advantages Packaging Efficiency System Cost Low-disruption hybridisation Vehicle dynamics
  225. 241 The Proving Factory – 10/06/2015 The Performance Performance as measured on existing PD18 motor shown o Efficiency includes inverter losses o Upgrade to 1250 Nm torque available in 2016 PD18 motor